Skip to main content

Full text of "Collections"

See other formats


>er.4 f v.6 





3 1833 01101 0417 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



, / 






publtsfjci at tfje Cfjarge 0f tfje ^pplcton JFtmtr. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1863, by 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



5, Water Street. 




Officers of the Society, elected April 10, 1862 .... vii 

Resident Members viii 

Honorary and Corresponding Members x 

Editorial Preface xiii 

Letters of John Humfrey 1 

Will, Letters, &c, of Isaac Johnson 20 

Letters of Emanuel Downing 33 

,. Hugh Peter 91 

,, ,, Matthew Cradock 118 

,, „ John Endecott 131 

„ „ William Bradford 156 

,, ,, Edward Winslow 162 

,, „ Roger Williams 184 

,, „ William Coddington 312 

„ ,, Edward Hopkins 325 

„ ,, Theophilus Eaton 344 

„ „ John Haynes 354 

„ ,, George Fenwick 364 

,, ,, William Pynchon 369 

„ „ Thomas Hooker 387 

,, ,, Robert Ryece 391 

Anonymous Letter 442 

Letters of Henry Jacie 452 

,. Edward Howes 467 

„ John Winthrop, Jr 514 

,, Peter Stuyvesant 533 

„ Sir George Downing 536 

,, Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston 545 

,, Sir William Spring 551 

,, Brampton Gurdon 559 

,, Abraham Shurt 570 

Miscellaneous Letters, &c 574 

Fac-Similes of Signatures and Seals 587 

Index 589 

Committee of publication for tlje present Volume. 




Elected April 10, 1862. 


JARED SPARKS, LL.D Cambridge. 


getorbing Jsecreiarg. 

Corresponbhtg iiecreiarg. 




Cabinet- Jaeger. 

JStanbing Committee. 




THOMAS C. AMORY, Jun., A.M. Boston. 





Hon. Josiah Quincy, LL.D. 
Hon. James Savage, LL.D. 
Hon. Edward Everett, LL.D. 
Rev. William Jenks, D.D. 
Jared Sparks, LL.D. 
Joseph E. Worcester, LL.D. 
Joseph Willard, A.M. 
Rev. Joseph B. Felt, LL.D. 
Rev. Convers Francis, D.D. 
George Ticknor, LL.D. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, LL.D. 
Rev. Alvan Lamson, D.D. 
Hon. Charles Francis Adams, A.M. 
Rev. George E. Ellis, D.D. 
Hon. John C. Gray, LL.D. 
Rev. Nathl. L. Frothingham, D.D. 
Hon. George S. Hillard, LL.D. 
Hon. William Minot, A.M. 
Hon. Peleg W. Chandler, A.M. 
Rev. George W. Blagden, D.D. 
Rev. Lucius R. Paige, D.D. 
Hon. Solomon Lincoln, A.M. 
Rev. Chandler Robbins, D.D. 
Francis Bowen, A.M. 
John Langdon Sibley, A.M. 
Hon. Richard Frothingham, A.M. 
Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, M.D. 
Henry Wheatland, M.D. 
Hon. David Sears, A.M. 

Thomas H. Webb, M.D. 
Charles Deane, A.M. 
George Livermore, A.M. 
Francis Parkman, A.B. 
Ellis Ames, A.M. 
Hon. John H. Clifford, LL.D. 
William Brigham, A.B. 
Hon. Emory Washburn, LL.D. 
Rev. Samuel K. Lothrop, D.D. 
Rev. William Newell, D.D. 
Hon. Lorenzo Sabine, A.M. 
Col. Thomas Aspinwall, A.M. 
Rev. John S. Barry, A.M. 
John A. Lowell, LL.D. 
Lucius M. Sargent, A.M. 
J. Lothrop Motley, LL.D. 
George R. Russell, LL.D. 
Hon. Charles H. Warren, A.M. 
Rev. James Walker, D.D. 
Rev. Edmund H. Sears, A.B. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, M.D. 
Henry W. Longfellow, LL.D. 
Rev. Frederic H. Hedge, D.D. 
Frederic Tudor, Esq. 
Jacob Bigelow, M.D. 
Hon. George T. Davis, A.B. 
Hon. Stephen Salisbury, A.M. 
Henry Austin Whitney, A.M. 
Rev. William S. Bartlet, A.M. 



Josiah G. Holland, M.D. 

Rev. Charles Brooks, A.M. 

Hon. "William Sturgis. 

Leverett Saltonstall, A.M. 

Rev. Alonzo H. Quint, A.M. 

Samuel F. Haven, A.M. 

George T. Curtis, A.B. 

Hon. Richard H. Dana, jun., A.M. 

Hon. Levi Lincoln, LL.D. 

Joseph Palmer, M.D. 

Hon. George Tyler Bigelow, LL.D. 

Hon. Caleb Cushing, LL.D. 

Henry W. Torrey, A.M. 

Hon. Joel Parker, LL.D. 

Williams Latham, A.B. 

Hon. Charles Hudson, A.M. 

Rev. Robert C. Waterston, A.M. 

Hon. Theophilus Parsons, LL.D. 

Thomas C. Amory, jun., A.M. 

George Sumner, Esq. 

Hon. Benjamin F. Thomas, LL.D. 

Samuel A. Green, M.D. 

Hon. James M. Robbins. 

Charles Eliot Norton, A.M. 

Hon. John J. Babson. 

Robert Bennett Forbes, Esq. 

Rev. Edward E. Hale, A.M. 

Rev. Andrew P. Peabody, D.D. 

Hon. Theron Metcalf, LL.D. 

William G. Brooks, Esq. 

Horace Gray, jun., A.M. 

Hon. Charles G. Loring, LL.D. 

Charles Folsom, A.M. 

Amos A. Lawrence, A.M. 

Rev. Edwards A. Park, D.D. 

Charles Sprague, A.M. 

Rev. William A. Stearns, D.D. 

The following named Resident Members have died since the publication of 
the last volume of Collections, Nov. 20, 1861 : — 

Hon. Luther V. BeU, M.D. 
Hon. William Appleton. 
Cornelius C. Felton, LL.D. 

Rev. Charles Mason, D.D. 
Hon. Nathan Hale, LL.D. 





Benjamin Silliman, LL.D. 

Rev. Eliphalet Nott, D.D. 

Hon. Gulian C. Verplanck, LL.D. 

Don Manuel Moreno, M.D. . 

Rev. John Hutchinson. 

Carl Christian Rafn, P.D. 

Thomas C. Haliburton, D.C.L. 

Hon. Lewis Cass, LL.D. 

Theodore Dwight, A.M. 

M. Cesar Moreau. 

Erastus Smith, Esq. 

Rev. Benjamin Tappan, D.D. 

Joshua Francis Fisher, A.M. 

T. A. Moerenhout, Esq. 

Usher Parsons, M.D. 

Hon. George Folsom, A.M. 

Rev. Luther Halsey, D.D. 

John Disney, Esq. 

Rev. Francis Lister Hawks, D.D. 

Rev. Leonard Bacon, D.D. 

M. Henri Ternaux-Compans. 

George Catlin, Esq. 

John Winthrop, Esq. 

Dom Joaquim Jose da Costa de 

Israel K. Tefft, Esq. 

Hon. David L. Swain, IX. D. 

Hon. James M. Wayne, LL.D. 

M. Hall McAllister, Esq. 

Rt. Rev. William B. Stevens, D.D. 

Henry Black, LL.D., C.B. 

Rev. Charles Burroughs, D.D. 

George Atkinson Ward, Esq. 

Richard Almack, F.S.A. 

Sir Archibald Alison, Bart., D.C.L. 

Lieut.-Col. James D. Graham. 

Robert Lemon, F.S.A. 

Thomas C. Grattan, Esq. 

John Romeyne Brodhead, A.M. 

Major E. B. Jarvis. 

E. George Squier, Esq. 

Miss Frances Manwaring Caulkins. 

Thomas Donaldson, Esq. 

Hon. George Bancroft, LL.D. 

J. Hammond Trumbull, Esq. 

Robert Bigsby, LL.D. 

Rev. Joseph Romilly, A.M. 

James Ricker, jun., Esq. 

Henry Stevens, Esq. 

Cyrus Eaton, A.M. 

Hon. William Willis, A.M. 

Frederick Griffin, Esq. 



John Carter Brown, A.M. 

Hon. Elijah Hayward. 

Rev. William S. Southgate. 

Hon. Samuel G. Arnold, A.M. 

Hon. Charles S. Daveis, LL.D. 

John Gilmary Shea, Esq. 

James Lenox, Esq. 

Et. Rev. the Bishop of Oxford, D.D. 

Winthrop Sargent, A.M. 

Earl Stanhope, D.C.L. 

Hon. William C. Rives, LL.D. 

Hon. Peter Force. 

Hon. John R. Bartlett, A.M. 

Samuel Eliot, A.M. 

G. P. Faribault, Esq. 

William Paver, Esq. 




Francois Pierre Guillaume Guizot, 

Lord Lyndhurst, D.C.L. 
Count Jules de Menou. 
Hon. John J. Crittenden, LL.D. 
Hon. Edward Coles. 
Baron Charles Dupin. 
Hon. Robert Hallowell Gardiner, 

M. Frangois A. A. Mignet. 
Count Adolphe de Circourt. 
Hon. Horace Binney, LL.D. 
Hon. James L. Petigru, LL.D. 
The Very Rev. Henry Hart Milman, 

William C. Bryant, LL.D. 
Lieutenant-General Winfield Scott, 

Count Agenor de Gasparin. 


Rev. William B. Sprague, D.D. 
Rev. Samuel Osgood, D.D. 
William Durrant Cooper, F.S.A. 

E. B. O'Callaghan, M.D. 

Buckingham Smith, Esq. 

Benjamin F. French, Esq. 

Francis Lieber, LL.D. 

William H. Trescot, Esq. 

Richard Hildreth, A.B. 

Dr. J. G. Kohl. 

Hon. Albert G. Greene. 

Hon. John P. Kennedy, LL.D. 

Hon. George P. Marsh, LL.D. 

Benjamin R. Winthrop, Esq. 

J. Carson Brevoort, Esq. 

The Ven. Lord Arthur Hervey. 

Horatio Gates Somerby, Esq. 

George H. Moore, Esq. 

Hon. William R. Staples, A.M. 

Hon. Hugh Blair Grigsby, LL.D. 

W. Noel Sainsbury, Esq. 

S. Austin Allibone, LL.D. 

William Winthrop, Esq. 

Henry T. Parker, A.M. 

Rev. Leonard Woods, D.D. 

Benson J. Lossing, Esq. 

Lyman C. Draper, Esq. 

Rt. Rev. George Burgess, D.D. 

George Washington Greene, A.M. 

M. Edme Francois Jomard, an Honorary Member, has died since the publication of the 
last volume of Collections. 


At the stated meeting of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society on the 14th of February, 1861, it was announced 
that a large collection of letters and papers, some of them 
dating back to the earliest period of our Colonial history, 
had come into the possession of the President of the 
Society ; and, at his request, a Committee was appointed 
to prepare for publication such of them as they might 
select for that purpose. Of that appointment, the present 
volume is the first-fruits. It may be followed hereafter by 
further selections from the same papers. 

The table of contents will sufficiently indicate the cha- 
racter of the volume, and the plan of its arrangement ; 
while the editorial notes will serve to call attention to some 
points of peculiar interest. 

It is believed that but few volumes of our Collections, 
since the first publication of the Society in 1792, have 
contained more valuable illustrations of the early history 
of Xew England, and of the character of those by whom 
its various colonies were founded. 


The fac-si?niles of signatures and seals from the let- 
ters here printed will prove an interesting addition to the 
volume ; and the arms employed by the respective writers 
may be of service in elucidating some doubtful points of 
family history. 

The Committee desire to acknowledge the valuable aid 
which they have received from the Assistant Librarian, 
Dr. Appleton, in preparing the volume for the press. 

14th February, 1863. 




To the worshipfull my dearely respected & much honoured brother 
Isaac Johnson Esqr. at Charlestowne in New England. 

Dearest brother, — That which is yet new to mee 
& wherein I must follow your greife a far of, I desire 
may now grow old & out of date with you ; there bee 
dayes of mourning which it is as meete to set a period 
unto, as it is seemely & needeful at first to take up. 
Therefore that I may not renovare dolores no more of 
that. Your late letter by the Gift I received, blessing 
God for your health & prospering in the midst of all 
your losses. But good brother beare up, you have as 
much cause of comfort that so sincerely have devoted 
your selfe to the service of the Lord in his worke as anie 
that I know, & for your losses though manie thousand 
tallents more were gone the Lord were able, & if it 
bee good will repay. But, ahlasse, I pitie not you in 

* John Humfrey was chosen Deputy Governor of the Massachusetts Company in 
October, 1629; but did not come over to New England till 1634. His wife was the Lady 
Susan, daughter of the Earl of Lincoln, and sister of the Lady Arbella Johnson. This 
letter begins with a reference to the death of the Lady Arbella; but her husband, to whom 
it was addressed, had died also before it was written, as appears by the following notice 
in Gov. Winthrop's History of New England: "September 30, 1630. — About two in the 
morning, Mr. Isaac Johnson died; his wife, the Lady Arbella, of the house of Lincoln, 
being dead about one month before. He was a holy man and wise, and died in sweet 
peace, leaving some part of his substance to the Colony." — Savage's Winthrop, new edition, 
vol. i. p. 40. — Eds. 



this, that have got not onely the upper but the neather 
springes, & though not supplanted yet got a larger 
portion of both then manie of your elder brethren, I 
meane such as were in Christ before you. Blessed bee 
his name that hath given you a communicating hart for 
the faithful dispensing your several tallents to his best 
advantage. Truth is, sweete brother, but that you are 
worthy of all, &, by that little grace I have, I cannot but 
reioyce in God's greater gifts to others, I should envie 
you were it not for sinning against God. Even these 
outward thinges are excellent instruments of doing good 
withall, how much more transcendent is the mercie when 
their is a hart to use them. Well brother you everie way 
abound in all riches, & blessed bee God that sets you in 
the way of yet greater increase, the liberal soule shall be 
made fat & hee that watereth shall bee watered againe. 
Never could there bee a fairer opportunitie for a full estate 
to get a full reward then by scattering & casting bread 
upon such waters. Now the Lord both goe on with 
inlarging your hart & hand, & minister seede to the sower 
& a yet more glorious crowne to your fruiteful soule. 

Now touching the particulars of your letters breifely. 
The burthens which I feared after I had some intimation 
of the slender provisions manie good people made, I 
laboured what I could to bee helpeful in easing you of. 
I was on a faire way for a common stocke; got neare 
500/ underwritten, had promise of manie & more proba- 
bilities of advancing this stocke. The first rise and 
advantage I tooke was by that which providence offered 
in that rumour of the French. Men were somewhat in- 
clinable & workeable to the apprehension of your daunger, 
& yielding some supplies for succouring your persons 
against an enimie & securing your estates. But assoone 
as this dampe of ill report of the state of thinges came 
from your owne handes, straunge it was to see how 
little brotherly love wrought in brethren. The designe 


was given of as lost, & to make it worse, few shewed 
anie affection to save those which were likely to perish. 
Former promises are fled from, that which was under- 
written lies unperformed by some & is flatly denied by 
others. Those wee most depended on, & might have done 
much, have rather blamed then pitied their poore brethren, 
laying more loade where the burthen should beene eased. 
Others gave somewhat, but rather according to their 
hopes of the busines, then the necessities thereof. So 
that I see it is in plantations as in warre, men may hope 
for supplyes from freindes, but without preiudice both of 
their wisedome & undertakings may not depend upon 
them. "When wee least neede freindes possiblie wee may 
have them to befreind us, or rather themselves (in hope 
of some recompence) but brotherly love & conscience of 
dutie have lost much of their vigour that long since 
were decaying. Wherefore if wee will neyther blemish 
the gospel, nor bring upon ourselves that contempt & 
reproach of the foolish builder, wee must sell our states 
& beare our owne burthens. 

For Mr. Wiggin & your thoughts concerning him, & 
those who set him on worke, I thinke you will heare 
little more. Yet your letter shall bee delivered if it bee 
meete, and accordingly wee shall doe. I purpose this 
morning to goe to Mr. Downing to advise about it. 
Hee is the onely man for Councel that is hartily ours in 
the towne, & yet unlesse you settle upon a good river & 
in a lesse snowie & cold place I see no great edge on him 
to come unto us. Wee are all much bound to my lord 
Say for his cordial advice & true affections. As also to 
my lord of Warwicke. Sir Xatha. Rich deserves much 
acknowledgment of his wise handling. Sir Ferd. Gorge 
who from verie high matters is come to this, to desire 
that his people & planters (by vertue of his sons pattent) 
may live quietly & uniniured by us ; that Jefferie is a 
bad man, hee basely flingF out in his letters to him, 


which Sir Ferd. shewed mee : handle him wisely & by no 
meanes exasperate such spirits. Though Sir Ferd. ney- 
ther will nor can doe us much good, yet hee or anie may 
have eare to doe us hurt. I assured him of your care 
to right his people in anie iniurie they had or should 
sustaine, & there was an end for that time. Other 
passages there were, they are too long to write, when 
Mr. Allerton comes to you hee will satisfie you of some, 
whome I acquainted with what past in general. 

My lord of Warw: will take a Pattent of that place 
you writ of for himselfe, & so wee may bee bold to doe 
there as if it were our owne. Write letters abundantly to 
him & others, though they deserve them not as hee doth. 
Much neglect is apprehended by manie of themselves. 
Dr. Wright & Mr. Davenport must not bee forgotten. 
Send over what the nature of your diseases are, & the 
several circumstances & accidents & symptomes of them. 
Dr. Wright I thinke will bee as readie as hee said to 
studie & direct fit remedies. I have much more to write, 
but I would willingly hasten these letters now away, & 
therefore with my best & most affectionate remembrance 
of you Mr. Governor, Mr. Nowel, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Cod- 
dington &c. &c. &c. I rest 

Your trulie & ever loving brother 

Jo: Humfrey. 

Lond: Dec: 9th. 1630. 

I pray you take a noate of my hand up from Sir 
Hi chard, or else a noate of his hand for 100/ I borrowed 
of him & satisfied againe before he went. — My lord 
Say told mee hee had writ a letter to you, but I cannot 
learne where hee hath left it. 

I have sent you those new bookes that are lately come 
out, Dr. Ames' Cases to Mr. Governor which I purpose 
to send you by the next, & now Dr. Sibs' Bruised Reede 
& Mr. Dike of Scandals to you. 



To the right tcorshipfull his much honoured freind Mr. John 
Winthrop Governor of the plantation of the Massachusets bay in 
New England. 

Much honoured, — I writ unto you not long since by 
Mr. Peirce, since which time there is little of anie moment 
that offers it selfe more then I have (to my present best 
remembrance) intimated in some of your letters eyther 
then or now, & though for prevention of anie miscarriage 
it were meete of all businesses to send several letters 
of the same thinges, yet I know neyther yours, no more 
then my present leasure (yet much lesse) will afford 
much spare time for unnecessaries, whereas (but that hee 
hath a feeding fountaine of everlasting strength that un- 
derprops you) I should feare (& manie times doe) that 
you will neede time & strength for ordinarie occasions. 
Therefore I would not overloade you with manie more 
needeles lines, who are (the Lord keepe you from sin in 
that your too great zeale of dutie) too to readie to overloade 
your selfe everie way. Sir I beseech you give mee & 
manie others occasion to bee thankeful unto you for your 
more indulgent care of your selfe, as I (above manie) have 
alreadie an obligation of further love & service laide upon 
mee for your tender care of my dearest brother. Consider 
I pray you how inexpiable a failing it were, both in respect 
of the Lord whose worke you are in, the worke itselfe, the 
manie lives yea soules that depend upon your well being, 
not to speake of your deare wife, hopeful & some alreadie 
hope-answering children, your freindes (who expect that 
wisedome to bee shewed in your discreete carriage of 
your selfe in this busines, that to good purpose they have 
observed in you in other undertakings,) & much lesse to 
speake of my owne & those that are alike interested in 
you, who yet of faithful & service-owing freindes should 


become most severe & iustly provoked censurers, if you 
should bee prodigal of your precious health, & so slight 
all these ingagements with manie more. I seriously 
professe & that in truth that all the sinnes you ever 
committed or possiblie can commit (under that unpardon- 
able one) I am perswaded would bee of lesse weight to 
your conscience then this one. Take heede therefore I 
beseech you under what specious pretence soever the divel 
as an Angel of light insinuate himselfe, sugesting the 
necessitie or great advantage of an exemplarie & selfe de- 
nying & selfe neglecting carriage in you, for the animating 
& confirming the weake harts & hands of others to doe & 
suffer, following your tracke that else would not find the 
way ; I say take heede least hereby your bodie (not ac- 
customed to hardnes of unusual kindes & not necessitated, 
unles by a voluntarie & contracted necessitie) should sinke 
under his burthen & fall to mine for want of a more 
conscionable tenaunt. What the Lord laves upon you, hee 
is able & faithful to enable you unto, & hee that knowes 
your strength I dare warrant you will exercise it to the 
utmost, but bee not barbaurously cruel unto your selfe, by 
thinking eyther to supererrogate or superinduce upon 
your selfe more then you have strength to beare, & then 
the Lord in his wisdome & mercie imposeth upon you. 
Some need the spurre, but you the reine, your exesse may 
bee of more daungerous consequence then their defect •& 
indeede the greater sin, being this would bee greatest 
against the publicke, theirs cheifely against their owne 
private, & but with a reflexive or secondarie respect 
against the common good. But that it is a case of im- 
portance & that wherein your wisedome & pietie as well 
as your bodie & estate suffer with us all I should not so 
soone have forgot my selfe to remember you. 

I have sent you Dr. Ames' Cases of Conscience, newlie 
come foorth, wherein you will find manie thinges of 
especial use & singularly helpeful for present direction 


& satisfaction, untill what may not bee answered to the full 
here, shall both from him & others (best studied in those 
thinges wherein doubts are like to arise) ere long bee sent 
unto you, if I faile not in my hopes & endeavours that way. 
It will much concerne us to seeke (without which wee 
cannot keepe) the truth in love, whose iudgments & 
practice may (without good guidance of us in laying the 
foundation) bee pernicious not onely to ourselves, but to 
our posterities, & all ages (in those parts at least) after us. 
And therefore as wee find, & you foresaw, there will neede 
great wisdome, much advice, earnest prayer, & a total 
subiugation of our owne iudgment, wills & affections, unto 
the clearer light of truth shining unto us in those helpes 
which the Lord shall be pleased to affoord unto us. For p ro . u, 29. 
cer tamely, as they who are immaturely precipitate in their 
councels or actions, are thereby but advancers of follie, 
& they who looke not to their feete in such weightie 
considerations, & are not readie to seeke & heare advice 
must needes offer the sacrifice of fooles not considering Ecci. 1. 2. 
that they doe evil, & if it bee daungerous to utter a thing 
rashly before God with ones mouth, how much more 
to conclude determinately of thinges not well examined, 
which is as it were to answer a matter before it bee heard, 
which is both follie & shame. Pro v. 18. 13. So the Lord 
will not beare with anie cursed negligence in our not 
seeking, digging, & crying after wisedome, to bee directed 
in so important a worke as is the recoverie of anie allmost- 
lost truthes : Neyther will it answer the maiestie of those 
truthes of God nor our owne humble esteeme of ourselves, 
& our right iudgment of our owne weakenesses, to thinke 
with the first glaunce of our eyes to discerne clearely, what 
the most iudicious & holy men have beene dazeled in & 
differed about. Rather let us heare what the Lord saith by 
them, & so far as they weigh everie pinne of the tabernacle 
in the scales of the Sanctuarie, follow & obey them ; where 
anie, yea though an Angel from heaven, shall obtrude 


anie thing upon us without warrant from the word, avoide 
them, yea let them bee in that Anathematized. 

For the place of fixing yourselves, it is sollicitously 
agitated by manie good & noble freindes where it were 
best & safest ; to the South they conclude, as it is warmer, 
& (report gives out) the snow even at Narraganset lies 
lesse while, so doe they conceave it will bee everie way bet- 
ter, especiallie if wee could come in upon Hudson's river, 
(which as Mr. Allerton afflrmes meetes with Canada) with 
cleare warrant in respect of the planters & natives there, 
to remove our choice people thither & to leave the mixt 
multitude (that will ever bee as thornes & prickes unto us) 
behind us, as tenaunts in our houses & of our lands. 
Now though the bodie of our best people neede not 
presently move, yet after discoverie & resolution some 
workemen might bee sent before to provide in some sort 
for those good people who shall the yeare following, hence 
& from you, transplant themselves. For this end I hope 
wee shall send you a barke for discoverie with some corne 
in her, & if this bee resented & prosecuted by you, & some 
new & better satisfaction bee given to the good people here 
that wee goe not away for Separation, the apprehension 
whereof (against the best assurance & protestation I can 
make) takes deepe impression in them, I hope wee shall 
againe redintegrate both ourselves & the undertaking in 
the former good opinion which hath beene conceaved 
of us & it. The opinion of this place you are in, partly in 
those & in respect of the sharpenes of the cold & continu- 
ance of the snow, partly in respect of the several titles & 
pretencions of several men, togeather with the implantation 
of manie lewde persons among us, who will ever bee 
espying out our Libertie, & bee as Tobiah, Sanballat & 
the rest both to hinder the building & to further & pro- 
move all uniust accusations, eyther finding or making 
matter of complaint alwayes against us, these considera- 
tions much dampe & dull the edge of some of good estates 


who were looking towards us. These thinges I leave to 
your wise & serious consideration, being some, that once 
in, I can scarce get out, & so having overpast my word & 
my time for the present, with my due respect & service, 
my poore prayers & best endeavours for you & the worke 
though to little purpose, 

Your trulie loving & honouring 

London, Dec. 12th, 1630. Jo: HuMFREY. 

Sir, I pray you take course that the 150/ which Mr. 
White had of mee to lay out for corne may by some 
meanes bee made good unto mee here by Mr. Peirces 
retourne, that that & the rest of the monie due unto 
mee from the Arbella Companie since the last yeare, 
may helpe mee over unto you with Mr. Peirce againe. 
All the monie that I can make otherwise is now alreadie 
eyther out, or to bee imployed in this barke with your 
sonne for securing of you with certaine supplies (if God 
blesse them several waves) least some should faile. 


the last weeke by the Carriour letters & 3 or 4 bookes 
bound up togeather to bee delivered by you to the Master 
of your ship now going ; I pray you with those let these 
bee delivered. I expect to heare from you daily about 
certificate from Bristol of the provisions thence shipped or 
exported, that according to former advice wee may worke 
as there is occasion & the Lord (by such meanes as he shall 
vouchsafe) shall see good. The same Lord in goodnes goe 
along with you, prosper, accept, and reward the labour of 
your effectual love. You much oblige all both there 
& here that wish well to the persons or worke in hand, 



especiallie him that with his best affections & service of 
love shall ever desire to approve himselfe 
Your trustie loving 

Jo: Humfrey. 
Dec. 17th 1630. 

If there bee anie thing forgotten by our freindes or my- 
selfe that you remember, & know to bee useful & necessarie 
unto them, I pray you adde that to your present provisions 
as far as 20, 30, or 40Z may goe, but this I would neyther 
trouble you withall, nor yet further burthen my selfe by, 
except in case & thinges of deepe necessitie. I pray you 
remember to bring up an exact particular of the several 
thinges bought with that 220£, that it may bee my dis- 
charge to the Treasurer & his & mine to the companie to- 
geather. My servaunt Richard Wright living at Sagus 
writes to me for 5/ in monie, if you think it better or fitter 
then provisions for commutation to get what they neede 
by, I pray you you send it to him & charge mee with it 
here upon sight. 


To the right worshipfull his much honoured freindes Mr. John 
Winthrop governour of the Companie of the Massachusets & to 
Mr. Isaac Johnson or eyther of them. 

Much honoured, — Since I last writ unto you I received 
these inclosed answers* from a reverend freind, whose 
name because hee desires it may be concealed as yet, I will 
not tell you, onely you may know, it is one whose person 
you much desire, & whose iudgment you & all men much 
esteeme. I confesse plainely in divers thinges I was per- 
swaded otherwise then. I see now some cause to stumble 
mee in regard of his sound pietie & deepe iudgment 

* Nothing was found enclosed in this letter, as it comes down to us. — Eds. 


& long acquaintance both with the person[s,] places & 
studies which might enable him to a cleare discerning 
of the will of God in these thinges. Now the good God 
that hath promised to teach those that feare him in the 
way that they shall chuse, to guide the meeke in iudgment 
& to teach them his way, give you a discerning of those 
things that differ, & help you by his wisedome to behave 
yourselves wisely in a perfect way. 101 ps. And as the 
nature of the worke in hand & the curious inspection of 
the malevolent Spirits require to proceede warilie & with 
good examination & digestion of the best advices, which 
yet I will further endeavour to procure from other godly 
men for your helpe herein. 

Such newes as is stirring I doubt not but other letters 
will acquaint you with all, as the proclamation of the 
peace with Spaine : what the conditions are in particular 
touching the Palatinate I yet h[ear] not : in general it is 
said the King of Spaine is to restore all the townes hee 7 
hath in the Palatinate : but Mr. Peters in my last nights 
letters received informes mee that the Emperour deales 
vilie with the King of Bohemia. Dr. Laiton hath after 
an escape beene taken & received halfe of his censure, 
viz, 12 lashes with a 3 corded whip, one eare cut of, 
one nostril slit & stygmatized in the face. Divers godly 
lecturers & ministers dayly are put by. Mr. Weld of 
Essex is now upon the stage & expects his doome. I think 
hee will bee easilie for us. Dr. Ames holds his first af- 
fections to you & the worke, notwithstanding the late 
neglect of him, in not giving a word eyther to him or of 
him. I wrote to him excusing all as well as I could, & 
the good man takes nothing amisse for ought I understand. 
Your sister Downing after a daungerous & long sickenes 
begins (blessed be God) to gather strength. Hasten your 
call to Mr. Haines, it were not amisse there were some 
blanke call for such as providence shall offer, & shall 
sticke at that knot. Mr. Downing, my selfe, & some others 


have given Mr. Hooker a call lately. Ere long wee shall 
see the effect of it. I hope with these you will receave 
my letters & bookes sent the last weeke to Barnstable for 
this ship of Mr. Allerton's to carrie to you, that also 
bringes the greatest part of your provisions. The Lord 
ever keepe you & make his name glorious in & by you, 
in whome I am 

Yours what I am 

Jo: H. 

Lond : Dec. 18th, 1630. 

I pray you as there is occasion doe for me in mine, as I 
shall bee & am readie to my best abilities to doe for you 
& yours. The providence in bringing so speedie an 
answer, as if windes & all meanes were commanded to ex- 
pedite an answer to the questions, is observable. It is not 
6 weekes since the questions were sent away, & over Sea 
& much passage of land they are retourned answered in 
as little time as one would have thought they could but 
have reached his handes to whome they were sent. Hee 
who hath thus ordered it knowes the use of it. 


To the worshipfull his much honoured brother Isaac Johnson Esq. 
at Charlestoione in New England. 

Dearest brother, — I cannot but take everie occasion 
of writing so that you will have manie letters by the same 
ship from mee, in so much as (I feare) my letters may bee 
burthensome unto you. But I had rather exceede in all 
expressions of loving remembrance of you, than fall short, 
& rather chuse to venture to bee blamed for the excesse, 
then to have you & my owne hart chide mee for the least 
defect. I writ unto you in several letters by Mr. Peirce 
of my poore desires & endeavours for your supplies several 
wayes. That of Virginia is like to hold, & I hope you will 


have a good quantitie of Indian corne thence before May, 
the ship is to goe directly to Virginia about the midst of 
Januarie : & whereas I hoped to have had the same ship 
to have gone by Ireland & taken in 4 or 500 quarters 
of Irish corne, & so to have delivered that outward bound 
unto you, & after to have proceeded in the Virginia 
designe ; I was not able, by all the meanes I could use, 
to get so manie to venture, as would make up this vessel 
a fraite of 60 or 70 tun. Mr. Craddocke indeede would 
have stucke by mee, & (I thinke) sent & lent 20 tun to 
the plantation, besides him not a man (no, not to save your 
lives & the life of the worke in you) would doe anie thing 
to purpose. Oh my good brother there is no depending 
upon men, no not those who professe themselves & wee 
take to bee most our freindes. For if a freind loveth at 
all times & a brother is borne for the day of adversitie, 
then surely among men wee have few true freindes, or 
else, sometimes the dutie of love is to bee dispenced withall 
(at least in the fruites thereof) or else this (wherein your 
lives could not but bee apprehended to lie at stake & more 
then that too) was not the day of adversitie. Oh it is a 
sweete & sure thing to have all our dependance upon the 
faithfulnes & kindnes of our loving, good & gracious God, 
but they that trust unto or depend upon anie of the sonnes 
of men, they may come to the pits, but usuallie retourne 
ashamed. Yet that the Lord may shew his faithfulnes in 
the unfaithfulnes of men, hee raiseth up stones, & maketh 
the barren to beare us fruits of his love, whereas they 
whose full breasts wee depend upon will let downe no 
dramme or drop of needed helpe proportionable to our 
necessities or their engagements. I never saw so much 
of man, nor ever dreamed there was so little to bee had 
when so much might iustly bee expected as now I find. 
The Lord sanctifle our experience unto us & teach us that 
wisedome that wee may neyther bee imbittered against 
them, nor cruel to ourselves in depending on them. 


Mr. Craddocke is verie much affected with the report 
of an unkindnes wherein (by consent) hee heares you 
were all interested ; thus he relates it. When you saw 
a necessitie of easing* the plantation of manie eyther by 
sending them backe or giving way unto them to dispose 
of themselves, consultation was had what was to bee done 
touching his servants who were found to bee the worst, & 
complained of as the most burthensome of all the rest. 
To send manie of them backe was held to bee the best 
way, both for the plantations good & his, but because 
there was expectation of the retourne of his ships with 
provision & Cattle, Mr. Sharpe advized that it were best 
to deferre this, till his ships retourned againe, least that 
(seeing his numbers to decrease so much, & his particular 
not to neede so large supplies) the plantation should loose 
the benefit of what helpe hee might affoord with a purpose 
of supplying his owne. So that this is his collection, in 
that this was hearkened unto, that you cared not what 
burthen you laide upon, or what iniurie you did unto him 
so that &c. If it were thus (as report gives this, as well 
as other thinges that will admit a like misconstruction 
to be worse) I feare least hereby wee should provoke not 
onely those whose edge is not sequallie dulde with other 
mens as yet, but the Lord our God also who will not 
countenance anie uniust acts of his best servants. And 
trulie of all those that here are interested in the plantation 
there is none that retaines so lively affections unto you as 
himselfe, nor that is more likely, or more able to doe us 
real courtesies (especiallie with the state) than himselfe, & 
answerablie that being provoked is like to doe us more 
iniurie & hurt. 

Mr. Goffe stood a long while, both in his owne & other 
mens repute, in an ambiguous or rather desperate estate, 
but at length (by the favour & mercie of his creditours & 
God in them) obtaines hope of subsisting in his former 
calling. His debts from the plantation are transferd 


over to manie honest men (who pittying his sufferings & 
observing how they reflected in the general acceptation 
upon the plantation) have promised to lend him so much 
monie as may set him in a way of trade againe. So that 
it will more than ordinarilie (not onely for iustice sake 
(which is the cheife) but for our owne sakes) concerne us to 
take such a faire course with him, as unto the passionate 
expressions of his much distempered & much to bee com- 
passionated (though iustly to bee reproved) weakenesses 
of Spirit, wee adde not the deeper-wounding taxations of 
divers of our godly freindes, (who, if anie, are likely to be 
helpeful to us in future times concilio, auxilio, re), that 
are now interested in this cause. That which I labour to 
quiet him withall viz. Mr. Goffe, & to satisfie & assure his 
freindes of, is, that upon manifestation of the accounts as 
they trulie stand betweene him & anie of the plantation, 
such course will be taken by giving him speedie yea 
immediate content thereon (both for what was due & for 
the time since it was first due) as anie indifhrent men 
shall thinke reasonable. Now I beseech you take it so 
seriously to hart as wee may not staine that glorie which 
will bee a good defince against the stormie windes &c. as 
in Job's case, Samuel's, Jeremie's & others. Though there 
bee a Spirit in mee that (upon my sufferings from him 
more than anie) lusts otherwise, yet I dare not give way 
to it. I have parted with his house, & live now next 
Dr. Denisons by Kree Church, much adoe I have to 
carrie my selfe so towards him (being ever vindicating the 
plantation from his & other mens charges) as to keepe 
anie faire quarter. I will not trouble you to relate such 
shrewde collections as hee gathereth from seeing how 
much adoe your freindes & agents here have to supply 
your present necessities : What (saith hee) should I have 
done or would they (meaning the plantation) if more cattle 
had come alive, or I had gone on with my Irish voiage ; 
hee saith they seeke evasions, not so much because hee 


hath not performed his part, as because they are not 
able to make good theirs. Otherwhiles hee will speake, 
& hope all good of & from the plantation : but I wish 
there may not bee anie occasion given from whence hee 
or anie may blemish our godly purposes. 

The Spanish peace is concluded & proclaimed as I 
intimated (now I remember it) in my last weeke's letter. 
The Bishop of London hath silenced manie godly men 
of late, this last Monday Mr. Archer is by him silenced for 
all England, the cause is taken from his iudgment declared 
in a Sermon (which I thinke you heard) that wee ought not 
to bow our knee at the name Jesus. The least good newes 
from you is like to bring enough unto you, both men & 
monie ; for the present wee have resolved (taking that Coun- 
cel from necessitie) to leave the sollicitation of our common 
stocke, Mr. Downing conceaving that everie pennie now 
(as it were by begging) received, may hinder us it may 
bee pounds afterwards, which (when thinges are thriving) 
men will helpe on, though they will not helpe up when 
they are under foote. Cum fueris felix &c. nullus ad &c.* 
Dr. Ames, as great a blessing & blessing bringer (if his 
remove bee clearely warrantable) as wee could desire, 
continues his hartie affection to us. I received & sent 
last weeke that by which you will know ex ungue leonem. 
My dearest love unto you & Mr. Governor with all the 
lovers of the Lord Jesus with you. Salute I pray you 
all the brethren especially Mr. Dudlie, Mr. Nowel, [Mr.] 
Coddington, Mr. Broadistreete theirs & the rest of our 
godly freindes ; from your loving & deepely engaged brother 

Jo: Humfrey. 

Lox\do. Dec. 23, 1630. 

* The writer undoubtedly intended to recall the lines of Ovid (Trist. i. Eleg. ix.): — 

" Donee eris felix, multos numerabis amicos, 
Tempora si fuerint nubila, solus eris. 

Nullus ad amissas ibit amicus opes." Eds. 

1634-41.] THE WINTHROP PAPERS. 17 


Much honoured, — I was both yesterday morning & 
night to have attended you but at both times too late. 
This morning I doubted I should have beene as much too 
earlie for you, as I was by some unexpected detention too 
late for my owne occasions. Yet being further neces- 
sitated to stay at Cnarlestowne, I thought good to satisfle 
my selfe rather then you, in revolving the cause of that 
diminution of your wonted respect which upon unappre- 
hended premisses I could not divine. So that now contrarie 
to my former apprehensions, I rather wonder you were not 
more alienated from mee, conceaving mee to be under that 
guilt (which I blesse God I am not) then that you were so 
much. However I know your greater latitude both of 
parts & pietie steares your practice beyond my reach, 
yet why (so conceaving of mee) should you not with com- 
passion or feare (pulling out of the fire) explicate & set 
in ioint a forlorne & sin deceaved wretch ? Your tender- 
nes in other kindes hath sometimes manifested itselfe ; for 
which I have blessed God & you in my feeble expressions. 
The proportions of the bowels of Christ mee thinkes 
should have much more expresd themselves herein. And 
yet I must acknowledge your Joseph like tendernes in 
this with all due thankefulnes, both in regard of my owne 
particular, & my relations to our common engagements. 
Wherein the Lord shall be pleased to enable & enlarge 
mee to further expressions of thankefulnes to him & your 
selfe, I trust I shall studiously & sincerely endeavour to 
husband his grace. Onely I beseech you in the name, & 
for the honour of our common Saviour, not to suffer mee 
to goe blindfolded with the deceipts of anie sinne, where 

* There is no date to this letter. It was probably written to the elder Winthrop, while 
Humfrey was in New England, between 1634 and 1641. — Eds. 



eyther your clearer light or godly iealousies may have 
occasion to expresse themselves. For though I know no 
sinne my soule desires approvingly to make anie league 
withall ; yet I experimentallie know my heart is despe- 
rately deceitful, & God the Searcher of harts can dis- 
cover more of mee to others, then hee may be pleased to 
doe unto my selfe, at least for a time. If anie such case 
& time fall out by the permission of God in the revolu- 
tion of anie of my fibrous corruptions, though you should 
not (which yet I ever hope you shall) have thankes from 
mee, yet you shall not (you know) goe without a full re- 
ward from him who covers a multitude of sinnes in them 
who seeke to reduce & save anie sinsicke soule. My 
paper & time (though your patience should not) confine 
mee. I am though your weake & God's wicked, yet I 
hope (at least out of gusts of temptations) the sincere 
servant of both. Jo : Humfrey. 

My busines yesterday morning was to tender the pai- 
ment of that debt of love to you which you have wished 
to mee, viz. to supply you (if your occasions requirde) with 
such monies as I had to spare from my pressing necessities. 
Your least word or intimation shall commaund what is left. 


To his ivorthy cleave friend Jo. Winthrop Esq these in hast. 

Dearest & most desired Sir, — You are a thousand 
times wellcome home, & should be 1000000000000000 times 
to mee if you would goe along with mee. I beseech you if 
you see the wind chops about contrarie, & hold there, come 
downe, I will beare your charges of the Post, & you shall 

* This letter was addressed to the younger Winthrop, after Humfrey had returned 
"home" in affliction, and while the former was temporarily in England. — Eds. 


doe no worse (but as much better as you will & I can 
helpe it) then I. Indeede I thinke you should have beene 
with us before. I have laine winde bound here these 5 
weekes yet not daring to budge an inch, expecting everie 
day our ships coming, which have laine in like case this 
fortnight at Cowes. But this morning the wind springs 
up fane, & I hope the ships will be suddenly in with us. 
Good deare loving Sagamore, let us have your companie if 
possible. If you can be helpefull anie way to my poore 
familie I know you neede not be intreated. I heare they 
want monie. I pray speake to my good freind Mr. War- 
ing (to whome, with his, my best respects with all thankes 
for all manner of kindnes) I know hee will not see them 
in miserie that are cast upon them. About sixe pounds a 
month I suppose will doe their turne sufficiently, the rest 
I would gladly should goe to the paying of debts except 
that which you shall neede thereof, & by vertue hereof I 
inable you to take for your (if) emergent necessities. 
With my love & my love over & over & through & through 
I rest 

Your most affectionate foolish faithfull 

Jo : Humfrey. 
Weymouth Jul. 21. 42. 




This is the last will and testament of mee Isacke Johnson 
of Boston in the Com of Lincoln esqnier made the twen- 
tieth day of Ap rill in the Third yeare of the raigne of our 
Soueraigne Lord Charles Kinge of England Scotland 
Frannce and Ireland &c beinge in some distemper of 
body But in good and perfect vnderstandinge and memory : 
fTor my soule I shall willingly resigne itt into the hands of 
my God thorough Jesus Crist when hee shall please to 
call for itt : fFor my body I leave itt to be buryed in 
the Churchyard of Boston in such maner and with such 
funerall expences and with such Tomb or stone to be sett 
over the place where my body shall lye and with such 
inscripcon to be wrytten thereon as shall seeme good to my 
executors hereafter named : fFor my temporall estate I 
dispose of itt in this maner followinge fhrst I giue and 
devise to my honourable and dearely beloved wife over 
and aboue the Lands already conveyed to her for her life 
in Joincture before our entermarryage All that wood and 
wood ground called or knowen by the name of Eystowe 

* Hutchinson (i. 16, note) refers to a will of Johnson, " uncancelled, and which remains 
on the Massachusetts files, executed April 28, in the fifth of King Charles." It has been 
searched for in vain, however, since Hutchinson described it. His citations from it gene- 
rally correspond with the above will; and it would naturally be inferred that he had erred 
in the date of the execution, were there not a few apparent discrepancies in other respects. 
Hutchinson also refers to a later will of Johnson; probably the one Copied by Mr. Savage 
from the " Registry of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury," and published in Mass. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., vol. viii., 3d series, pp. 244, 245. The will here printed is valuable as furnishing 
information in regard to its author's condition and circumstances before he came over to 
New England. — See, in relation to Johnson's wills, a letter of Jo: Bradinge (26 May, 1631), 
among the miscellaneous letters in this volume. — Eds. 


wood alias Eyshawe wood standing lyeing and being in 
Stretton in the Com of Rutland conteyninge by estyma- 
con betweene Eight score and Nyne score acres be the 
same more or lesse And also all those closes of pasture 
arrable or wood ground lyeing and beinge in Pick worth 
in the said Com of Rutland called or knowen by the name 
of Pickworth Stockinges all which I lately purchased to 
mee and my heires of George Boteler of Lee Lodge in 
the said Com of Rutland Esqr: To have and to hold 
vnto my said wife for and dureinge the tearme of her 
naturall life : which lands I soe bequeath vnto her in 
performance & satisfaccon of one obligacon made by mee 
heretofore to the right honourable Theophilus Earle of 
Lyncoln brother of my said wife or to some other to her 
vse wherein I stand bound in a great some of money 
with condicon to this purpose that I shall assure vnto or 
for my said wife one hundreth pounds by the yeare for 
her life more than her Joincture before menconed, which 
lands hereby devysed vnto her are of the value of six score 
pounds by the yeare or neare thereabouts and soe will 
more then performe the intencon of the said obligacon 
and the condicon thereof: provyded alwayes that if the 
said Earle of Lyncoln or such other persone or persones 
to whome I stand bound in the said obligacon shall not 
deliver the said obligacon to my executors within six 
monethes after my decease to be cancelled or in case the 
said obligacon cannot be found if then my said wife and 
the said Earle or such other persone or persones to whome 
I stand bound as aforesaid shall not within six monethes 
after my decease make seale and delyver a generall release 
to my said executors whereby the said obligacon may be 
avoyded and discharged that then this present gyfte and 
devise concerninge the said Eystowe wood or Eyshawe 
wood and the wood-ground and the said closes called 
Pickworth Stockinges shal be void and of none effect : 
and Provyded also vnder the same penalty that my said 


wife shall permytt and suffer such wood as is already sold 
to be quyetly remooved and carryed away of from the said 
ground by those whoe have bought the same: Item I give 
and bequeath more to my said wife as a testymony of my 
true love and bounty towards her my lease of my howse 
in Boston aforesaid and three mylch beasts and three 
geldinges and also Three hundreth pounds of Lawfull 
money beinge parte of that ready money which I nowe 
have in my howse and also all my howshold stuffe and 
plate and English bookes of Dyvinyty intreatinge her to 
use the same to God's honour and to be helpfull to my 
executors in delyveringe them all my wryteinges evydences 
& bookes that thereby they may be enabled for the exe- 
cucon of this my will : Item I give and devise to my 
dearely beloved and reverenced ffather Abraham Johnson 
esquier all that and those my manour and manours of and 
in Braunston alias Braundiston in the Com of Northamp- 
ton and all my lands tenements and heredytaments in 
Braunston aforesaid and in Braunston Bury in the said 
Com of Northampton and all my revercon and revercons 
thereof and also all that my manour of Glenfeild in the 
Com of Leicester and all my lands tenements and heredy- 
taments there To have and to hold to him my said ffather 
and to his heires forever: Provyded alwaies nevertheles 
That if my said ffather his heires or assignes shall not well 
and truely pay vnto my executors hereafter named within 
one yeare next after the day of my decease at or in the 
porch of Boston Church in the said Com of Lincoln 
the some of Twelve hundreth pounds of lawfull money 
of England That then this present gifte and devyse of 
my said manours of & in Braunston and Glenfeild and 
all the lande and premisses there shalbe vtterly void 
and of none effect And then and in that case my Will 
is that my said executors shall have the said manour and 
lands of and in Braunston alias Braundiston and sell the 
same and the inherytance thereof unto whom they shall 


thincke meete that soe they may pay themselves the said 
Twelve hundreth pounds with the interest thereof and 
delyver the overplus to my said ffather and his heires : 
Item I give and devise to my beloved brother Samuell 
Johnson eldest sonne of my said ffather by his second wife 
nowe lyveinge in present possession my manour of Clyps- 
ham in the Com of Rutland and all my messuages cottages 
lands tenements and heredytaments in Clypsham afore- 
said (which my wife holdeth not in Joincture for her life 
and which is not hereby in this my will given or devised to 
her and to John Wheeler my servant for such estates and 
tearmes as are herein menconed) and also the revercon 
and revercons of all my said lands tenements and heredy- 
taments with their appurtenances in Clypsham, Stretton, 
and Pickworth aforesaid after the determynacon or expira- 
con of the said tearmes & estates hereby given or devised 
to my said wife and servant John Wheeler and after 
the determynacon of my wyves Joincture as is aforesaid : 
To have and to hold the said manour lands tenements 
heredytaments revercon and revercons to my said brother 
Samuell Johnson and his heires forever : Item I give & 
devise to my said servant John Wheeler for his faithfull 
& painefull service performed to mee in my life tyme all 
that messuage or tenement in Clypsham aforesaid with 
two little closes neere vnto the same and one or two closes 
of arrable belongeing to the said messuage all which is 
reputed to be Thirty acres or thereabouts beinge nowe 
in the tenure of one Robert Lorrington whoe holdeth 
the same by lease paroll from Mr. Robert Johnson my 
graundfather To have and to hold the same and the rent 
of seaven pounds by the yeare reserved vpon the said lease 
to the said John Wheeler and such woman as hee shall 
first take to wife, for and during their naturall lyves, and 
the life of the longer lyver of them : Item I give to my 
servant Robert Dyxie for his like faithfull service Thyrty 
pounds in money and to my servant Phillip Johnson 


ffyfty pounds in money or one aimuytie or yearely rente 
of Twenty nobles for and dureinge the tearme of his 
naturall life to be paid him vpon the ffyve and twentieth 
day of March and the nyne and twentieth day of Septem- 
ber or within ten dayes after at the Church porch of Boston 
aforesaid by equall porcons The first payement thereof 
to be made and begin vpon such other said dayes as shall 
next happen after the day of my decease : which said 
somme of ffyfty pounds or Twenty nobles by the yeare 
I doe hereby will shalbe paid vnto him by my executors 
at the choise of my said executors which they shall thincke 
to be meetest for his advancement: Item I give to Thomas 
Edgly my servant Twenty nobles and to Edward Greene my 
servant ffyve pounds and to John Ravensdale my servant 
Three pounds : Item I give to be bestowed for good vses 
as my executors and Mr. Cotton of Boston shall thincke 
meete one hundreth pounds, and towards the reliefe of my 
poore distressed Cristian brethen in the Palatinate Twenty 
pounds and for the reliefe and educacon of yonge Ger- 
manes here in England I give Twelve pounds by the 
yeare for foure yeares : Item I give to the most worthyly 
honoured Lord the Lord Viscount Say and Seale as a 
testymony of the due affeccon I owe to his vertues my 
yonge stoned horse intreatinge him to accept thereof: 
Item I give to my reverend grandfather Mr. Doctor 
Chaderton as a testeymony of my thanckfulnes for my 
educacon vnder him ffyve peices of Two and twenty 
shillinges a piece, and the like somme to my worthy 
grandmother his wife : Item I give to my beloved mother 
in lawe the lease of certaine lands which my ffather 
formerly graunted mee, which lands lye in or neere Mol- 
ton in the Com of Lincoln and are worth foure pounds 
and a noble yearely more then the rent reserved thereupon : 
ffor the rest of my brethren and sisters I have remembred 
them hereafter in this my will : Item I give to my most 
reverend and deare freind Mr. John Cotton Minister of 



Boston Thirty pounds and a gowne cloath : Item I give to 
y very lovinge freind John Butler of Okeham gent ffyve 
pounds and fforty shillinges to my good freind his wife 
besides the ffyve marcks by the yeare due to him by my 
graundfathers will intreatinge him to be helpfull to 
my executors in the execucon of my will as hee can: 
Item I give to my lovinge freind Mr. Henry Rastall of 
Stamford fforty shillinges and to my loving freind his 
wife Twenty shillinges : Item I forgive my kinsman 
Henry Stafford the Three score pounds and odd money due 
to mee as executor to my grandfather and Thirty pounds 
of that money which I since lent him vpon condicon that 
he pay Twenty pounds or Thirty pounds due besides vnto 
mee to my executors within three monethes after my 
decease : Item I give to the Towne Clerck of Stamford Mr. 
Eichard Bucher for his former service and freindship to 
my grandfather and my selfe and in hope of the helpe he 
will afford to my executors in the execucon of this my will 
Twenty nobles : Item I give to my good freind Mr. Jonathan 
Tongue and his wife Twenty shillinges a piece : Item I 
give to Mr. Vicars the minister of Stamford ffyve pounds : 
Item I give to the old hospitall in Okeham the money 
that is yett to receave vpon the bonds of John Beaver, 
and Twenty pounds in money : Item I give and devise to 
my kinsman Mr. William Walker of Stamford the revercon 
of all my lands tenements and heredytaments in Stamford 
aforesaid in the said Com of Lincoln after the decease 
of my aforesaid ffather Abraham Johnson whoe hath the 
evidences thereof: To have and to hold vnto the said 
William Walker and his heires for ever : Provyded 
alwayes nevertheless that if the said William Walker 
shall not within two yeares next after the decease of my 
said ffather pay satisfy and discharge all such debts as 
my grandfather Mr. Bobert Meadowes did owe at the 
tyme of his decease and which are yett vnpaid whether 
the same be due upon specyalty or without specyalty, 



(except such debts as were or are due by him to my 
said ffather Abraham Johnson) that then this present 
gyft and devise shall cease and be voyd: And then I 
give and devise the same revercon of the said lands to my 
executors and their heires To the intent that they shall 
sell the inherytance thereof to whome they shall thinke 
meete and pay the said debts due by my said grandfather 
Robert Meadowes and give the overplus of the money 
which shalbe receaved for the sale thereof vnto the said 
William Walker and his heires : Item vpon the said pro- 
viso before menconed I give to the said William Walker 
all such moneyes as hee oweth mee which I thincke is 
about thirty poundes otherwise I will that my executors 
dispose of it as hereafter I shall appointe : To my Co- 
sen Nathanael Turner I give ffyve pounds : To the poore 
people of Boston I give ffoure pounds and to the poore 
of Stamford ffoure pounds To the poore of Braunston 
three pounds To the poore of Clypsham fforty shillinges : 
and to the poore of North Luffenham fforty shillinges : 
All other my lands leases stattutes recognizances bonds 
bills debts monyes horses beasts sheepe and other 
goods and chattells whatsoever I give to my worthyly 
esteemed freinds Richard Bellingham of Boston in the 
Com of Lincoln esquier and to Thomas Dudley of the 
same Towne & Com gent whome I doe hereby make 
executors of this my last will and testament my will 
beinge herein further expressed that my said executors 
shall therewith iustly and truely pay my debts which I owe 
to every persone as the same shall growe due and that 
they shall pay the charge of my funerall expenses which 
I will shall not exceede the charge of nifty pounds (vnles 
my executors shall see necessary cause to the contrary) in 
blacke tombe or otherwise and also that they shall pay to 
themselves whatsoever costs charges and expences they 
shall expend or be putt vnto for by reason or in respect of 
this my will or the probate or execucon thereof or of any 


thinge tending thereunto eyther in suytes at lawe or other- 
wise and lastly that the overplus of my said personall estate 
after my debts legacyes and funerall expences & charges 
shalbe defrayed shall by my said executors be equally 
devyded into three parts, one parte whereof I will shal be 
given to my said deare ffather a second parte to my beloved 
brethren and sister and the other third parte to my poore 
kindred especyally and cheifely to my grandfather John- 
son's brother's children And if the surplusage of the estate 
shall amount to Eighteene hundreth pounds I will that my 
Cosen John Johnson of Cambridge Stationer shall have at 
the least ffyfty pounds thereof: Item I give to my execu- 
tors for their paynes and love in takeinge upon them the 
execucon of this my last will and testament as followeth 
viz : To Mr. Richard Bellingham Twenty pounds by the 
yeare for three yeares next ensuyinge the day of my de- 
cease and to Mr. Thomas Dudley thirty pounds by the 
yeare for the like tearme and a geldinge and my bookes 
(except those hereafter given to my wife) for his former 
helpfulnes to mee and because the waight of the buisnes 
will most lye vpon him : And I will that my executors doe 
pay all the legacyes which are yet vnpaid of my grand- 
fathers will And that for the doeinge thereof and the pay- 
inge of the legacyes now given by my selfe my executors 
shall have a yeare and six monethes to pay them in or 
sooner if they can : Item I give my little English bookes of 
Dyvinyty to my deare wife : Also I will that all postscripts 
and Codicells which shall hereafter be added or annexed 
to this my will by mee in my life tyme shalbe my will 
also and shalbe of equall valydytie with this my will for- 
merly wrytten. 

In wytnes whereof I the said Isack Johnson have to 
every sheete of paper wherein this my Will is wrytten sub- 
scribed my name and sett to my Seale and published the 
same to be my Will in the presence of those whose names 
are vnder wrytten. 


Postscript : Item I give the advowson and right of pa- 
tronage of the Kectory and parishe Church of Clipsham 
in the Com of Rutland vnto my afore said executors 
Richard Beliingham and Thomas Dudley and to Mr. John 
Cotton the nowe minister of Boston and to the longer 
lyver of them. 

Isa: Johnson. 
Witnesses of the publishing hereof 

John Humfrey 
Thomas Hill 


John Clapham. 


To my verie loving nephew Mr. Isack Johnson at North Luffenham, 

give these. 

Beloved Isaake, — My true and vnfayned loue I com- 
mend to you and to the Lady your wife, for whom I cordial- 
ly desire that her virtue and piety may exceed her honour, 
and then she is truly honourable every way. Good Isaak, 
I haue received (partly by your letters, partly by your 
speech to my selfe, to Doctour Preston, & others) many 
smooth and good words : now is the time you are to 
manifest deeds sequivalent, and then I shall well perceiue 
that it was not a bare pleasing perfume that vanisheth. 
I cannot expresse to you how much I was greived at the 

* Cicely Chaderton was the wife of Eev. Lawrence Chaderton, D.D., Master of 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, — one of the Puritan divines nominated by King James 
to attend the Hampton-Court Conference in 1603, and one of the translators of the Bible. 
He died in 1640, at a very advanced age. Abraham Johnson married, for his first wife, 
Anne Meadows (mother of Isaac), daughter of Robert Meadows of Stamford: his second 
wife was the sole child of Lawrence Chaderton, and Cicely his wife; who, therefore, 
was indirectly "grandmother" of Isaac Johnson, but directly of his half brothers and 
sister, children of Elizabeth (Chaderton) Johnson. — Clarke's Lives, p. 145; Neal's History 
of the Puritans, ii. 340; Peck, Desiderata Curiosa, ii. 333, n. ; Brook, Lives of the Puritans, 
ii. 445; Rose, Biog. Dictionary; N.E. Hist, and Geneal. Register, viii. 359. — Eds. 


hearing of your Grandfather's Will, yet (as God knoweth) 
not soe much for the littlenesse of legasies to your ffather, 
and your Brothers, as for the blemmish of his reputation, 
who was so eminent for wisdome and wealth. Sweet 
Isacke, as you loue God, and the creditt of his gospell 
which you professe, and mee your true loving grandmother, 
who doe desire your good every way, agree with your 
ffather without suits in law, which will be both scandalous 
to others, and wastfull to yourselues. If I be put to it, I 
must, and will sweare truly to the articles of contract, and 
the note of inducement, by which I was drawne to accept 
of the match, which I had formerly denyed. But verhum 
sapienti satis. 

I haue sent you one doozen of gloves, and haue payd 
the glover, who hath abated of the price specified in his 
note, viz : for two doozen of gloves with facing and 
fringe 505 ; for two doozen of plaine gloves 205 ; soe 
you owe mee 205, which you may give to Sam: for mee. 
My good will was to haue come to you with my husband, 
on purpose to be acquainted with my Lady your wife, but 
some impediments haue put it of, but not taken it away : 
I waite for the next opportunity and even soe, comending 
my selfe to your first and second selfe, I commend vs all 
to the gratious blessing of God in Christ Jesus, remayning 
while I am, or haue a beeing on earth 

Your loving grandmother Cicely Chaderton. 

Aug. 24 1625. 


To my much esteemed worthy frend Mr. Downinge att his howse 
in Fleetestreete neere the Cunditt give these, with Speed. 

Good Mr. Downinge, — The tumultuousnes of my owne 
affayres uppon my cominge down was such, as I forgatt 
to send to you accordinge to my intention, to know when 
you were determined for Lincolnshire ; that so I might 


the fittlyer haue disposed my self and my occasions, that 
I might haue beene wholly yours. That which then I 
omitted, I must endeavour to supplye att this Tyme in my 
entreatyes to you to send mee word when it will bee 
and where : If you please to send, now or att any other 
Tyme, any letters to one Mr. Churchill a Cuttler neere 
Holborne Cunditt, they will be conveyed to mee. This 
Carier comes out of London Tuesday morninge. It had 
beene an excellent Tyme for Mr. Winthorpe to haue beene 
this Commencement att Cambridge, where I heare are 
many reverend Divines, to consider of Mr. White's call. 
Lett me entreat to be remembred to him, when you 
haue occasion to write to him. So expecting you both 
heere ere it bee long, with the acknowledgment of much 
beholdingnes to you for many undeserved fauors, I am 
forced to break off, restinge Your assured frend 

Isa. Johnson. 

Sempringham July 8, 1629. 


To ye Right Worshipfull my much esteemed hinde Frend John 
Winthrop, Esqr. at Groton in Suffolke giue these. 

Good Sir, — I received your letter by your neighbour, 
whom I wellcomed into our Society. Wee haue much 
cause to bee thanckfull for Gods presence still with us. 
I was with Mr. Downinge this afternoone and agreed 
uppon the Peticon ; Mr. Edsbury wee mett withall, who 
hopes to gett us 20 peece of ordinance, and the Charles. 
Touching buyinge of Ordinance ourselves, wee confirred 
with the Master Gunner, with Capt. Waller & Cap. Venn : 
And upon agitacon wee finde that the new mettle will 
quickly heate and reverse, so that we are quite off them, 
saue only for a Drake or 2 ; what is determined about 
them I refer to Mr. Pinchons narracon who hath beene 
imployed in the worke since. 


Touching Mr. Hooker, we are not yet resolved what 
to doe, saue only to write to him, or goe to him, to see 
whether hee entends to goe or write, that wee may doe 
accordingly. Dr. Ames would haue the like respect, as 
Mr. Cotton well remembers us off. If others may accom- 
pany him, my brother Samuel would bee one, who hath 
beene in those parts with Dr. [torn] before. Your sonn 
would doe very well to bee one b[ut] I feare we cannot 
spare him because he is to studdy [torn] [an]d Gunnery 
heere for after imployment [obliterated] ex[cept] that jour™ 
ney would helpe forwards that: That your [torn] take 
uppon us to dispose both of you & yours att [torn] lea- 
sures for the publique. He is a very ingenious Gentle- 
man and I am perswaded will be of speciall vse to the 
Plantation. Wee haue writt a letter to Sir N. Rich to gett 
a letter from him to Capt. Gosnall, that your sonn may 
by his meanes take a veiw & plott of Harwich fort for us ; 
for which I pray you lett him haue Tyme, & the Company 
will be thanckfull ; and lett him come up agayne as soone 
as may bee. I received notice from Leicester that diuerse 
Christians are thinckinge to come from thence, and about 
Manchester one Mr. Roote a Godly minister & able 
(if hee had a call,) & 40 with him. Leicester men desire 
him for their minister. I haue wrote word that if those 
2 places can make a Congregacon they may haue him. 
They sent up a dozen or 13 Queres which haue beene 

Touching Mr. Peters your caution is good, but I hope 
wee shall give you content, that his place will not be 
unsupplyed, nor his coming over offensive nor dangerous. 
I shall, (God willing) speake to Mr. Goffe about the cowes 
& Mr. Wright about the caske & provisions to supply vs 
&c. For my modesty (as you call it) it is just as I find 
needfull to write off, that you may pray for mee the more, 
and expect the less ; yet what I am I a[m] Yours 

Isa: Johnson. 


[P.S.] We had a Court on Tuesday att which was 3 or 4 
howres debated whither those that added to their subscrip- 
tions before should haue it now fully ended, and after 
3 or 4 houres strong debate it was concluded against them. 
So as now wee shall I hope goe securely on with the 
mar chants. Mee thincks I ended soe abruptly with my 
paper without expression of loue & affection answerable 
to the receipt of yours. But I am weary & not very well, 
therefore entreat you to supply it out of the abundance 
of yours. I haue sent Sir Nath. Rich his letter for 
your sonne, which I hope is sufficient. I hope hee will 
sufficiently informe himselfe of the dimensions of the Fort 
and all things about it, as, likewise, of what severall 
matterialls, what kinde of earths or wood the severall 
parts are framed off. It is likely he may inquire of some 
thereabouts, labourers, or artificers or artists, that helped 
to make it. Let him take speciall notice of the thicknes 
of the walls, where the ordinance is layd forth and how 
long our ordinance had neede to bee in that regard, & 
send what speedy word may bee with conveniency. 

17 Decr. 1629. 

For that wee are advized by some to haue all our 
ordinance 8t foote & a half from the base hoope to the 
muzzell, others and the most to haue none vnder 9 foote 
to bee so measured, in regard that otherwise they will bee 
in danger to throw downe the walls of the Fort. But heres 
the difficulty, heere are some, I thinck enough, of 8t foote 
& of 8t and a half uppon the Tower hill, but those of 9 
will hardly or not att all bee gott for the first vioage, so 
that wee are att a great loss ; For some thinck better carry 
but a few now that are fitt & reserue the others for the 
last ships, then to carry vnseruiceable ones ; & others 
thinck better to carry our number, for the feare and noyse 
of them may doe us good; & they may hereafter serve for 
some use. Thus you see how hardly I was drawne on this 
side my paper, & yet now how prolix I am. Pray send 
us your opinion of this, for it much stumbles us. &c. 



To the Worshipfull his assured loving freind Mr. Isaac Johnson 

dlr theis. 

Worthie Sir, — I receaued your kind letter, bearing 
date xijth of August, for which I hartily thancke you, 
that in the midst of your great trobles (the which I assure 
my self are verie many,) you will let your penn loose to 
declare to your ffreinds that they are not forgotten. But 
since the arrival of your letter I haue herd of your heavie- 
nes, for which with you I bare my share, but I trust that 
that wilbe an occasion of our seeing you heere in old 
England the sooner. Sir, ther is litle or nothing that is 
worthie of newes, but that all things are as you left them, 
& rather worser then any whit amended, the Gent : are 
still in prison, and tossed from the Kings Bench to the 
gate howse in Westminster, & from thence to the K. 
Bench againe : all this since Midsomer last. Vppon Sab- 
both day last the Articles of Peace with Spaine weare 
sworne to in great state (as I am informed of) in the 
Chappell at Whitle-Hall, the which at this presente I can- 
not send, in that they are kept soe close : and ther was 
a verie great feast made for the Ambessadour, which cost 
7000/, but instead of cupbords of plate, which it was 
vsuallie to be set forth at such tymes, ther weare cupbords 
of glasses for them, &c. 

Yesterday, the Earle of Castle-Haven was committed to 
the gate-howse, close prisoner, (whoe is Jesuitted,) for fowle 
offences, as I am informed ; for noe lesse then buggerie, 
and for comanding his owne dafter and his ladie for to 
prostrate themselues to his owne favorite, (one Mr. Skip- 
with) whoe is likewise committed to the King's Bench, 
and all these & far worser practises came to be made 
knowne to the king, by the peticion of his daughters hus- 


band. Thus with a harty desire for a blessing on all your 
enterprises, at this tyme doe take my leave, remayneing 
Yours to be commanded both in private & publique, 

B: G:* 

Cliff : I[nne,] 6° : Dec : 1630. 

I pray present my service to Sir Rich: Saltonstall, with 
my prayers for him & his ; and if ther be one Mr. Ludlowe 
neare you, I pray remember me to him, & let him knowe 
his brother is in helth. 

* This letter seems to be signed B : G : ; but we know not for what name those initials 
stood. Possibly the letters were intended for B : P : The arms on the seal are those of 
the Burrell Family, of Brome Park, in Northumberland, and also of Dowsby, Lincoln- 
shire, and Ryhall, in the county of Rutland. Richard, the fourth son of William, Lord 
Say and Sele, and brother to the Countess of Lincoln, married Margaret, the daughter of 
Abraham Burrell of Wisbech, in the Isle of Ely; and it is probable that the writer of the 
letter was thus connected with the family of the Earl of Lincoln, into which Isaac John- 
son had married. The letter evidently alludes to the death of Lady Arbella Johnson ; but, 
like the letter of Humfrey with which this volume opens, it was written in ignorance that 
Isaac Johnson himself had died more than two months before its date; so slow was the 
transmission of tidings across the ocean in those days. It may be well to add, that the 
handwriting is not that of Brampton Gurdon, with the initials of whose name the signa- 
ture would seem to correspond. — Eds. 




I am glad to he are of my sisters recouerie : I thank 
God wee are all in good health here and at my brother 

The Master of the wards is offered Sr. Needham's Land 
by Needham, whither I went once with your selfe to see 
your kinswoeman, he entreates you send him word what 
valew yt is per annum, and whither likely to be improved 
or no, how wooded &c. 

There is noe newes from the Duke only this that the 
ffort is neither taken nor releived. 

The Earle of Holland is going over to him with 6000 
men, whereof 2000 out of England, 2000 out of Scotland 
and 2000 out of Ireland. 

Tilly is gotten into the King of Denmark's Country where 
the King is putt to the worst, and in danger to be over- 
thrown yett is he not pittyed here at Court, because (say 
they) he useth not our men well. 

The Spaynyard hath sent about 16 ships to the Hand of 
Shethland where the great herring fishing is, where they 
landed 500 men and haue taken manie of the fhshers netts 
and Buffes and done great spoyle to the great hindrance 

* Emanuel Downing was a lawyer of the Inner Temple, London. He had married 
Lucy Winthrop, the sister of our Governor; by whom he had several children, the eldest 
of whom was afterwards known as Sir George Downing, English ambassador at the Hague. 
Emanuel came over to Xew England in 1638. There were few more active or efficient 
friends of the Massachusetts Colony during its earliest and most critical period. — Eds. 



of the ffishing. Thus with my Dewty to my mother and 
trew love to your selfe and all yours I rest 

Your loving brother Em : Downinge. 

London 31 August 1627. 


My good brother, — I am glad to heare of your be- 
gynning to amend. I doubt your advise in surgery is not 
soe good as you may haue here if you will come ere yt 
be to late. 

The lower house of Parliament haue adiourned the 
Parliament till Thursday next, but the Committees of 
particular referments meet dayly, they haue made an order 
that he that shalbe wanting one thursday next shall for- 
feyte 10/. 

They are agreed to give the King 5 subsedyes for present 
supply, soe as our persons and goods be freed, and that 
there be noe more ceassing of souldiers nor pressing of 
soldiers to serve beyond the seas against theire wills. Some 
other good lawes for religion and the statu ts to be putt in 
execucon against the papists; what the successe hereof 
wilbe, manie men yett are in doubt ; the Judges in the 
King's Bench doe disclayme the judgement, and doe lay 
all the fault one the Attornie generall; 

You shall receive hereinclosed a speach published 
abroade supposed to be spoken to the King; 

1000 Dutch horse are dayly expected, whereof newes 
cam last night that 300 of them are landed. 

I pray thanke my brother Gostlyn for his paynes to Mr. 
Lynn of his serving the Inivnction, I doubt Mr. Lynn 
will force me to make affidavit, I pray entreate my brother 
Gostlyn to keepe the copie of the Inivnction. Thus long 
expecting your coming, with my dewty to my good mother 


and my trew love and respect to yonr selfe, my sister, my 
brother Gostlyn and his wife and all yours and all at Mr. 
Gourden's I rest leaving you and your affayres to God's 
blessing, Your loving brother Em: Downinge.* 



To his louinge ffrind John Winthrqp, Esq. at Groton, these dlr. 

Suff. ' 

My good brother, — I am glad you retorned home soe 
well, and founde them soe there. The newes yeasterday 
vpon the exchange was, that the Dutch haue taken the 
second parte of the Spaynishe plate fneete. 

One Monday morning the Parliament mett, and present- 
ly soe soone as they were sett there came a messenger Mr. 
Maxwell of ye bedchamber, from the King, to dissolve 
the howse, Mr. Litleton tendred a Demonstrance to the 
Speaker to be read, he refused, the howse comaunded him, 
he weepes and offers to goe out of the chayre, he was by 
force kept in, manie cryed out with him to the barr and 
choose an other in his place, they comaunded the Serieant 
to lock the dore, ere the Messenger entred, he durst 
not, vp riseth a Burgesse and offers his service, they all 
willed him lock the dore and bring away the key, they 
comaunded the Clarke to reade yt, he answeared that he 
was to reade nothing but what was past and entred in the 
booke, then Mr. Litleton goes into the next roome and 
burnes the Demonstrance, vp riseth Hollace one of the 
lord of Clare's sonns, and declares to the howse the 
somme and heads of ye Demonstrance, to this effect ; that 
all those are enemyes to this Church and Commonwealth 
that seeks to bring in these new opynions, and that those 

* This was evidently -written in London, about 1628. — Eds. 


Merchants slialbe reputed enemyes to this state that shall 
yeald tonnadge and poundadge before yt be graunted in 
Parliament. And the Conclusion was most sharpe and 
cruell against the lord Treasurer and the Bishop of 

One Tuseday Mr. Seldon, Mr. Litleton and 3 more were 
sent to the Tower, Sir Peter Heymond and 2 others to the 
Gatehowse, 8 more sent for ; all are close prisoners that 
are comitted, Mr. Seldon's study is sealed vp. This 
morning I was told that there be 2 barges attending at 
Whytehall to carry some noblemen to the tower, and that 
the Custom howse dores are shutt vp, for that the officers 
dare not sett to demaund Custome. I heard yeasterday at 
Charing Crosse that the Customers of Lynn were beaten 
out of the Custom howse. The good Lord torne all to a 
good yssue. Soe with myne and my wives dewty to my 
mother with our love to your selfe and my good sister &c. 
I rest your verie loving brother Em : Downinge. 

6 Mrtij. 1628. 


To his loving Cosen Mr. John Wynthrop at Groton in Suffolke. 

Good Cosen, — I haue agreed with Dr. Wright for 
4600/ for the sale of Groton as per this enclosed, you may 
perceiue ; for 850/ of this purchase, Dr. Wright is to 
assigne over a manour worth 50/ per annum, which lyeth 
nere Harwich in Essex. I pray send to see yt for yf yt 
shall not be thought fitt for my sister, then hee will at a 
reasonable day pay the monie. 

I expected this week the writings concerning Groton, 
but you sent only the last Conveyance and the Parsons 
lease, I pray bring vp with you all the writings concerning 
that purchase except your Court Roules which may be 
delivered in the Countrye ; among your writings be sure 


that you fynd out the Graunt from the King, next the 
Conveyance from Adam W: to John W. then the Dedes 
from John W. to your ffather and my brother Fones and 
what other Deedes you haue concerning your woods, for 
this deede you sent me vp mentioneth but 40 acres of 
wood, soe yts supposed that the rest of the woods were 
bought of some private men and not from the king. 

You wilbe expected here on Wednesday or thursday 
next at furthest, and as you come leave all your writings 
with my Cosen Cary Mildmay at Marks for Mr. Wright 
of Romford is to draw the Conveyance, which wee hope 
to finishe next weeke and to receiue the monie ; bring vp 
with you this enclosed noate. 

If you shall mislike this agreement with Dr. Wright, 
you shall be at libertye to sell yt to any other that will 
give you more for yt, noe man here hath offred soe much 
by 2007, if you resolve to proceed herein, I pray come 
speedyly vp for I shall doe nothing without you therein, 
this buisines only keepes me in towne. 

As you come bring me Mr. Tyndall's letter for approba- 
tion hereof, otherwise yt wilbe further delayed, here is noe 
newes yet from New England, soe with my wives and my 
trew love to your mother your selfe &c I rest your loving 
vncle Em. Downinge. 

2do Julij, 1630. 


To his verie loving brother John Winthrop Esqr, Governour 
of the Plantacon, in Mattachusetts, New England. 

My good brother, — Sithence my last 3 letters sent you 
by Mr. Peirce, I haue received yours per the French Ship 
dated the 9 of 7ber. 

Herewith is sent you a dedimus potestatem to acknowledge 
an other ifyne of Groton, and a deed to leade the vse 
thereof, because the ffyne you acknowledged before you 


went hence was not well drawne nor sufficient for vs to 
sell your land, and my sister must stay here vntill the 
dedimus be retourned back, soe that I feare my sister 
cannot departe hence vntill the Spring then following, yet 
shee is verie willing to haue gone this next Spring if this 
occasion had not hindered hir. 

I know not how to expresse my thankfulnes suffitiently 
for the constant continewance of your love to me euerie 
way soe plentifully expressed, among the rest, for your 
care in providing my howse, I shall desire to hasten over 
soe soone as the Lord shall open me the way, which I 
hope wilbe ere long. 

Our freinds here, yea those of best Iudgement, wishe 
you bestowe not much cost in building where you are, but 
doe advise that you doe speedily send about the discouerie 
of some fitter place, more to the South, where you may 
enioye greater comfort in respect of milder winters and 
fruitfuller and earlyer harvests, with more safety from 
forreign Invasions: yts certeynly enformed here that soe 
litle Sowthward as the Narraganses, there is farr lesse 
cold and snow then where you are, but if yt be trew that 
Mr. Allerton reports of Hudson's river, there is noe place 
comparable to yt for a plantacon, and t'will quitt cost for 
you to remove thither, though all be lost in the place 
where you are, for he sayth that Hudsons river goes into 
Canada and those 2 make New England an Hand, if this 
be trew yts like they meet in the great lake, and soe may 
Merrymack ; I feare the want of provisions haue hindred 
your discoueries, this yeare, but I hope you shall haue noe 
such impediment hereafter. 

Wee haue peace with Spayne as per the proclamation 
you shall perceive, which wilbe some advantadge to your 
plantacon, for you may henceforward haue wheat for 2s 
the Bushell and all sorts of Cattle (cheaper then I wrote 
that Capten Powell would afoard them) from the Terceras 
Hands whence I trust you shall receive some verie shortly, 


whereof I mearie, God willing, to write at lardge in my 
next letters : thus with my wives and my love to your selfe. 
Sir Kichard, Mr. Johnson, Mr. Dudly, Mr. Nowell, Mr. 
Wilson, &c. I leave you to the proteccon of the Almighty, 
and rest your verie loving brother 

Em: Down inge. 

80. lOber 1630. 


To his verie loving brother John Winthroji, Govemour of the 
plantation in the Mattachusetts Bay. 

My good brother, — Your last letters which cam this 
passadge with Mr. Peirce (though they brought the newes 
of Mr. Johnsons and some others death) haue much 
refreshed my hart and the myndes of manie others, 
welwishers to the good worke you haue vndertaken, for 
much more was feared, then the good Lord through his 
mercy hath laid vpon you, in that soe few haue dyed, and 
that now there is hope you wilbe able to subsist and pro- 
ceede to lay the foundacon of a plantacon, whereas yt was 
the iudgement of most men here that your Colonye would 
this winter be dissolved, partly by death through want 
of ffood, howsing and rayment, and the rest to retorne or 
to nee for refuge to other plantacons : but blessed be God 
that hath maynteyned his owne Cause and preserved you 
alive to helpe further forward this great worke. 

I am glad you haue begunn to remove and plant 
some what higher vp the river into the land among the 
woods, I meane at Watertowne. It is my dayly prayer 
that the Lord would give me leave to goe vnto you, which 
I hope wilbe next Spring, Vbi animus ibi homo. You haue 
my hart, and I doe mynd nothing for this world more then 
to prepare for my goeing vnto you, and when I shall see 


the Lords Providence opening my way, I shall make litle 
stay here. I thank you most kindely for your letters, booke 
and plotts; tis tearme, and I haue had yet scarce tyme to 
peruse your letters and plotts ; I must be trouble some 
to you about my cattle and corne, whereof my Cosen 
Winthrop writes vnto you ; I pray excuse me that I write 
noe newes herein, for I haue not tyme, but this rest assured 
of that you may be secure from any trouble from Spayne 
or France, for they haue theire hands full here, soe with 
my comends to all my freinds, with my wives and my 
dayly prayers for you, I rest yours E. D. 

30 Apr. [1631.] 


To his lovinge cousin John Wynthropp Esqr at New-Englande, 

these dad. 

Loving Cosen, — Yours at your departure from the 
waterside I receiued, and sent lettres, supposing they 
might haue overtaken you there, but coming short, they 
were safe ' retorned to me againe. Of the hundreth and 
thirty fo" you left with me, I paid my Awnt Branch 10^' 
for hir last quarteridge ; 5U for my Cosen Dudlye to my 
lord Sayes kinsman, of whom he borowed yt to beare his 
chardges hither, and 15li more I haue laid out for him in 
clothes and some other necessaries ; what other chardge I 
shalbe at to furnishe him I yet know not. I wilbee as 
frugall as I can therein, and soe I perceive himselfe wilbe. 
My brother and sister Paynter were at my howse since 
your departure, they tell me they are in hope to gett the 
100U of the lady Moodam. I perceive they hope you will 
stay till yt be recorded there, otherwise you must write 
earnestly to them. 

1632.] THE WINTHROP PAPERS. i() a 

I pray lett me know what I am growne in debt there, 
that I may cleare reckonings with my brother. Thus in 
hast, with my love to your selfe and your wife, my cosens 
Elizabeth and Mary Winthrop, I rest 

Your louing vnckle Em : Downinge. 

2 d0 9 br 1631. 

4 to Q br 

This morning about 5 a clock, the Queene was delivered 
of [a] girle,* which was presently after baptised, because 
yt cam before the tyme, and was verie sick. 

The King of Sweaden mustered his armye after he had 
retorned from the pursuite of his victorie, to vnderstand 
what men he had lost, and found his army to be 25000 
men, soe he [found f] 7000 more then when he begann 
the battle. He hath 3 other armyes ioyned to him, where- 
of 20,000 are sent to subdew Bavaria, and 20,000 into 
Sileatia, and the rest for the setling of the Palsgrave in his 
countrye, and himselfe with his 25,000 men are gone to 
Frankford vpon the Meyne, which if he takes, he is to be 
King of the Romanes, by the Emperiall law : he was with- 
in 5 myles when this newes cam from him, and the 
generall opinion is that the citty dares not refuse his first 


To his very louinge cossen Mr. John Winthrop at the Mattachusetts, 

these dlr in New England. 

Cosen Winthrop, — I am very glad to heare of your 
health and welfare, and well likinge of the plantation. 
Though the tyme be soe busie with me, and that I had 

* Mary Stuart, daughter of Charles L, afterwards wife of William, Prince of Orange, 
and mother of William III., King of Great Britain. — Eds. 
t The word in brackets is imperfectly erased. — Eds. 


but a very shorte warninge of this shipps suddaine goe- 
inge, yet I chose rather to write a little, then not at all, 
and being tired out in writinge to your father, I was glad 
to haue helpe to write vnto you.* 

I thanke you for your advice about my cattell, I cannot 
here prouide such seruants as I would, of a sodaine, there- 
fore for the present I haue agreed with Mr. Dillingham to 
take my cattell and keepe them, winter and sommer, for 
the third of the increase, yet with this condition the bar- 
gaine is made, that vnlesse my brother Winth: doe ap- 
proue thereof, its not to stand ; and for my swyne I was 
to haue of Mr. Allerton, being 4 sowes, Mr. Dillingham 
will fetch them and put them out, to be kept for me, for 
halfes. Concerning myne owne particular account with 
my brother Winthrop, I must needs referre it to my next 
writinge, for I haue bin all this sommer in the contrie, 
and came home but iust to the Terme, and did not dreame 
of this sodaine going of this shipp, but made account to 
haue had tyme to consider thereof after this terme. But 
concerninge my brother Winth : monies receiued by me, I 
haue here inclosed sent you the true accompt, o.f the last 
700^' paid by Mr. Warren, I directed my brother Kirby to 
receiue 500Z£, because of his better leisure then myne, for 
the paying out of the same, accordinge to your occasions, 
which you may perceiue by the accompt, for a good parte 
of it is made by him, the rest is laid out by my selfe. 

As concerning Mr. Goffe, he refuseth to receiue his 
monie according to my brothers last direccions, sayeing 
there is much more due vnto him. I praye send me ouer 
this acquittance signed and sealed by your father and 
yourselfe, with whome I am in parte agreed, ffor my 
sonne James, I am sorrye to see that he writes a worse 
hand, and more nonsence, in his last letters, then in the 

* Downing appears to have employed an amanuensis in writing this letter. —Eds. 


letters I receiued a yeare since. I doubt there is noe 
hope of his attaininge to any learning, therefore if he hath 
a mind to husbandry, or may be fitt to truck, and playe 
the marchant, and his likinge stand there vnto, I would 
gladly know it, that accordingly he might spend his tyme 
therein, for I thinke the tyme lost that he goes to schoole, 
and therefore take him from schoole, and let my brother 
Winthrop ymploye him as his seruant, as he shall thinke 
fitt. I sent my brother Winthrop a letter, written at the 
Hage from the Germane lately come from you ; * by Mr. 
Humfryes conveyance. I sent my brother Winthr : a 
staffe with a rapier in it, and a pistoll you left behind, by 
Mr. Winslowe. 

The Plymouth trucking howse that was robbed was 
done, not by the French, but by some English, theire 
names I knowe not. Concerninge the keepinge of your 
cattell in the winter, I suppose, had you vnderwoods, as 
we haue in England, you should need howse none but 
such as you would vse about your house for milke. 

I haue written to my brother Gostlyn to prouide you 
men and maid seruants against the springe. My brother 
Gostl : I suppose cannot come ouer this yeare, neither is 
his wife willinge, vntill he hath prouided a stock of 

The cloth you desire from him will not be sent vntill 
the springe, neither could it be made ready against this 
shipps going, for we had scarce a weeks warninge of it. 

ffor Newes \ Sergeant Finch, Recorder of London, is 
dead, and Mr. Littleton in his place. Judge Haruie and 
Judge Whitlock are dead, and Sir Robert Bartlet and Ser- 
geant Crawley in theire places. Sir Thomas Wentworth, 
the President of Yorke, is going Deputie into Ireland, 
where Sir Franc : Angier is lately dead, and one Mr. Rat- 

* Probably Joist Weillust, the Surveyor of Ordnance of the Massachusetts Colony, 
(1630 and 1631), who returned to Germany in July, 1632. — Eds. 


cliff of Grayes Inn, a kinsman of the Deputy, is named to 
be Master of the Roles there : my father in lawe, Sir 
James Ware * is lately dead. We haue had here a very 
vnseasonable cold summer, soe that the corne in the north 
parts did hardly ripen this yeare. About Whitsontide last 
there was many sore stormes, whereby many sheepe and 
lambs were killed. The Staff ordsheire men doe very 
much complaine of the vsuall burninge heath, growing 
and not cut downe, in theire contrie, alledginge that it is 
the cause of much raine amongst them ; and if there come 
a parliament they intend to prefer re a bill to preuent the 
burninge of theire contrie in that kinde. 

I haue sent you some bookes of newes, I would haue 
sent you more, but that by direction from the Lords, the 
printers were restrayned from printinge any more. 

In the Lowe Contries there is great hope that the States 
of Holland wilbe lords ouer the 17 Prouinces very shortly, 
for diuerse Lords and Townes haue revolted from the 
Kinge of Spaine, and joyned themselues to the States ; 
ffor the Kinge of Spaine will not be able to maintaine 
his warre there ; being depriued of his wonted passages 
through Germany and France. 

The Kinge of Spaine, as is generally beleiued, stands 
nowe at a lower ebb then when Q : Elizabeth dyed ; his 

* Sir James Ware, who (we thus learn for the first time) was the father of Emanuel 
Downing's first wife, was knighted by James I., and was a member of the Irish Parlia- 
ment in 1613. He married Mary, the sister of Sir Ambrose Briden of Maidstone, Kent. 
His eldest son, Sir James, was the author of Works concerning Ireland (translated and pub- 
lished in two folio volumes by Walter Harris, Dublin, 1764), which secured him the title 
of the Irish Camden. He was one of the Privy Council in 1639, and declined a peerage 
before his death in 1666. (Sir James Ware's Works concerning Ireland, vol. ii., second 
part, p. 148; Thane's British Autography, vol. ii. p. 38.) Downing's children by his 
first wife, Anne Ware, were James, Mary, Susan, and perhaps Anne ; Sir George being 
the eldest child of his second marriage in 1622. The following entry in the Parish 
Register of the church of St. Lawrence, in Ipswich, Suffolk County, England (furnished 
us, while these pages are going through the press, by our Corresponding Member, Mr. H. 
G. Somerby), seems to fix the date and place of Emanuel Downing's own birth, unless 
there were two of the same name and period: "1585, Emanuell the sonne of George 
Downing, bapt. ye 1 of January." George, the father, describes himself in his will, 
proved 3d October, 1611, as a schoolmaster of Ipswich. — Eds. 


necessities hath put him vpon strainge exegents for monie ; 
the Spanish Inquisicion hath seised vpon many rich men, 
and burnt them for Heritiques, whereby theire Kinge hath 
gott all theire estate :* the Kinge hath alsoe seised vpon 
the treasure and plate of diuerse manasteries in Spaine, to 
support him in his warrs. 

The Kinge of Sweden goes on very prosperously, and 
carries all before him in Germany : there is newes lately 
come that he hath ouer throwne the Duke of Fridland, 
the Emperours Generall, which if it be true, he will make 
a shorte worke of the warrs in Germany. 

You haue a litle bird in your contrie that makes a hum- 
minge noyse, a little bigger then a bee, I pray send me 
one of them ouer, perfect in his fethers, in a little box. 

I praye excuse me for not wri tinge to my cosen Dudly, 
and thanke him for his kind letter. Remember my loue 
to his father and mother, himselfe and his wife, my cosen 
Feaks and his wife, Mr. Pincheon, Mr. Wells, Mr. Wilson 
and theire wiues, and I pray tell James D. that he writt 
such a scriblinge nonsence letter, that I am ashamed to 
answere it. Thus with my harty loue to yourselfe and 
your good wife, I take leaue and rest 

Your very louing vncle Em : Downinge. 

Nouember the xxi th 1632. 

Mall remembers her to you and your wife, and her 
cosen Feaks, and her cosen Dudly, and his wife ; soe doth 
the scribe.* 

Indorsed by J. Winthrop, Jr., " My vncle Downinge. Reed. Feb : 23 : 
1623." [32] 

" These letters per the ship, Mr. Trevore, master, Mr. Hatherly, 
merchant, arrived at New-Plymouth." 

* The scribe was evidently Edward Howes, many of whose own letters to John Win- 
throp, Jr., will be found in the latter part of this volume. — Eds. 



To his very louinge cosen Mr. John Winthrop at the Mattachusetts 
in New England these dlr. 

My good Cosen, — ffor want of other matter to write 
of, I thought fitt to put you in mind of your promise that 
you would see vs againe within a yeare ; and now I must 
tell you that it were good you did come if you expect your 
hundred pounds from my brother Paynter,* for I doe not 
perceive that they make account to paye it ; and if you 
come you may see your father's busines setled with Mr. 
Tindall ;f who as I heare hath purchased some land, to the 
value of about three score pounds a yeare, at Codenham 
in Suff: no we if my sister likes well of her beinge in 
New England, I knowe noe reason whie she should desire 
to laye out monie vpon any more land here ; being soe 
remote from that place where she meanes to settle herselfe 
and her posteritie ; should I come & Hue there, as I desire 
to doe if God lend me life and health, I should not wish to 
haue any of my estate remayninge here ; but herein I must 
check myself, in that I giue councell and advice before I 
am called thereto ; howe soeuer I should be glad these 
occasions might cause you to make a visit of vs here ; 
for many of your frinds would be glad to see you, which 

* Rev. Henry Painter, of Exeter, one of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, 1644-5 
had married the widow of Thomas Fones, whose first wife was a sister of Gov. Winthrop 
and of Emanuel Downing's wife. He is thus called "my brother Paynter" by Downing. 
— Eds. 

t Deane Tindal, Esq., son of Sir John Tindal, knight, and brother of Margaret Win- 
throp, the wife of the Governor, who followed him to New England. Governor Winthrop 
says, in a will drawn up in 1639, but which was revoked in 1641, " For my dear wife, who 
hath been a faithful help to me, though / left an estate for her in England, &c." This 
estate was left in the charge of her brother Deane, to whose investment of it Downing 
here refers. — Eds. 


would be a meanes to encourage some to rcmoue hence 
to your plantation, It would be noe disadvantage to you 
for you to spend a winter here, when as you may 
retorne the begininge of the springe : Soe for this tyme 
with my loue to your selfe and your wife, my cosen 
Feakes and his wife, my cosen Dudley and his wife, Mr. 
Dudley, Mr. Pincheon & Mr. Nowell ; Mr. Wells and 
Mr. Wilson, Mr Collier, Mr. Staughton & Mr. Samford, 
I take leaue and rest 

Your very louinge vncle 

The 18th of June 1633. Em; DoWNENGE. 


To his verie louinge nephew Mr. John Winthrop the yonger at 
Boston in ye Mattachusetts Bay in New England these dlr. 
Glue these letters to Richard McAndrew. 

My good Cosen, — I haue written thrice to you since 
I had any passage thence, except those drowned letters 
which came per Mr. Pierse. By this shipp I sent your 
father ouer a furnace for brewinge or boylinge salt or sope 
&c. Since the shippinge thereof I haue caused another 
to be made which Sir R. Saltonstall, hath bought on me, 
for the price I paid the workeman, but he should not haue 
had the same, had he not promised to send it to the 
plantation ; which accordingly he hath done. No we had 
I knowne the ship would haue stayed soe longe at Graues 
end I would haue assigned this to you and let him had the 
other. I haue promised Sir R : you shall direct his man 
howe you shall vse it, which he needed not haue requested 
from me, for that I knowe you would most redily haue 
yeilded therevnto of your selfe. I shall desire much to 
heare that you doe hitt right in the vse of it. I haue 
seene the tryall of it here both with seacoale & charcoales, 
therefore I doubt not but you will fall vpon the true 
practise of it. 



Our frinds at Groton and Chensey are all well; our 
Bishop of London is made Bishop of Canterbury ; it is not 
yet knowne who shall be of London. 

What course you will take for your 200 1, due vnto you 
from my brother Painter, though I heare some tymes from 
him, yet I heare not a worde of any such monie to be due 
vnto you. Tis longe since we heard from you. Soe 
desiring good news thence with my daylie prayers for 
you & yours with my loue to yourselfe & your good wife 
I take leaue and rest Your louinge vncle 

The 13th of Aug. 1633. Em: DoWNINGE. 


To his loving Cosen John Winthrop, Esqr. at Mr, Gostlins in 
Groton hall, Suffolke. dd. 

My good Cosen, — Mr. Sheapheard was with me yeas- 
terday, to enquire of your estate, whereof I could give him 
noe account, he prayed me to write vnto you thereof, and 
desires that you would retorne an answeare thereto this 
weeke, if you come not your selfe speedyly back: he 
would know your present estate in possession, and what 
in future you expect from your father, for this wilbe 
demanded of him, before he can conclude any thinge for 
you. And yts good reason you should satisfie him herein, 
because noe man that knowes you not, will parte with his 
child, till he know how shee shall be provided for to live 
in the world. 

This day my brother Kirby cam to me to tell me that 
Mr. Atwood the leather seller was with him, to give him 
notice that you should walk waryly and close because there 

* John Winthrop, Jr., was at this date in England. His name, and that of Elizabeth, 
his second wife (whom he married while abroad), are entered " 10th July," 1635, as having 
embarked in the "Abigail." They arrived in October, "ten weeks from Plymouth." 
Elizabeth was daughter of Edmand Keade, Esq., of Wickford, Co. Essex, whose widow 
married Hugh Peter, and whose third son, Col. Thomas Reade, commanded a regiment in 
the wars, and was associated with Gen. Monk at the Restoration. — Eds. 


be some that laye wayte to attach you. Mr. Winsloe lyes 
still in prison, and is like soe to continew, for I doe not 
heare when the lords will meete againe for plantation 

I do heare there will goe at least 20 ships this yeare 
to the plantation, there is one at the Customes howse 
apoynted to receive Certificates and give discharges to all 
such as shall goe to the plantation, some that are goeing 
to Xew England went to him to know what they should 
doe, he bad them bring him any Certificate from Minister, 
Church wardens or Justice, that they were honest men 
and he would give them theire pass ; they asked him what 
subsedy men should doe, he answeared that he could not 
tell who were subsedy men, and would discharge them 
vpon theire Certificates ; soe with my love to yourselfe my 
brother Gostlyn and his wife I rest, Yours whilest I am 

25 Mtij, 1635. Em. DOWMNGE. 


To my verie loving Cosen John Winthrop, the yonger, esqr. at 

Boston — dlr. 

My good Cosen, — I haue received 3 letters from you, 
the first of the 9th of 9ber, thother 2 of the 12 and 15 of 
Januar. Thanks be to God for your safe arivall after soe 
tedious a passadge. I hartilye thank you for the kynde 
offerr of your howse, but because I cannot yet resolve of 
my coming this yeare I pray dispose of yt to your best 
advantadge. I am advised not to make choyse of any 
place for my selfe vntill I come there. I haue sent you 
butter, suett and other things, by this shipp, for the par- 
ticulars thereof I refer you to my wives letters. Sir Arthur 
Hesilrigg refuseth to deall for Cap ten Endicotts howse, 
because as he sayth the merchants telleth him, the howse 
is theirs, and built with theire monie &c. as I wrote vnto 


himselfe. Your mother Peters hath paid me 40Z, which I 
haue laid out for you and almost as much more : shee en- 
tends to pay you the rest soe soone as shee can possiblie, 
which I feare wilbe nere Christide ere shee can performe yt. 
I perceive shee stands verie well affected to you, but as yet 
cannot doe as shee would for you. 

I hartyly thank you for the manie good directions 
in your letters to me. And for my brother Gostlyn if 
possiblye I can I will helpe him over ; and the rather 
because his goeing may cause my wife more willinglie to 
listen there vnto. Shee feareth much hardshipp there, and 
that wee shall spend all, ere wee be setled in a course to 
subsist even for foode and rayment. I pray in your next 
write hir some encouradgement to goe hence vnto you. 
Tom Goade sent his letters out of Spayne which I haue 
received and delivered, but himselfe is gone with that 
shipp into the Streights, soe I hope he will prove a Sea man. 
Ben Gostlyn is like to prove a proper Sea man, he is 
retorned out of the streights and gone to Sea againe, his 
master vseth him like a sonne, and the youth would not 
change his course of life for any other. So soone as he 
shalbe out of his tyme, he entends to see New England. 

Having written more at lardge to my brother Winthrop 
whereto I refer you, with my love to your selfe and second 
selfe, leaving you and your occasions to the blessing of our 
good God I rest 

Yours assured Em: Downinge. 

lo Martij 1635. 


My good Cosen, — Yours of the 24 of 8ber last I re- 
ceived, and doe hartily thank you for your relation of 
Connecticott, but you wrote not, where your selfe entend 
to setle. ffor your Account the last yeare I laid for you as 
I then wrote, 103/. Is. 2d. whereof I received last yeare of 


Dr. Reade 50/, of my brother Gostlyn 2/ more, since of Dr. 
Eeade 50/. In all 102/. Soe there rests me vpon that ac- 
count 11. Is. 2d. ffor your tooles sent no we by Mr. Peirce, 
my brother Kirby had monie from me to pay for them, who 
I suppose sends you an account thereof, but I haue not 
yet received from him the particular charge thereof. 

Mrs. Peters [when] shee went into Holland, apoynted 
Dr. Read to pay me 50/ for you, but he now telleth, he 
cannot receive yt, soe I beleive your mother will take 
order for your satisfaction when shee retornes, whom I 
expect here this moneth. 

Sir Mathew Boynton telleth me that he entends to pay 
30/ for you at Whitsontyde next. 

ffor newes I referr you to Mr. Peirce who knowes how 
all things goe here. Germanie is now become a most 
desolate wildernes : there be manie townes beautifull for 
buildings, but neither man woeman nor child in them: they 
fynd, as pass by, goodly and rich wanscott roomes, with 
tables, cubbards, and bedsteads standing in them, which 
they burne, or sett an howse on fyre to dresse theire meate, 
and leave yt burning next day when they departe. The 
country doth soe swarme with Ratts which goe in such 
troops as would fright a man to meet them; 

The Emperour, the French King and King of Spayne 
are making great preparation for warrs each against the 
other. The Sweades haue taken all Saxonie, the Duke is 
in a Castle beseidged by the Sweeds where tis thought, he 
cannot scape. Thus with my love to your selfe, your good 
wife, Mr. Peters, &c. I leave you and your affaires to the 
blessing of the Almighty and rest your assured loving 
vnckle Em: Downinge. 

2 Mtij 1636. 

You are to pay your ffather W: 10s. for the Currall 
which I putt into his account before I vnder stood yt was 
for you. 



ffor my brother Winthrop. 

Loving brother, — Yours of the 29 of June, the 4 of 
August, and the 24 of 8ber. I haue received this yeare, 
and paide all your bills except Mr. Harts who is dead, and 
his executours haue not yet demaunded the monie. Mr. 
Lucy who im ployed Mr. Hart sent to me for the monie, 
my answeare was that if Mr. Lucy would give me his bond 
to dischardge you from Harts executours I would then pay 
yt to him; the messenger said, I should haue it, but I never 
heard more of him. I haue hereinclosed sent your account. 
Whereas you write that you entend to sell of my oxen and 
some other male catle, I pray sell what you please and pay 
your selfe for my childrens being with you. 

My Ant Branch is lately dead. 

I hartilye thank you for your lardge Information of the 
state of the plantation ; I was the other day with Secretarie 
Coke who told me that there hath not ben a word of your 
plantacon at Councell board these manie moneths past. 

The 4th of 9ber last at night here was great thunder 
and lightning, with soe terrible a storme that manie 
steeples and Churches were beaten downe and verie manie 
howses and trees blowne vp by the rootes, in divers parts 
of this kingdome. 

The Archbishops officers are now in visitation in Essex, 
on fFriday last they began at Brentwood, where yt was de- 
clared to the ministers that eurie on must reade the Kings 
declaration concerning the Saboth days recreations, or, 
at the moneths end, be deprived. 

The Lord Maior sent his officers to most of the cheife 
family es of the Citty to give them warning to kepe the 
ifasts, Lent, Ember weeks, and the Vigills. 


I was at Mr. Kogers* of Dedham his funerall, where 
there were more people than 3 such Churches could hold : 
the gallery was soe over loaden with people that it sunck 
and crackt and in the midle where yt was Joynted the 
tymbers gaped and parted on from an other soe that there 
was a great cry in the Church: they vnder the gallery 
fearing to be smothered, those that were vpon yt hasted 
of, some on way some an other, and some leaped downe 
among the people into the Church : those in the body of 
the Church seing the tymbers gape were sore afrighted, 
but yt pleased God to honour that good man departed 
with a miracle at his death, for the gallerie stood and the 
people went on againe, though not so manie as before ; 
had yt fain as blackfryars did vnder the popishe assem- 
bly, yt would haue ben a great wound to our religion. 
Our freinds in Suffolk, Essex and London are all in health. 

The name of a Colledge in your plantation would much 
advantadge yt considering the present distast against our 
vniversityes, you need not stay till you haue Colledges to 
lodge schollars, for if you could but make a combination 
of some few able men, ministers or others to read certeyne 
lectures, and that yt were knowne here amongst honest 
men, you would soone haue students hence, and Incou- 
radgement to proceed further therein. What great burthen 
would yt be to a Minister for the present (till you haue 
meanes and be better supplyed with schollars) once a week 
for a moneth in eurie quarter to reade a logick, greke or 
hebrew lecture or the like. 

Thus with my love to your selfe, my sister and all yours 
&c of my freinds in the plantation, with my dayly prayers 
for you and yours with the prosperity of the wholl plan- 
tation, I rest your assured loving brother 

Em. Downing e. 

6 Marti j — 1636. 

Rev. John Rogers, of Dedham, died Oct. 8, 1636. — Eds. 



To the Honourable his verie loving brother John Winthrop Gover- 
nour of the Massachusetts in New England. 

Good brother, — Its noe small comfort to me that I 
haue hope ere long to enioy your Companie, I purpose 
God willinge to sett forth hence in the begynning of Aprill 
at furthest and to take your sonne hence with me. 

ffor my provision of Corne I purpose to buy yt there. 
If you feare the rising of the prise, I pray buy some for 
me and promise payment in money at my Landing. Here 
hath been great Joy for your great victories but farr more 
for vanquishing your erronious opinions then for conquer- 
ing the Pequoits. Our best and worthyest men doe much 
mervile you did not banish Whee[l]wright and Hutchinsons 
wife, but suffer them to so we more sedition among you : 
Mr. Vanes ill behaviour there hath lost all his reputation 
here. I heare he is about to travaile into Germanic 

The Nobility, gentry and Comons of Scotland are in 
Confederate and combyned soe strong togeather that they 
will admitt of noe Conformity to our good Bishop's orders, 
they haue throwne out the holy booke of Comon prayer, 
beaten theire Bishops and torne theire sirplisses of the 
backs of the Ministers, and manie more outrages in this 
kinde wee heare of dayly. 

The Dutch haue taken in Breda. 

In August last Mr. Tyndall paid me one hundreth pounds. 

I follow your councell in coming to the bay before I 
resolve where to pitche. I pray helpe me to hire or buy 
some howse (soe as I may sell yt againe if I shall remove) 
in some plantation about the Bay. Thus for present I 
take leave and rest leaving you and your affayres to the 
blessed protection of the Almighty. 

Your assured louing brother Em. Downinge. 

21. 9ber 1637. 


I can give noe answer to my Cosen Winthrop's letter 
yet for his monie from the Lords * I pray salute him and 
all my freinds. 


To his Honorable brother John Winthrop Usqr, Governour at 


Sir, — I thanke you for my brother Kirbyes letter, but 
before yt cam I had assigned him more monie to serve his 
terne, the &QU I would exchange is of other monie, not 
of any I expect to be in his hands. I am not willing to 
send James of purpose about yt if I could other wise doe 
yt, before the shipp goes hence. 

I thanke you hartilye for your kynde Invitation, but I 
hope there wilbe noe necessitye of my being there this 
winter, there is more cause of your coming hither, where 
I shall, God willing, acquaynt you with the secrets of ye 
decoye, L pray resolue to come ere winter. I doe rest 
vpon you for "Wheat and Rye, about 30 bushells of Eye 
and 10 bushells of Wheate. I pray let my Cosen Stephen 
dispatch the perfecting of the accounts, and the remayne 
I purpose to dischardge with ready monie. Soe desiring 
the Good Lord to preserve you to length of dayes and 
eternall Joy with my service to my sister and your selfe, 
I rest Your verie louing brother 

Salem 22 October, 1638. Em: DoWNINGE. 


To his much honored brother John Winthrop Governour, dlr. 

Sir, — I blesse God for his tender care of vs in preserv- 
ing yours and myne in health and peace in these Infectious 

* The Lord Say and Seale and the Lord Brook, of whose Connecticut Colony the 
younger Winthrop was the Governor. — Eds. 





and stormie seasons. My Co sen Peter told me, this after- 
noone, that there was not one sick in Salem, the Good 
Lord gratmt vs thankfull hearts, as for this soe for all 
other his favours to vs. Mr. Ballard of Sagus lyeth verie 
sick of the pox. I found my sawes in a long Chest among 
other things, the bundle of Sawes you sent me are not 
myne, I wishe the owner had them. 

ffor Mr. Cooke, I, having noe other buisines to the Court, 
am loath to make a Jorney of purpose, therefore my hope 
is my Cosen St[ephen] Winthrop having a letter of Attor- 
nie will prosecute yt for me ; If he goes for Bermodas I 
must fynde out some other freind that will doe yt for me. 

I haue soe manie things to retorne thanks for as I know 
not where to begyn, they deserue more then words, my 
hart is more willing to requitall then opportunity or abilitye 
can afoard, as an Indian said, Comand me great things to 
the height of my strength, &c. I pray remember my ser- 
uice with manie thanks to my sister, and soe with my love 
to all yours & Mr. Harrison with my dayly prayers for 
your prosperous condition in soule, body and all your 
affaires, I rest 

Your assured loving brother whilest I am 

Em: Downinge. 

25. 10. 1638. 


To his much honored brother John Winthrop Governour. 

Sir, — I thanke you for your kynde letters, which I 
reserved yeasterday. I feare not the coming of shipps 
vnto vs, because I know it will not be in the power of any 
mortall man, (though as malitious as the Divill himselfe 
against vs) to hinder them. I am much more troubled 
that you write, how you are yet sometimes feverishe : I 
pray be more watchfull for your health, that you oppresse 
not your bodye nor spirits with the publique affaires, but 


rather spare yourselfe a while that you may be the better 
enabled for tyme to come ; cold and wett espetially of your 
feet are two great tray tors to your health, and must be 
watched verie narrowly, verie narrowly : The good Lord 
preserue you to vs, and I shall never feare foreigne malice, 
soe long as the trew worship of God is by authority vpheld 
amongst vs, for he is faythfull and wilbe a sure rock of 
defence to his beloved. Mr. Rogers hath an overture 
of plantation betweene Newberry and Ipswich which I 
feare wilbe streightned, betweene Ipswich and Newberry, 
as Cambridge is by hir Neighbour townes ; Now at Salem 
wee haue manie farmes to be sould, enough for all his 
Companie, and the Towne desires much his joyning with 
our pastor, he may also haue with vs a plantation by 
himselfe, soe that I hope we shall keepe him here or at 
Newberry. I pray present my service to my sister. Soe 
with harty prayers for your health, desirous much to heare 
of your perfect recouerie, I rest with manie thanks to 
your selfe and my sister, which I owe for more then my 
paper can hold, 

Yours assured whilest I am 

Em. Downinge. 

2 Martij 1638. 


To his much honored brother John Winthrop, Governour. 

Sir, — I retorne you manie thanks for your kynde letter 
with a sorifull heart for my sisters sicknes. The good Lord 
blesse and sanctifie yt vnto hir: though I should be verie 
glad. of my wives retorne, yet I dare not now call for yt. 
I haue nought to write but of planting, sowing, posting, 
rayling &c. 

My Cosen P.* is constant to his davly charge, soe that 

* Hugh Petei . — Eds. 


all his freinds are resolved to leave him to his owne 
way, yet blessed be God his preaching is verie profitable 
and comfortable to all. I feare I shalbe disappoynted 
of 30 bushells of Indian Corne which I relyed on here, 
I pray let me be soe bold with you as to know if I may 
be supplyed thence ; soe with my service to your selfe 
and my sister with harty prayers for hir health I rest 

Your assured loving brother Em: Downinge. 

Salem 8. 2di. 


[Address destroyed, except the word\ u brother." 

Sir, — I haue deferred writing vnto you in hope to haue 
ben at Boston ere this. 

I remember when this plantation began, Mr. Isake 
Johnson said more then once, that he was resolved to 
spend and be spent in this buisines. What he then said 
you haue effected. Now if the Country should fayle I 
am confident the Lord will in his good tyme give meanes 
of freedome out of all your cares and feares. I haue a 
Cow Calfe at Mistick, I pray accept of yt, and were I 
in monie as I haue ben, I should doe that would become 
a loving brother. Job was raised to a full estate in this 
way by his freinds, soe I conceiue tis a dutye and debt 
the Countrye stands in to free you, and being a way of God 
you may with comfort accept yt ; how ever the Country 
may deale with you, I pray doe not you nor my sister 
oppresse your spiritts herewith, but wayte with cheerfull 
patience on the Lord, who alone can and ordinarily doth 
bring good out of evill, and, confident I am, he will in his 
owne v/ay and tyme performe yt to you. 

I know not how the buisines stands for Mr. Eaton's 
debts, whither I must loose that 10U or no. I am not 
willing to trouble you therein. I pray speake to my Cosen 


Stephen to looke after yt for me. Soe craving pardon for 

this boldnes with my love and service to yourselfe and my 

sister, I rest Your assured loving brother whilest I am 

Em : Down inge. 
Salem 9. 11. 39. 


To his ever Honored brother John Winthrop, Governour. 

Sir, — I doe retourne you manie thanks for your kynde 
letter of the 13th of this Instant, and doe blesse God for 
the continewance of health to you and yours, and doe 
much reioyce in this, that the Lord hath enabled you with 
patience and chearfulnes to beare your burthen, he knowes 
well what service you haue done for his people and 
Churches here. He hath promised requitall for a cup 
of cold water given to any of his. I need not tell you of 
his riches, ability and faythfulnes in the performance of his 
word and promises to the meanest of his servants, nor of 
his trew and tender love vnto you ; soe that I am assured 
he will repaire and fully repay all your losse, costs and 
charges spent in his service. I pray be confident hereof 
and doe him that right, in being as chearfull and contented 
now as when you had the world most at comand ; and soe 
with pardon for my boldnes and faythfull service to my 
good sister and your selfe, I rest 

Your assured loving brother whilest I am 

Em: Downinge. 

24. 12. 39. 


Sir, — I thanke you for your loving letter and doe blesse 
God for peace and health to you and yours. I am confi- 
dent you having spent your selfe and estate in this honour- 
able service ; that yt will redounde to your greater creditt 
and honour with God and man, then if you had gayned 


riches as other Governours doe, both in Virginea and els- 
where, and yt will rise vp in Judgement against extorting 
Governours that shalbe set over the people in succeed- 
ing generations, when your selfe shalbe at rest reaping 
the fruits of your present labours. 

The noate that Edward Dillingham gave you, I never 
saw yt, I pray therefore take his affidavit : yt had ben done 
here if wee could haue mett with Mr. Endicott, who is 
much trobled with a cough and cold and cannot be at 
this Court. He remembereth his trew love and service to 
your selfe and my sister. 

I cannot leave my wife now to attend Dillingham's bui- 
sines and I feare if I should haue ben there, the tryall 
would be putt of with one devise or other because I did 
not serve Mr. Saltonstall and his partner to the Court. If 
he can he will keepe Dillingham from you. I pray keep 
the affidavit or send yt me for I can depose he would 
haue sworne to yt if we could haue founde Mr. Endicott. 
Yeasterday my wife was in a feavor, this day she is pretyly 
well, so with my service to your selfe, my sister, and all 
yours I rest Your verie loving brother 

Em: Downinge. 

2, 1. 39. 


To his much honored brother John Winthrop, Governour, Boston. 

Sir, — This day I had a meeting with Mr. Saltonstall 
about Dillinghams buisines, and chardging him with your 
noate sent me into England: he said there was deliured 
James Luxford 20 Cowes, whereas your noate doth men- 
tion but 15, soe it was conceived that Dillingham or 
Luxford should deceive me of 5 Cowes, but after they were 
gone I founde Luxfords noate of my Catle he deliuered 
me, which doth mention 19, soe there is but one wanting, 


which (if he did not deliver James Luxford) Mr. Saltonstall 
must pay me for : I haue sent my man of purpose with 
these notes which I pray retorne by him againe. Dil- 
lingham wilbe with you to-morow of purpose to cleare 
himselfe of these 5 Cowes : if yt shall appeare that 
Luxford hath cosened you and me of that one Cowe which 
is yet wanting, let yt never trouble you. That you may 
vnderstand how 20 Cowes should be deliuered to Luxford, 
the account is thus, viz : In May 1633 there were deliuered 
to Dillingham 

9 Milch cowes } 

2 heifers > 18] Of these 18 there dyed 2, soe 

7 Cow calves ) there remayned 16. 

of these there was the first yeare with Dillingham 9 calves, 
5 cow calves, 4 bull calves. 

In June 1636 Dillingham deliuered as he saith 4 of the 
said 5 Cow calves, with the former 16 being then growne 
to be Cowes, in all 20 Cowes to James Luxford, who ac- 
counted to me as per his noate appeareth for 19. Soe 
there wants but one of this reckoning, but manie more are 
wanting to me of Dillingham's account which he said did 
dye and were killed by woolves &c. I doubt I must come 
to a Jury at Boston with Mr. Saltonstall at last, he con- 
fesseth he hath 100 li left of Dillinghams in his hands 
to satisfie me if neede be, and that there is almost as much 
more leyable to my satisfaction elswhere. Wee parted 
verie good freinds after all our debate of the buisines, soe 
for this tyme being over troublesome, with my service to 
your selfe and my good sister, I rest 

Your verie loving brother Em : Downinge. 

10. 1. 1640. 

My wife and sonne John present theire service now 
being all in health, blessed be God. 



To his Honourable brother John Winthrop, Governour. 

Sir, — I praise God my wife had a good day to retorne 
home, but yeasterday shee was as ill. Last night shee slept 
prety well, and is chearly this morning, the Good Lord 
open our eares to heare his rod speaking vnto vs. 

I thanke you hartily for the spade, Daniell playd the 
foole to aske yt, having enough to serve our tornes, yt was 
putt a shore, but in theire hast coming home, I suppose tis 
lost, for I cannot heare of yt. 

I haue not yet had tyme to speake with my wife scarce 
about my seuerall occassions in the Bay, as flax seed, hemp, 
Corne &c. which I must referr to the next, the boate being 
vnder Saile. Soe with harty thanks for your great and vn- 
deserued love vpon euerie torne manefesting yt selfe with 
my service to your selfe, my sister &c. I rest 

Your assured whilest I am Em : Downinge. 

15. 2. 


Sir, — I haue here in Salem a desire to match my sonne 
James to a maide that lives in Mr. Endicotts howse : hir 
sister is maryed here, who sayes the mayd was left to 
hir dispose by hir parents, but they dying intestate, the 
administration and tuition of the maide was by the Court 
comitted to Mr. Hathorne, Mr. Batter* and Goodman 
Scrugs,* and to helpe Mr. Endicott with some present 
monie, you wrote to Mr. Hathorne to putt hir to Mr. Endi- 
cott to board, who therevpon received 40^' aforehand for 
2 yeares. I haue moved Mr. Hathorne, and Mr. Batter 

* Prob:\bly Edmund Batter and Thomas Scruggs. — Eds. 


for my sonne, who are well pleased therewith. I purposed 
to haue acquaynted Mr. Endicott therewith, but that a 
freind in great secrecye told me that Mr. Batter had in my 
sonnes behalfe told yt to Mr. Endicott, and as Mr. Endi- 
cott said to my good freind Mr. Hathorne that he had the 
wholl dispose of the maid, and would provide a better 
match for hir, Mr. Hathorne answered him that they the 
ffeoffes were trusted with the person and the estate vntill 
the maid should be of yeares to dispose of hir selfe, which 
said he, that shee now was of full yeares to dispose of hir 
selfe, being past 16, for shee is about 17 yeares of age; 
then Mr. Endicott replyed that he would write to the 
Gouernour and your selfe about yt. Mr. Hathorne desires 
not to be knowne of this councell revealed to me &c. I 
should first haue advised with Mr. Endicott in this, but his 
freinds desired he should not yet be acquaynted therewith, 
nor now vntill I heare an answeare from yourselfe, and 
the Governour, that the Maide be left to hir owne dispose 
or the ffeoffees to whom before hir full age shee did ap- 
perteyne. I pray let me be beholding to you to acquaynt 
the Governour herewith with my humble dutye to him, 
that he may doe me right and answer Mr. Endicott with- 
out offence that the mayde is of full age, but I leaue the 
matter and manner myselfe and all to your better Judge- 
ment, submitting wholly to the will of God herein. I 
desire much to see the yssue hereof and to match some of 
my elder Children because some thinke me to blame that 
none of them are disposed of. I have provided a verie 
good match for my neice, Nab. Goade ; he is old Moulton 
his only sonne, a member of our Church, of 4 or 500^' 
estate: if my sonns buisines proceede I may about a moneth 
hence haue both couples maried on a day. 

I feared the losse of your accounts which my wife now 
hath found, being in hir custodye, I purpose now accord- 
ing to promise send in my next the abstract thereof, that 
you may vnderstand how yt is betweene vs. I pray let 



my Cosen Stephen take a receipt of Mr. Treasurrer vpon 
deliuerie of the 40 bushells of Corne for viij li in parte of 
the rate of Salem, for myne owne parte thereof comes to 
but Mi 10s. Soe with my humble service to yourselfe and 
my good sister I rest Your assured loving brother 

Em : Downinge. 

20. 11. 40. 


To his verie loving Cosen Mr. Peter at Boston dlr. 

My good Cosen, — Vnderstanding you were resolued 
to goe by water into the Bay or at least to the shippe, I 
sent my wife yeasterday with my cosens, purposing my 
selfe to haue accompanied you by water to the shippe, but 
though you haue altered your Course and prevented me 
and some others, yet shall my hart and prayers euer attend 
you, early and late, at sea and at land, in the Court and in 
the Countrie vntill you retorne againe vnto vs. Eemember 
my service to Mr. Weld and Mr. Hibbons, whom I had 
embraced on Shipboard, had you not thus stollen from vs. 

The Bishop caused a Quo Warranto to be sued forth in 
the King's Bench against our Patentees, thinking to damme 
our patent, and put a generall Gouernour ouer vs, but 
most of them that appeared I did advise to disclayme, 
which they might safely doe, being not sworne Magistrats 
to governe according to the patent ; and these Magistrats 
which doe governe among vs being the only parties to the 
patent were never summoned to appear, Therefore if 
there be a Judgement given against the patent, its false 
and erroneous and ought to be reversed, with a motion in 
the Kings benche without any long suite by writt of Error 
may set right againe. Farewell my deare Cosen, Soe 
wishing you a prosperous Jorney and safe retorne I rest 
yours assured whilest I am Em. Downinge. 

Salem 5th day morning. 



To his honored Cosen John Winthrop, Esqr. — [torn.] 

[A few lines destroyed.] ..... 

to be soe full [half a line defaced^ uld nothing further, or hinder 
your sale with them as the case stands. 

My sonne is not yet retorned from Ipswich whom T 
expect eurie [h]owre and soe haue done these 3 dayes ; If 
you goe for England before yt be done,* yet I will if God 
permitt pursue yt to the vtmost, and send per the next 
shippe, that you may receive your monie of his ffather. 

My deare and hartye beloved Cosen if I see you not 
before you goe, yet know you carry e my hart and true 
affections with you, and shall count eurie day three, vntill 
you re tome againe. Reade and seall if you can my Cosen 
Peters letter before you deliuer yt. Soe wishing you a 
prosperous Jorney and safe retorne I rest 

Your assured loving vnckle Em: Downinge. 

Salem 29 July, 1641. 


To his honored Cosen John Winthrop Esqr. at Tenhills. 

Ever honored Cosen, — I blesse God I cam safe to 
London ; where I founde a most miserable distracted state, 
as you will vnderstand by bookes and passengers ; I haue 
satisfied your Cosen Parkes concerning Roger and theire 
owne Children. 

I delivered your letter to Mris. Hill at the Mayden head 
in wood street, Mr. Hill was not at home, according 
my promise to hir I purpose to visit them some tymes. 
I dyned there to day in hope to haue mett hir husband. 

* John Winthrop, jr., sailed from Boston, Aug 3, with Peter, Welde, and Hibbins. — Eds. 


Shee thinks hir husband will not only release the debt 
but send you alsoe some comodityes for a portion to 
advance the elder mayde in marriadge. 

I haue spoken with Mr. Waring concerning the 2 
children and that he should release your debt towards 
your chardge about them, he seemed willing thereto, and 
said he would give order to Mr. Peters about yt, who is 
now in the Countrye. 

William Greenewood is dead. His sonne is come vp, 
whom I should haue mett this day vpon the Exchange, 
but I saw him not. Yts like wee may meet to morow 
and end the buisines. 

Since I began to write I heare that goodman Greenwood's 
sonne is gone into Suffolk, and meanes to come to me a 
week or fortnight hence. Mr. Vincent hath not yet re- 
solued what to do ; whither to take his monie or venture it 
in the Ironworks. Mr. Thomas Warner was glad to heare 
of your care to satisfie him with your Tobacco, and seing 
yt was not your fault, yt shall not trouble him to stay till 
we pay him here, which I purpose to doe if I can, other- 
wise he will stay till you send yt. 

Mr. Bond hath a mynde to the West Indyes, but is not 
resolved. He once wished his monie againe with some 
abatement, and when one of the Companie offred his monie, 
he refused yt. I haue not yet receiued in your bond, 
but shall haue yt. 

Dr. Child purposeth to come over with me, and writes 
by this shipp of all his owne affaires vnto you. 

If my wife desires 40s worth of Cloth let hir haue it or 
somewhat more. 

The vndertakers refuse to buy any land, vnles 2 or 3 
acres to build the works vpon. I pray therefore keepe 
Mr. Hutchinsons land for yourselfe or me, which I suppose 
wee may improve to good advantage. There is of your 
black leade sent into France and the lowe countries, when 
I heare thence I shall know what to doe. 


The Adventurers in the Iron works haue agreed with 
Mr. Leader to take care of theire works. You know the 
man. He lived in Ireland, He is a perfect Accountant, hath 
skill in mynes and tryall of mettalls, he hath covenanted 
to serve them 7 yeares, his wages is 100U per annum. He 
is to haue passadge for himselfe, his wife, 2 children, 3 
servants ; an howse to be built for him, and ground to be 
allowed him for his horses and a few cowes. His 100/i 
per annum begins the 25th of Marche next. When 
I perceiued they were resolved vpon him; and that yt 
would be noe advantage to you for me to haue expressed 
my dislike of theire way herein, but haue putt more Jea- 
losies into their heads of you ; and when they asked me 
what I thought thereof, I answeared that you had tra- 
vayied from East to West, from North to South, sparing 
noe costs or paynes for the discouerie of mynes and fitt 
places for the erecting of Ironworks ; and how you obteyned 
3000 acres of Boston, 1500 of Dorchester, wherein you haue 
deserued well from them, and that there wilbe great neede 
of your helpe though they send one never soe sufficient 
for the worke, whereto they replyed that they resolved to 
satisfie you for the tyme past, and to desire your assistance 
for tyme to come. Then I told them I was well assured, 
Mr. Leder should be a welcome man vnto you ; for at my 
coming thence you expressed your desire to me that my 
selfe or some other would vndertake the buisines ; then 
Mr. Leder told them that he would not medle with any 
undertaking of theire buisines without your free consent 
and contentment, for soe in private he had promised me 
to expresse himselfe before them all, which he performed 
verie honestly. Soe in the end wee concluded of a letter to 
be sent vnto you vnder all our hands in way of thankfulnes 
and engagement to give you satisfaction. I would haue 
you demaund noe lesse then 150U per annum for these 3 
yeares, because Mr. Folye told me when they were agree- 
ing with Mr. Leder, they would haue giuen him 150// per 


annum rather then to haue left him. And Mr. Folye said 
further that the first 2 or 3 yeares would be more change- 
able and paynfull then afterwards, and that there wilbe 
dayly expence in enterteyning of workemen & others, 
therefore if Mr. Leder had stood vpon yt, he might haue 
had 150^' per annum. Concerning your bills of exchange 
I deliuered only the bill of 1000Z&, whereof, as you may 
perceiue by theire letter, they entend to pay but 400Z&, and 
when they pay the monie they will haue a writing signed 
betweene vs, to this purpose, that yf you shall not haue 
laid out 400^' before our ship retornes, the rest is to be 
repaid to Mr. Leder for the works in monie, and if there 
shalbe more due to you vpon your account the same to be 
paid with forbearance. I haue sent you 100U worth of cloth 
per Mr. Graves with the bill of particulars and cockett 
hereinclosed, the chardges endorsed on the back of the bill. 
I hope if the Lord sent yt safe you may with good content 
make 30/rgayne; I spoke for as much lynen cloth to haue 
sent you by this ship, but the shipp was full laden before 
I could gett yt ready e. Soe with my seruice to your selfe 
and your good wife, he dayly prayes for you and yours 
who is and euer shalbe Your assured loving vnckle 
whilest I am Em: Downinge. 

London 25 ffebr. 1644. 

I have sent you 2 bills of loading, one for the Cloath, 
the other for a few things for my wife. I pray receive 
them out of the ship. The freight is paid. 


To his euer honored Cosen John Winthrop esqr at Ten hills nere 


My good Cosen, — I wrote you at lardge an account 
of your buisines per Mr. Willoby. I haue not yet receiued 
any monie for you. They haue promised the 400/& which 


I think they meane to pay shortly e, soe soone as they can 
gett yt togeather ; Mr. Weld and I were agreed soe soone 
as Mr. Graves shipp should be gone hence to cleare the 
Account with Maior Boorne, but I am prevented by his 
suddaine and vnexpected goeing away with Mr. Graves. 
Mr. Bourne tould vs that he would be ready to goe with 
vs in Mr. Andrewes shipp, soe that I much marveyled at 
his goeing with Mr. Graves, he having putt in his name 
to be an vndertaker in Mr. Andrewes shippe. If there 
shalbe any thing spoken or moved by him in the Court 
concerning the Account, I pray procure a stay thereof till 
I come, and soe for present I take leave and rest 

Your verie loving vnckle Em: Downinge. 

London this 3 of March 1644. 


To his euer honored Cosen John Winthrop Esqr. at Mistick nere 


Ever honored Cosen, — I wrote at lardge per Mr. 
Graves, which I hope you haue. before the date hereof. 
Therein I gave you to vnderstand, how the vndertakrs 
haue chosen one Mr. Leader to take care and oversee the 
Iron works. He was formerly imployed in Ireland about 
mynes ; They give 100^' per annum and beare the chardge 
of his wholl famyly over. They would haue given 150^' 
per annum to him rather then to haue left him ; they build 
him an howse; when I perceived they were resolued vpon 
him, they asked me what I thought of yt ; I answeared to 
this purpose, that you would willinglie consent to yt ; for 
as they would not neglect or slight, but acknowledge and 
requite your great care, paynes, and charges spent about 
the same, whereto they all fullie agreed, and soe wrote 
to you per Mr. Graves vnder all our hands. As then 


I wrote soe now I am of the same mynde that you may 
haue 150Z£ per annum allowed you, over and aboue your 
disbursements vntill Mr. Leader shalbe invested therein. 
Mr. Leader hath tryed your leade oare and fyndes yt to 
be a silver myne, therefore I am resolued not to sell any 
parte thereof. 

I haue a friend preparing to come over with me, who 
doth resolve to make a plantation by your myne, who hath 
monie enough, and purposeth to improve some therein. 

I referre you to my friends letter for all your other 
buisines; The people generallie here now begyn to dis- 
realishe the West Indyes (as I wrote to your ffather) and 
torne their e faces towards New England which is in 
better creditt among all sorts and degrees then yt hath 
ben for some yeares past. Manie ministers now begyn 
againe to pray publicklye for yt. 

The 20th of this moneth our shipp is to sett sayle, 
the Good Lord graunt vs a prosperous passadge. Soe for 
present with my loue to yourselfe your wife and yours I 
rest Your loving vnckle Em. Downinge. 

London 5 May 1645. 

7o Maij 1645. 

This morning being at the Parliament howse I mett 
with my freind mentioned in this letter who desires to 
plant nere your myne, who told me he could not be 
ready to goe soe soone as our shipp ; but tould me, he 
entended to hire a shipp for himselfe and famyly soe 
soone as he should gett readye. 


To his ever honored brother John Winthrop Esqr at Boston. 

Sir, — I hartylye thank you for your kynde letter and 
the newes therein. 


A warr with the Narraganset is verie considerable to 
this plantation, ffor I doubt whither yt be not synne in vs, 
hauing power in our hands, to suffer them to maynteyne 
the worship of the devill which theire paw wawes 
often doe ; 21ie, If vpon a Just warre the Lord should 
deliuer them into our hands, wee might easily haue men 
woemen and children enough to exchange for Mo ores, 
which wilbe more gaynefull pilladge for vs then wee 
conceive, for I doe not see how wee can thrive vntill 
wee gett into a stock of slaves sufficient to doe all our 
buisines, for our children's children will hardly see this 
great Continent filled with people, soe that our servants 
will still desire freedome to plant for them selues, and not 
stay but for verie great wages. And I suppose you know 
verie well how wee shall maynteyne 20 Moores cheaper 
then one Englishe servant. 

The ships that shall bring Moores may come home 
laden with salt which may beare most of the chardge, 
if not all of yt. But I marvayle Conecticott should any 
wayes hasard a warre without your advise, which they 
cannot maynteyne without your helpe. 

My wife hath ben pretilye of late, I wishe shee makes 
hir selfe not sick againe by trying new conclusions. I 
pray hasten hir retorne, yt being the buisyest tyme of the 
wholl yeare, for hay and harvest are both in hand, whereby 
shee hath occasion of often riding, which I suppose the 
best phisick for hir. Soe with my service to your selfe, my 
Sister &c. I rest, Yours assured 

Em: Downinge. 

I pray remember my service to the Gouernor.* 

* The date of this letter was probably during the summer of 1645, when Dudley was 
Governor, and when there was danger of a war with the Narragansetts. — Eds. 



To his ever honored brother John Winthrop esqr Deputie Governour. 

Sir, — I retorne you manie thanks for your kinde letter 
and newes. The Generall said, himselfe would retorne 
thanks in his letter. Mr. Norrice prayed me to remember 
his service and love to you for the same. I haue neither 
newes nor buisines to fill vp my letter. 

ffor want of other matter give me leave to tell you 
how our towne is much troubled for the putting out 
of theire old Captane, wherevpon a day was appoynted by 
Captane Hauthorne for a new choyce at which tyme the 
old Captane was chosen againe haueing almost 20 votes 
more then the new. Both wilbe presented to the Court. 

I am sorrye to heare of the continewance of the conta- 
gious sicknes about you. I thank God wee are in health 
here. The good Lord grant vs to vnderstand his mynde 
thereby. Mr. Broadstreet is about to setle his habitation 
with vs, at Salem ; and to imploy his stock in trading here. 
Soe with my wives and my service to your selfe and my 
sister with our love to my Cosens I am 

Your verie loving brother Em: Downinge. 

Salem 23. 2. 46. 

27o. 2. 

This drought attributed to the blood vpon the countrie 
shed of the French. 

Mr. Norris sollicited by our Easterne ministers and some 
others to vrge for Justice therein, that syn may be taken 
of the Land, as Mr. Sharpe enformed me this afternoone 
before Mr. Hathorne and some other of our towne, and 
alsoe that Mr. Norrice should intimate God's displeasure 
for yt against Maior Gibbons and Captane Haukins in 
theire seuerall losses. I satisfied Mr. Sharpe fullie 
therein, that there was no syn vpon the Country in that 
action, who this euening in private entreated me to goe 


to Mr. Norrice about yt, because he thought him to be 
in an error as himselfe was. When I had cleared the 
mayne, one obiected our mens marching vnder our Colors, 
I answeared yt was not done with warrant hence, 2d ob: 
was your letter to Done, I answeared that it was noe 
Comission for our men to wrong Done but to demand 
our right. 3d ob: Done was offended thereat. Ans. yts 
ordinarie for men to pretend offences when they ought, 
and will not make restitution. My answeares to the mayne 
I omitt because this paper is to litle. 

Please you to send the wyne per my brother Browne. 

I pray Sir tell goodman Nickerson I intreat him to 
send me a pound of whalebone by the first he can. 


Ever honored Sir, — I cam home last night out of Suf- 
folke where I left our freinds well, where I found Mr. 
Leight dwelling in the howse you sould Mr. Warren ; yts 
much ruinous and falne to decay. He sayth that he in- 
tends to gett lycence to pull downe halfe of yt to repayre 
the rest. My brother Gostlin is much broken, but my sis- 
ter lookes fatt and lusty ; they desire to be remembred vnto 
you, soe doe our freinds at Layes and Cox hall. I mett 
with Colonell Mildmay vpon the way who inquired verie 
earnestly after you. Mrs. Bacon of Shrublin is dead, hir 
2 Sonns Nath : & Francis are of Parliament. 

A Colonell being a Justice in Kent, there was an Indite- 
ment read against him for stealing 2 horses : the Colonell 
said, is there such a knave of my name ] not dreaming yt 
was against himselfe ; being a Comittee man, and a Colo- 
nell in the Kentish troubles, he tooke the 2 horses from a 
malignant for the Parliaments service. The Judge stayed 
the proceedings. The Parliament hath torned out Sir 


Chidly out of Comission for perswading the party to pre- 
ferr the bill. I pray remember my service to Mr. Dudly 
and lett him see the paper inclosed and then send yt to 
my wife. Soe with my service to yourselfe, my sister and 
yours, I am Your loving brother 

Em : Downinge. 

4. 3. 47. 

To his ever honored Cosen John Winthrop, Esqr. at Pequoyt dl. 

Sir, — I hope you are soe well setled in your occasions 
there, as to begyn to think now of visiting your freinds in 
the Bay, the merchants at Salem are sory you accepted 
not theire propositions for the making of salt ; the Good 
Lord direct you in that way as may be most comfortable 
to your selfe and profitable to his people. 

The witche is condemned, and to be hanged to-morrow, 
being Lecture Day. A woeman of Exeter caryed some 
catle to Dover to buy Corne, who with hir Corne received 
3/ in monie for hir catle, and in hir returne to Exeter was 
murthered and hir monie taken away ; yts not yet knowne 
who did yt ; your freinds here are all, blessed be God, in 
good health ; soe with my wives and my love to your selfe 
my good Cosen and all yours I take leave and am 

Your verie loving vnckle Em : Downinge. 

Boston 13. 4. 48. 

I have even now sold my horse to James Oliver for 10/ 
to purchase the still, I pray remember me about the Ger- 
man receipt for making strong water with rye meall with- 
out maulting of the Corne, I pray keepe a copie, in Case 
the noate you send me should miscarye. Vale. 



To his euer honered Cosen John Winthrop Esqr. at Pequoyte. 

Sir, — I am verie sorye to see how you are vsed by your 
man James, for whose cariadge I referr you to Mris. Lake: 
such servants will so one wayst all you haue. I pray take 
yt into dew consideration. I hope you will not loose 
tyme in erecting a salt worke there, you neede not feare 
vent here for yt. I pray send me, by the first safe con- 
veyance, the tymbers with the price, for which I shall 
reterne your pay in strong water, and soe for present I 
take leave and am Your loving vnckle 

Em: Downinge. 

20. 4. 48. 


To his honored bi^other John Winthrop esqr Governour, Boston. 

Sir, — I expected to haue seene you, in your way to 
Ipswich, when my long looking for your coming lost me 
my dynner. I doe now desire to heare how you bore your 
stormy jorney homwards. 

I want the last Grant of the Court to Mr. Humphries 
of Cosen W. fearme ; I am now in hope to haue the 
howse there repayred before winter, but am not yet fitted 
with a man to my mynde to dwell there, but not out of 
hope to haue one against the Spring, as I wrote to you 
per goodman Gigles, which letter cam back to me againe 
when you were at Ipswich. 

I am now fullie furnished for my stilling buisines ; and 
doe purpose the 3d. or 4th day next to send an horse for 
goodman Toy : if he comes not the 2d. day, I pray send 
for him, and I hope he shall not need much intreating to 
come, seeing yt was his owne offer, with a desire to see 


some books I haue about stilling, the which I shall shew 
vnto him. Soe for present with my wives and my service 
to your selfe and sister I take leave and am 

Your verie loving brother Em: Downinge. 

Salem 29, 7, 48. 


To his honored brother John Winthrop Esqr Governour. 

Sir, — The verdict passing for Farrington he hath Judge- 
ment ffor Stones meadow and 50s 4d costs with the hay 
standing vpon the ground, the which I must forth with 
pay, and shall desire to haue yt repayd to me in Boston. 
This tryall and judgement must begitt a new law in N. E. 
that henceforth noe mans land shalbe recouered from the 
possessor without sufficient warning for the producing his 
evidence, which I hope wilbe cleared, before the next 
Court. Its the [torn] meadow of the fearme conteyning 
about 40 acr[es.] [*»*»] hereof when I come to Boston. 

I haue proceeded soe farr with Mr. Norton concerning] 
my daughter Luice that wee are agreed vpon [*»■»] portion, 
and am satisfied from the minister about the obiections 
made against him : he would haue gone for England this 
yeare, and will yet goe, if he shall see noe hope of gayn- 
ing hir love : the minister informes me that his brother is 
verie ply ant to him in all things, and that there is great 
expectation from help of freinds, having 3 vnckles in Lon- 
don childles, 2 of them haue fyned for Aldermen:* he hath 
a brother who writes (the letter I read) that he will send 
him 500 or lOOO/i worth of goods yearly and beare the 
adventure to and fro. The benefitt his London brother 
aymes at is to haue retornes made to Barbados to supply 
his sugar workmen. I pray incouradge my daughter herein, 

* An old law required persons who refused to serve as aldermen to pay a fine. — Eds. 


for I suppose shee will not haue such a preferment (if this 
fayle) in N. E. Soe for present with my service I take 
leave and am Your verie loving brother 

Em : Downinge. 

15. 10. 48. 


To his honored Cosen John Winthrop, Esqr. at Pequoyt. 

Ever honored Cosen, — I am joyfull to heare of your 
health, but more glad to heare you would retorne and setle 
here, and not to burye your talents in those obscure parts. 

I am advised not to send your salt pan to Boston, but to 
send it to you in some Catche that goes thither in the 
spring. Goodman Birt with some other of his neighbours 
of Lyn are about to sett vp a salt worke at Nahant. Mr. 
Leder hath cast your pans. Our merchants are where 
they were, standing to that they offred vnto you. 

I haue wrought in stilling these 3 moneths, the water I 
mak is desired more & rather then the best spirits they 
bring from London. 

My wife writes the newes. My service to your selfe, 
your wife, my Cosen Lake, you and yours, I take leave 
and am Your verie loving unckle Em : Downinge. 

17. 10. 48. 


ffor the Governour. 

Sir, — The Farringtons of Lyn the last weeke did 
warne my late tenant, goodman Southwick, about the 
hay he cut at the Ponds, to answeare yt before the Major 
who referred it to a try all at Salem Court, which was 
yeasterday. I told the Majo^ I had not warning sufficient 


to defend the title of the land, in regard the question was 
about Stone's meadoe, the Farringtons calling one barren 
place by that name, and wee an other which is verie good. 
Goodman Stone of Nantascott, of whom the place tooke 
yts name can cleare yt, whom I could not possiblie haue 
here by that tyme : soe I offred the Court to secure the 
playntiff's damages if he should recover the land by a try- 
all next Court ; but the playntiff would not forbeare his 
tryall, soe he produced his witnesses, who affirmed the 
barren meadoe to be Stone's meadoe, and the other though 
nerer the Pond yet above a mile from yt. The Jury hath 
yt now in chardge. I excepted against the Jury men of 
Lyn as parties : what the yssue wil be T shall know this day. 
The contents of the land is about 30 or 40 acres. You 
shall heare more, God willing, shortly: soe for present with 
my service to your selfe, sister, & Cosen Adam, I take 
leave and am Your loving brother 

Em. Down inge. 

27. 10. 48. 

The Court told the plaintife this tryall could not end 
the buisines, but begitt an other suite and tryall. 


To his honored brother John Winthrop esqr. Gouernor. 

Sir, — this day Mr. Norton (who preached here 
yeasterday) is retorned to Ipswich. He cam to make vp 
the bargaine for his brother, with my daughter : wee 
haue received fayre answeares to the manie obiections 
made against him, there was noe mention of any letter 
from Boston. After full hearing, my wife, my daughter 
and my selfe consented freely to proceed, vnles within a 
few dayes vpon further light wee should haue just matter 


presented to give cause to breake of. The Good Lord 
direct vs. I haue sent my daughter to supply my sisters 
want for present. Mr. Norton desires hir speedy returne, 
but I referr hir to my sisters occasions for her longer or 
shorter stay there. 

I make litle doubt of sufficient testymonie to recover 
my Cosens meadow, yet I pray send me goodman Stones 
testymonie or procure him to come over and view the 
place and then to leave his testymonie. Your strong 
water shall not I hope be the lesse for yts long stay. 

Many here question the truth of the reports about 
Collonell R. 

I hope my Cosen Adam wilbe better advised then to 
goe in this shipp for Plymouth, his danger may be more, 
thence to London, then from hence, &c. Soe for present 
with my service to your selfe and my sister I take leave 
and am your verie loving brother Em. Downinge. 

22. 11. 48. 


Sir, — According your direction I haue advised with 
Mr. Endicott & some others about Mr. Pesler with whom 
I am rather encouradged to proceede then to breake of, 
but Mr. Hathorne tells me from the Elders of the Bay 
that it wilbe a scandall to marry my daughter to such a 
man that hath noe religion, he sayth that I was stayned 
in poynt of coveteousnes in Mr. Cooks buisines, for 
demanding my monie before it was dew ; (wherein Mr. 
Sheapheard having the papers I sent may doe me right.) 
And now in this match, yt wilbe confirmed in theire 
opinions that I preferr the world above all, which is farr 
contrarie to my desire and resolution, 

Its well knowne how my daughter hath lost fayre op- 
portunitves, and in those tymes when I had monie at will, 



to haue spared hir, whereof shee is now verie sensible, 
and feares that if shee should refuse Mr. Pesler shee may 
stay long ere shee meet with a better, vnles I had more 
monie for hir then now I can spare. I pray afoard me 
your councell herein: 

Mr. Norris preached here last Saboth to the well likeing 
of most, some few only founde fault with the weaknes of 
his voyce. I am in some hope to haue him setle with vs. 
I heare now my Cow is reasonable well. I pray let hir be 
sold with the Calfe. I could sell hir if shee were here, 
but I had rather doe yt there to pay you. I doe want 10 
bushells of Rye for seede, which I would so we 3 weeks or 
a moneth hence at farthest, for which I must entreat you 
to lett me haue yt. I entend to send sacks or casks for yt. 
Soe for present I rest yours assured — Em: Downinge. 

To his honored Cosen John Winthrop esqr at Boston. 

Ever honored Cosen, — I doe condole with you for 
the losse of our Governour,* which lyes soe heavy on my 
hart as I know not how to remove yt. The day I had 
appoynted to visit him, I fell sick of a feever: I am 
through mercye in bodyly health, but not fitt to travaile. 
I haue manie things to speak to you, which I cannot 
write at present, my wife and I hope to see you at Salem 
before your retorne ; in confidence whereof I conclude 
abruptly and shall euer be your assured loving vnckle 
whilest I am Em: Downinge. 

Salem 6. 2. 49. 

[Postscript, in the handwriting of Lucy Downing, wife of Emanuel.] 

Dear Sir, — Goe not backe so long a voyage till wee 
haue the happines to see you, and hear howe all att 

* Gov. Winthrop died 26th March, 1649. His son came from Connecticut to attend his 
funeral, which took place on the 3d of April. — Eds. 


Pecoite. I hope you haue had 2 letters from me since 
you went and that was all, in respect I heard not from you. 
I will promis my selfe you will come. Sir, my seruis to 
my sister and cosens I pray, and intreat you to bring 
what in the note in your pocket. If my cosen Adam or 
your selfe meet with anny writings of mine I desire they 
maye be keept safe. 


Sir, — I thank you for letter by John Conklin the bearer 
hereof, who can informe you of our condition here, wee haue 
had a mild winter vntill the begynning of the 11th month : 
and then fell snow vpon snowe which lay till the later end 
of the first month : and then a pleasant and noe backward 
spring. 2 ships come one from Dartmouth, the other from 
Bristoe ; they bring newes, how the Prince was preparing 
to goe for Ireland, where Ormond and Inchequyn were 
Masters of the ffeild and lay with 25000 men betwene 
Dublin and Tredath, dayly threatening to storme Dublin, 
wherein was Collonell Jones with 5000 men, who yssuying 
out, not purposing to charge vpon the wholl army, was 
ingaged before he was aware, tooke 5000 prisoners, slew 
manie and overthrew theire wholl army: the Prince hear- 
ing this went for France and thence for Holland, is now at 
Breda. After this Cromwell went to Dublin, thence to Tre- 
dath where he lost manie men, but at last took it by 
storming, and putt all to the sword, but 200 who in a fort 
had quarter, thence he went to Wexford, took it and putt 
most of them to the sword, left Collonell Cooke there 
Governour, (late of Cambridge). Ireland is almost wholly 
subdued. I suppose Mr. Leadder will hardly retorne 

The Parliament hath made proclamation to pay their 
Soldiers all areares as haue ben imployed, as well as those 


in this present army, with the Kings lands ; which is a 
notable policy to quyet the land. 

Your ffather Peters is a Collonell and Governour of 
Milford Haven. Prince Rupert is in the streights in way 
of piracy. 

Noe certeynty of any forreigne enemy to trouble Eng- 
land. The Parliaments fleet keeps the Seas cleare. 

Soe in hope to see you here shortly, we being all in 
health, with my love and service to your selfe, wife, sister 
Lake, my Cosen Elsabeth, Fits &c. 

I take leave and am yOUrS [Signature destroyed.'] 

Salem 29, 2. 50. 


To his ever honored Cosen John Winthrop Esqr at Pequoyte, dlr. 

Sir, — I am glad to heare of your health and welfare. 
I blesse God wee are in health here and soe be our freinds 
at Boston. Mr. Rogers of Rowly hath last weeke buryed 
his wife and childe within a few dayes after shee was 
brought to bed. I suppose you haue heard how Mr. 
Leddar hath left the Iron works, and lives at present in 
Boston, he is about erecting a saw mill at a place nere 
Pascattaway that shall work with nere 20 sawes at once. 
Here is one Jeffries come in Mr. Leddars place, he was 
heretofore maior Gibbons man, he hath bin these 4 or 5 
yeares past imployed in England as Clark to an Iron worke. 

Wee heare that Mr. Damport and Mr. Eaton are goeing 
for England. I cannot give much creditt thereto, I hope 
you will not resolve to goe before you give your freinds a 
visit here. Boston hath given Mr. Eaton a call to sett 
downe with them. 

You heare how Major Gibbons will not be perswaded 
to be a Magistrate. 

My sonne George hath sent a letter to his mother 
wherein he mentions 2 letters sent before, which I haue 


not received ; in this letter he writes not a word of my buisi- 
nes. I heare by divers, of his purchase of 2 or 300/ per 
annum ; my Sonne Norton saw the last payment at Mr. 
Winslows chamber. There be divers which talk of remov- 
ing hence to your plantation, whereof some though meane 
in estate, yet vsefull working men. Soe with my love to my 
Cosen Lake and yours, and myne and my daughter Nortons 
and hir husband's service to yourselfe and your good wife, 
I take leave and shall ever be whilest I am 

Your verie loving vnckle Em : Downinge. 

My service to Mr. Blynman & his wife ; his Church at 
Gloster is calling Captane Perkins into office. 

Salem 24, 12 mo. 1650. 


To his ever honored Cosen John Winthrop Esq at Pequoite. 

Honored Sir, — I suppose you haue heard the good 
newes out of England long ere this, how the Scotts King 
marched into England with 22000 as farr as Worster 
without any opposition. Massy his generall assured the 
king that all England would come vnto him, but he was 
refused entrance vntill he cam to Worster, by all the 
townes he cam by: the Scotts army was not increased above 
5 or 6000 by all the Englishe that repayred vnto him ; 
Collonell Monck surprised all his treasure (in Scotland) 
which he had provided to carye with him for the payment 
of his army, and with yt tooke old Lesley and divers other 
principall men : When the King cam to Glocester where 
Massy had ben Governour, the King sent to the Governour 
to surrender to him with great promises of preferment, the 
Governour sends answeare and directs yt to him not as 
King but Commander in Cheife of the Scotts army and 
tells him he was better principled then to be traytor to the 
Parliament who had intrusted him, Generall Cromwell 


writes that at the taking of Worster, there was 4 howres 
as hard dispute as ever he mett with, In this fight 
Massy was slayne,* the King threw away his George, starr 
& garter, and tied as a comon Soldjer, is gott into France 
where he found cold enterteynment. Worster was given 
to the soldjer s to plunder, most of the army was taken or 
slayne, Earle of Darby beheaded, Earle of Cleavland and 
manie more lords in prison, Scotland submitts, the Lord St. 
Johns, Sir Henery Vane, Collonells Lamberton, Harrison, 
Deane and my sonnef in October last were sent into Scot- 
land to setle it (as Wales is). The records of Scotland 
are sent to the Tower of London, There is an act past 
for the keeping of the 3d of 7ber a day of thanksgiving 
for ever, for the victory of Worster that day, and the great 
victory at Dunbar that day 12 month, where George re- 
ceived 3 great wounds on his arme besides others but is 
well againe. There is an act to punishe all heresyes with 
death that rase foundations, and all Anabaptists to be 
banished, and if they retorne to England to be hanged 
vnles they recant. 

At Lyn here is good store of salt made. They prepare 
their liquor in woodden pans as I am informed. I thinke 
long to see yt. George writes my buisines is not yet done, 
neither could he stay to effect yt, thus with my wives and 
my service to yourselfe wife and Cosens Mr. Blynman 
and his wife I rest and am your loving unckle 

Em: Downinge. 

Salem 7 of 1 mo. 51. 


To his euer honered Cosen John Winthrop Esqr, at Pequyt. 

Euer honored Cosen, — I am sorry for occasion of sad 
tydings hence vnto you, but I suppose these will not be 

* Massy was not slain, as it proved, though badly wounded. — Eds. 
t Sir George Downing. — Eds. 


the first intelligence thereof. Yeasterday your brother 
Adam Winthrop was buryed, who dyed the third day 
before, hauing layne sick flue or six dayes, but in such 
manner as neither himselfe nor any freind about him sus- 
pected his death scarce halfe an howre before he departed, 
who neither made will nor gave any word of directions 
concerning his estate though in perfect memorie, and wise 
men about him, he dying in the Elders armes. His wife 
and others your nere relations here doe earnestly entreat 
your speedy repayre hither, because the ordering of the 
buisines about his wife, child, and the rest is refered to 
your coming. Soe with my wives, the widowes and my 
service to yourselfe your wife, Mris. Lake, my cosens &c. 
I take leave and am Your loving vnckle 

Boston 28 of the 6th month 1652. Em .* DoWNINGE. 


To his honored Cosen John Winthrop esq. at Pequoit. 

Deare Sir, — I wrote this winter to you with letters 
therein inclosed to my Cosen Mountagew ; I directed them 
to Amos Richardson to be sent vnto you. There were 
letters alsoe from Mr. Peters to your selfe who invites you 
to retorne to England, and writes that if my wife will 
retorne shee shalbe as welcome to him as to hir owne 
childe. George hath putt Joshua into a Customes place 
in Scotland. I haue had noe letters from Joshua, nor any 
from George in answeare to any thing I wrote to him: 
he wrote a short loving letter to my wife, and excuseth 
his not sending any thing to hir in regard of the troubles 
at Sea. Scotland is quiet. The Dutch haue proclaymed 
warr with England, with whom there have ben divers Sea 
fights, and in everie of them the Dutch haue ben worsted. 
The Spaynyard hath by the belpe of the English regayned 


Dunkirke, Cardinall Maseryne hath left the French Court 
and is re tyred to the boarders, yet France continues still 
on tire. Ensigne Dixie, as I wrote, sayth your pan is not 
worth the double loading and vnloading, and therefore 
adviseth John Gallop to come to Salem and receive yt 
there, but if I can prevaile yt shalbe sent to Boston, 
where Mr. Norton is like to succede in Mr. Cottons 

I suspect George would haue vs retorne, and putts 
Mr. Peters vpon the invitation, Thus with my love 
and service to yourselfe, wife, children, cosen Lake and 
honest Mr. Blynman and his good wife, I take leave 
and am Your loving vnckle Em : Downinge. 

Salem 15 of the first mo. 52. 


To his much honored Cosen John Winthrop Esqr. at Pequoite. 

Ever honored Cosen, — When I vnderstood that John 
Gallop was come to Boston, I went to the Iron works and 
told goodman Jenks of the present opportunitye to send 
your sawes, who told me he had twoe ready which he 
would send you : those I hope you haue received, but I 
could not procure your Iron pan to be sent to Boston as 
was desired, though often promised to haue yt conveyed 
thither : at last Dixie said that your best way to haue 
your pan is to appoynt the vessell to take yt in here that 
should carrye yt to Pequoit, which will prevent trouble and 
hasard of spoyling your pan in lying vpon any wharf e- at 
Boston, and it might be shipt and vnshipt againe, whereas 
once shipping it will serve if your vessell call for it. 

Mr. Norton of Ipswich is like to be removed to supply 
Mr. Cottons place, Boston hath called him, Ipswich re- 
fuseth. The matter is referred to six Churches, 3 chosen 


for Boston, 3 for Ipswich; there be chosen for Boston, 
Salem, Cambridge, and Dorchester ; ffor Ipswich, Lyn, 
Newbery, and Dedham ; the next fourth day they meet at 
Ipswich to end the difference. 

I suppose you haue heard the report of Mr. Yong laden 
from your parts to the West Indyes to be taken by Prince 
Rupart ; yts probable but not certeyne, I say probable be- 
cause Eupart is in these parts whither he was bound. 

The Dutch haue proclaymed warr against England, 
manie fights haue ben at sea between them, and in all 
of them the Dutch haue ben worsted ; Mr. Winsloe writes 
that the State of England expects wee should deall with 
the Dutch here as enemyes. Collonell Lamberton was 
appoyntecl to be Deputy of Ireland, made preparations 
for yt, but, (in the interim) Collonell Charles Fleetwood 
marrieth Ire ton's widow, Generall Cromwells daughter, 
where vppon Fleetwood is appoynted Deputye, to the great 
discontent of manie that should haue gone with Lamberton. 
There is noe considerable force with the rebells of Ireland 
or Scotland. 

I heare nothing from George nor Joshua about my 
buisines. Mr. Peters writes that George doth well to 
wonder, I suppose he meanes wonderfull well. He writes 
for your family to goe over, and writes that my wife shalbe 
as welcome to him as to hir owne sonne. Soe with my 
love and service to your selfe, wife, children, and Mris. Lake 
I take leave and am 

Your loving vnckle Em : Downinge. 

Salem 14. 12. 1652. 

My Service to Mr. Blynman & his wife. 


Sir, — My last were by Amos Richardson concerning 
Pottashes &c. you know her^ growes a weed verie plenti- 



fullie in these parts which produceth indico as good as that 
which comes from the East Indyes, being farr better then the 
west Indy indico, wee can perceive noe difference betwene 
the weed which growes here and that of Barbados but only 
in the colour of the flowers, Some haue mad tryall of it 
here, but with much more labour then there needs, for after 
they had steeped it in water, they beated with staves vntill 
it thickned, whereas an instrument made like a west- 
country churne would with, ease effect yt. If the weed 
growes there as it doth here you may make a buisines of it 
to good account, if [it] growes not there or not soe plenti- 
fullie as to maynteyne a worke, you may easily procure 
seed from Barbados or hence to begynne the buisines. 
This bearer goodman Raymond was verie desirous to 
haue a letter, which forced me to study some thing to 
forme a letter of. Soe for present with my wives and 
my love and service to yourselfe, wife, sister Lake, Mr. 
Blynman and his wife and all yours, I take leave and am 
Your loving vnckle Em : Downinge. 

Noe certeyne newes out of England, but by flying reports 
from Virginea that the Dutch lost 30 saile of merchants 
and 10 men of war on Goodwin sands, and that there is 
hope of peace because there was a comand to all Sea men 
not to medle with the Dutch vntill further directions. 

Salem 13. 1. 53. 

Indigo. The receipt for making of Indigo. — 1 or 2 houres 
after the herb is cutt, lay it in a fatt, presse it downe hard 
with a beame over cross barres that aire may come to it 
till it worke & raise the barrs, let it lye 24 houres, then 
fill the fatt halfe full of water till the weede rott in the 
water, vsually in 24 houres, then fill the fatt full. So 
lett it stand vntill it come to a coulor within 3 daies tyme 
the weede vnrotted take out lett the rest stand 24 houres 


more then stirre it that it may all runne out into an other 
fatt : then beate it & poure it in & out with bucketts & 
that incessantly, till it come to one perfect coulor, lett it 
then settle, make then a tap to draw forth all the thin 
water, then take vp the bottom remaining into baggs that 
will hold 5 pound weight, made of strong canvasse with 
an hoope on the top, & then a stick acrosse, by which 
hang it in a house & save the droppings, which will make 
a good Coulor (so the first drawne water a reasonable 
coulor) in an houres tyme the water will all dropp out 
of the bagge, then take the remaining Indico into boxes, 
in which lay the Indico some 3 fingers thick, which set in 
the sunne & let them candy (else in an oven or stove to 
dry temperately not in hast,) then whilest it is drying slice 
it with a knife. Memo : the vine cotton like to grow heere.* 


To his much honored Cosen John Winthrop att Pequote. 

Honored Cosen, — I suppose you haue heard of the 
taking of St. Johns, Port royall, and Penobscott from the 
French by Maior Sedgewick, Portroyall only made a litle 
resistance, where 2 men of ours were slayne and fowre 
French men whereof one was theire cheife Preist. There 
was a shipp lately arived from France which the soldiers 
plundered, yt had 16 great guns which Gene rail Sedge- 
wick tooke into his owne ships, and gave the shipp to 
the French to carye them home, there was found among 
the Preists clothes a manuscript contayning the rules of 
theire government, which are more divilishe then Machi- 

Here is newes come from Newfoundland that the 

* The above is in the handwriting of John Winthrop, Jr., the Governor of Connecticut; 
and was found in the letter of Downing, dated 13. 1. '53. — Eds. 


State of England sent a fleet to surprise the French at 
Canada, but because the yeare was fair spent they retorned 
with resolution to come early in the Spring, the newes alsoe 
is that warrs are proclaymed with France, here be shipps 
expected dayly out of England who will bring the truth 
of it. 

I should haue ben glad to haue seene you here this 
sommer. I am now purposed God willing to goe for Eng- 
land with Generall Sedgewick, which wilbe within these 
2 moneths at furthest if not sooner ; if I could I would 
make a iorny of purpose to see you, vnles you write to 
Captaine Cane to prevent it, I may haue much trouble 
about the subscription for the Iron works. Your freinds 
are all well at Salem, the which I pray for with you. Soe 
with my love and service to your selfe, your wife, Mr. Blyn- 
man & his wife, Mris. Lake and your daughters I take 
leave and rest Your loving unckle whilest I am 

Em : Downinge. 

Boston 25th of 7ber 1654. 


My good Cosen, — I am glad Providence hath brought 
you safe into these parts, and shall reioyce to haue your 
companie here and if you meet not with imployment there, 
my advise is when the season will permitt, that you come 
downe hither. I know your vnkle Reade wilbe glad to see 
you and verie ready to helpe your accomodation. I cease 
further trouble only to tell I am Your loving vnckle 

Em : Downinge. 

Edenbr. 2 ffebr. '57. 

* Fitz John Winthrop, the eldest son of John Winthrop, Jr., had gone over to England 
to seek service in the civil wars. He soon obtained a commission as lieutenant, and after- 
wards as captain, in the regiment commanded by his mother's brother, Col. Thomas Reade, 
who was Governor of Stirling Castle. — Eds. 



ffor The honoured John Winthorpe Esqr, Governour att Connecti- 
con. In New england — These. 

Sir, — I would be very glad to hear from your self of 
the health and wellfare of you and yours, and more should 
I rejoyce to enjoy your companie, if Provydence should 
so order it. Your Aunt and Cousin Martha are better 
affected with Scotland then I expected. Wee are heer in 
a comfortable way both for the meanes of grace, and for 
the outward man. But for Newes at this distance from the 
Court I can wrytt you nothing, but what you may hear from 
better hands thence. The great talk heer at present is of 
the King of Swedens, who taking advantage of this late 
frost, the like wherof haue not been since the memory of 
man, carried his Army over and subdued the principle parts 
of Denmark, and possest himself of the Island, wherby he 
hath the one half of the benefeit of the passage th[rough] 
the sound, and hath confined the King of Denma[rk] to 
his Northern parts of his Cuntry and layed a fyne vpon 
him of Two hundred and fyftie thousand pounds, and to 
give satisfaction to his father in law, the Duke of Holstein 
for all his damnagis, his cuntry being the seate of war. 
And further to allow the King of Swedens four Regiments 
of horse and foot and free quarters for his Army vntil May. 
I know you will haue a more compleit account of the Newes 
hence by your sonn and brother f then I can affoord you. 
Therefore I cease from further trouble only to tell I am 
Your Loveing Vncle 

Eman : Downing. 

Edinburgh the 27th of March 1658. 

* Downing seems to have employed an amanuensis 'n writing this letter. — Eds. 

f The brother here mentioned was Col. Stephen Winthrop, son of the elder John Win- 
throp, who commanded a regiment in the ci.'il wars, and was a member of one of Crom- 
well's parliaments (1656), for Bamff and Aberdeen. — Eds. 


ffor Mr. Winthrop att Sterling. 

My good Cosen, — I am glad yt pleaseth our heavenly 
father to continew your health in these Northern parts ; 
yts a blessing which calleth for thanks to heaven, for 
manie haue mett with much sicknes vppon the change 
of the ay re. 

You haue noe cause to be troubled about your buisi- 
nes for that its not retorned according the tyme you 
expected the same, for his highnes hath ben verie sick 
and is now prety well againe, and I hope shortly will 
fall to dispatch buisines : and w^hereas you desire my 
counsell, I must tell you that you haue great cause to 
blesse God, who hath vnited your vnckles hart vnto you, 
who is resolved to make it his buisines to setle you in a 
way of preferment, therefore let me advise you to acquiesce 
in him, and him alone vnder God : as for your other place 
intreat your vnckle to write to your Maior for further 
tyme ; but the truth is, I conceive it not worth the while 
whither you hold the intended place or noe, and not 
worth the spending the favour of a freind for it, I cease 
further trouble only to tell I am 

Your loving vnckle 

Em : Downinge. 

Your Aunt remembers her love to you, your Aunt and 

From Edinborough, the 6th of September. 1658. 



ffor his Loving Nephew Livt Phitts-John Winthrope, at Sterling. 

Loving Cosen, — I am glad to heare you are well and in 
health, and of the health of your vncle and Aunt and Cosens. 
Pray present my service to them. Wee received too long 
letters from your father wherein he writes of the like mor- 
tallity there as has beene in England. Mr. Cogan of Boston 
is dead and many more which I forbeare to name, because 
I suppose are vnknowne to you. I cease further trouble 
only to tell I am Your Loving vncle Em: Downinge. 

Edenb. 9th 10, 1658. 


Brother Downinge, — I pray paye to this bearer 

Mr. John Revell or his Assignes the summe of 21U 9s 

which is due for certaine provisions of one Rich : Childe 

which Mr. Revell sent to me here I praye paye it within 

14 dyes after receipt hereof. So I rest Your loving brother 

Jo: Winthrop. 
Charlton in N : England, July 23, 1630. 

Received this 30 of September 1630 in full of this bell 
of Exchang the some of Twenty one pounds nine ) l s d - 
shilenes. I say Rec'd by me Richard Child. ) 


Accepted this bill in the name of Mr. Emanuell Down- 
ing this fifteenth day of September. 

per me, John Winthrop [Jr.]. 



Mr. Downing, — These are to intreate you upon sight 
of this second bill (the first and third bill giuen for this 
somme unpayd) to pay unto Mr. William Bundock master 
of the shippe William and Thomas or to his assignes the 
some of fower pounds which is part of ye seauen pounds 
seauenteene shillings which Mr. Griffith Waller is to 
receaue of you for parcells sold to John Wintrop esquire 
Gouernor of the Massachusetts Bay in New-England in 

Herof I doubt not of your performance. 

Your assured frend Is a: Johnson. 

Salem in New Engl: 19 Aug: 1630. 

Mr. Downing liues at his house nere Fleete Conduit, at 
ye Bishopps head. 

Mr. Downinge, — I pray pay to Mr. Greffeth Wallar 
ffiftie shillings off the a boff sayd som ffor his owne ease 
& the other 30 Shillings pray pay to my wiff at the syt 
off this bell & this shall be svffeshent dishcharg. 

William Bvndvck. 


Received the 4th of November 1630 of Mr. John ^ 
Winthrop in full of this bill the summe of fifty shil- I | *■ 
lings by the apointment of my mr Daniell Dobbins [ 
to the vse of Mr. Griff eth Waller. I say received. J 

per me IS John Savill his marke. 


XXXo. die Octobr 1630. 

Received by me Elizabeth Banduck the some ] 
of Thirty shillings as my parte of this bill within | 
written, being lawfull english monie, I say received K x 
the day & moneth aboue written of Mr. John 
Winthrop gent, sonne to the within named John 
Winthrop Esquire. 

By me B Eliz: Bunduck, her marke. 



Whereas John Winthrop, Junr. esqr. hath put me into 
the Ironworke as an adventurour and given me credit for 
fifty e pounds therein ; and given me tyme for the payment 
of the said 50fo\ till my retorne next yeare out of England, 
if therefore I shall not pay him the said 50^'. before the 
first day of September next, that then the said 50^'. shalbe 
and remayne to the sole and proper vse of the said John 
his heires and assignes for ever. Witnes my hand this 16 
of December 1644. Em: Downinge. 

Witness Adam Winthrop. 


Bee it knowne to all men by these presentes that I 
Emanuel Downing of Salem in New England in Conside- 
ration of the sume of sixty pounds sterling to me in hand 
payd by John Winthrop Junior Esqr. in Cattle & other 
goods, doe assigne, sell & set over vnto Thomas Vincent 
of London all my right & interest as an Vndertaker in the 
Iron Works, wherein my part & share is fifty pounds, as 
by theere bookes wherein the Vndertakers Shares & 
adventures are sett downe doth & may appeare, To haue 
& to hould the said share vnto him the said Thomas 
his heires & Executors, with all the Benefitts & profitts 
thereof forever, Witnes my hand & seale this 30th day 
of October 1645. Emmanuel Downeing 

Witnes John Coggan & a Seale. 


I William Aspinwall Notary & Tabellion publick by 
Authority of the Generall Court of the Massachvsets ap- 
pointed doe testify this to be a true Copie of the Originall 
Deed & by me examined, Witnes my hand this 20th of 
December, 1645, Willm Aspinwall, Notary Public. 




To our honored brother John Winthrop, Sen. Esqr. these 
present, in Boston. 

Deere Sir, — Wee are bold to intreat your furtherance 
in counsell and other helpe for the suppressing pipe staff 
riuers and clabords in our towne ; because wee haue 2 or 
3 ships building. Wee desire that within 2 or 3 miles 
neere any riuer they may not fell great tymber fit for 
shipping ; for they may as well cut it further of, it being 
so portable, and ship-timber being so heavy. Your letter 
to Mr. Endecot by this bearer will helpe vs very much. 
This bearer will giue you more reasons then wee can, to 
whom wee intreat you would bee pleased to listen. 

These men cut downe but halfe of the tree for their vse, 
& the rest lyes rotting & spoyles our Comons, with many 
more inconveniencyes then wee name. Thus crauing 
your wonted and lawfull favor herein, with our due 
salutations doe rest Yours in all duty 

Hu: Peter. 
Salem 13, 11, 40. Em: Downinge* 

* The above letter is placed between those of Downing and Peter, as bearing the 
signature of both these writers, although not in its chronological order as to either 
collection. — Eds. 




For my deer & louing Sonne, Mr. John Winthrop, iunior. these 

dlr. Boston. 

Deere Hart, — Mee thought I broke from you too 
abruptly last day. My hart is with you. I can say no 
more but this. Streighten your accounts and in them bee 
curious. Leaue your mind for mee about your Ipswich 
busines in writing ; and if you will send 20/ to Mr. Ende- 
cot you may seale it vp & send it by this bearer. I am 
buying goates. Salute all yours, tell your wife I will not 
be long from her. The blessing of heaven bee vpon you & 
him who is Yours whilst any thing 

Hu : Peter. 

Saguse 2d. day. 

Leave things with your father in some order for feare of 
the worst, whom with my mother I pray salute from me 

* Hugh Peters (who, it will be observed, habitually wrote his name without the final s) 
had married the widow of Edmand Keade, Esq., of Essex ; and had thus become the father- 
in-law of the younger Winthrop's wife. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge; 
where he took the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1616, and of Master in 1622. He was 
licensed by the Bishop of London, and preached at St. Sepulchre's with great success. 
His nonconformity brought him into trouble ; and he went over to Holland, where he spent 
five or six years, as pastor of the English church at Rotterdam. From there he came to 
New England in 1635, and remained till 1641. He took an active part in the civil wars 
of England, on the side of Cromwell; and, on the Restoration, was arraigned and con- 
victed as a regicide. He was executed at Charing Cross, Oct. 16, 1660. — CauifieWs High 
Court of Justice, pp. 104-112. — Eds. 



To the right Worshipfull John Winthrop Esqr. Boston. 

Deerest Sir, — I cannot let so many dayes and nights 
passe without speaking with you, and now I am at it I 
haue little to say but that I long to haue your ioyes and 
peace to continue full ; and that much of my comfort is 
wrapt vp in yours. A little newes I had out of a late letter 
come to hand out of England, which you may tell the 
Gouernour,* from me to make him laugh viz : that there 
was a fast in England, and at Bristow in one Church whilst 
they were preaching a great Bull broke into the church- 
yard and a company of boyes followed him with squibs ; the 
people within were taken vp before with thoughts that 
the papists that day would rise, & had warding all the 
Country ouer; the Bull & the squibs so wrought vpon 
their melancholy braynes, that one cryes out if I perish I'll 
perish here, another s wounds away, another they are come, 
they are come. Mr. Prichard the preachers wife cryes to 
her husband in the pulpit, come downe (husband) come 
downe, the tyme is come, & much of this. At Taunton 
brimstone was smelt in the church & such another com- 
bustion as when Trestrams boy gote into the fryars Cools. 

In hast I rest Yours & euer so 

H : Peter. 

Salem 2d day. 

We desire a day of thanksgiuing 4th day sennight. I 
haue wished this bearer to buy me some bees. 

* Perhaps Vane, who was Governor in 1636. — Eds. 



To my /rend and son Mr. John Winthrop yonger, these dlr. 


Deere Sir, — By these you may vnderstand that I haue 
receiued your letters and am glad our busines goes on, 
though I am very tender of your personall aduenture in 
the busines, in which I pray be very carefull by all meanes. 
You know many haue an interest in you. For my part I 
neuer meant lesse then to goe with you, but God's hand 
hath bin and is vpon mee more and more in the weaknes 
of my body, which declynes dayly. For the nayles at 
Salem there are diuers very much rusted, & so are the 
clinchers ; for the things in the Barke I pray bee carefull 
of, these are they I thought you should not haue carryed 
with you, because I feare that our frends will alter their 
purposes when they come. I am sorry for the short pro- 
visions in the bay ; it is so all ouer. Helpe Lord ! and I 
hope hee will helpe. Salute honest Mr. Garddner & the 
rest. My hart is with you & your iourney, and my prayers 
shall follow you. 

For those things which concerne the Generall, I shall 
comunicate to Mr. Humfry who is home for this Court. 
I doe not know how too send these nayles you write. 
There is also 20 or 30 barres of iron left and some meale. 
To carry too many things thither, as guns, etc. may not be 
so advantagious for ought I see. The Lord doe you good 
abundantly. I am yours euer, frend & father 

H: Peter. 

* Probably written in 1636, at the departure of the younger Winthrop to join Gardner 
at the mouth of the Connecticut. — See, among the letters of John Winthrop, Jr., in this 
volume, one written by him to his father, bearing date April 7, 1636. — Eds. 



N E W E S. 

Deerest Sir, — We haue a fishing ship come in hither of 
200 tuns, the Master Mr. King, shee belongs to Mr. Hooke 
of Bristoll whose son dwells at Agamenticus, & marryed 
Capt: Norton's widdow, to, whom his father hath sent 10 
cowes, & not lost one by the way. Lesse then 10 weekes 
coming from Bristoll. All they say is that Capt. Rayns- 
borough is come from Sally f, brough[t] 140 slanes English, 
made a peace with the king of Morocco, who beleaguered 
it by land whilst ours did it by sea, & it was deliuerd by 
accord ; 20 Morocco gallants came home to our king with 
presents ; a great fleet gon for Argisa. Not a Turke 
about our coasts. Some ships are making ready this way. 
Corne cheaper here then in England. 

I N V O Y C E. 

Butter at 7d per lb. 
Cheese at 7d. per lb 
Sack, per gal. 6s 

Mascadine . . . 6:6. 
Irish beefe the tun 50s 
Irish rugs . . . 14s. 

They are so deere wee shall not deale with them. An- 
other ship is gone into Pascataway ; they had the cold 
storme at sea. Boston men are thinking of Delawar bay. 
Mr. Prudden goes to Qvinipiak. Mr. Davenport may sit 
down at Charlestowne. Mr. Eaton very ill of the skurvey. 
An eele py. Angells appeare at Boston. Be secret. Your 
sister Symonds recovering. Berdall hath buryed his wife. 
Another eele py. Wee haue tomorrow morning Jiggells 

* Probably written from Salem, about the latter part of the year 1637, O. S. — Eds. 

f Sallee, a city in the province of Fez, noted at that time both for trade and piracy. 
For an account of Rainsborough's expedition, see Harris's " Lives of James I. and Charles 
I.," &c, ii. 193-198. 


going to your Governour laden with wood ; some dred of 
the frost at Boston. I wish you were here to goe with vs 
to Boston 2d day. Salute your wife from vs. 

I am you know H : P. 

I pray pay Samuel Greenfield 10s. for mee. He is of 
your towne & will come to you. 


To our noble Gouernour John Winthrop Esqr. These dlr. Boston. 

Sir, — Mr. Endecot and my selfe salute you in the Lord 
Jesus, etc. Wee haue heard of a diuidence of women and 
children* in the bay and would bee glad of a share viz : 
a young woman or girle and a boy if you thinke good : I 
wrote to you for some boyes for Bermudas, which I thinke 
is considerable. 

Besides wee are bold to impart our thoughts about the 
Corne at Pequoit, which wee wish were all cut downe, or 
left to the Naragansicks rather than for vs to take it, for 
wee feare it will proue a snare thus to hunt after their 
goods whilst wee come forth pretending only the doing of 
Justice, and wee beleeue it would strike more terror into 
the Indians so to doe : It will neuer quit cost for vs to 
keepe it. 

Wee are not well at ease, some of vs viz : Mr. Endecot 
& my selfe, but wee haue a strong God, to whom wee 
commend you & my deere & much honourd sister, tender- 
ing all our respects vnto you vnfaynedly I am 

Yours vnworthy of you. Hugh Peter. 

Salem last day. 

* Pequot captives. — See Winthrop's Hisnry of New England, i. 232, under date 
July, 1637. — Eds. 



To the Honored Court now set at Boston. 

Whereas it pleased the Lord by diuers occasions to ex- 
ercise our honored brother Mr. Humfrey so, as his condi- 
tion is generally taken notice of in the Country to bee such 
that without some helpe his frends feare the Gospell may 
suffer by his sufferings. 

By the aduice of frends I am bold to desire the Coun- 
sell, fauor, and assistance of the Court now assembled in 
his behalfe, and finding the Country so charged already by 
necessary rates, I haue only this way of some succor to pre- 
sent to your wisedomes viz : that whereas hee hath some 
mony in his hands intended to some publike vse, if that 
may be remitted to his owne being one hundred and odde 
pounds; and if therunto you shall aduise I shall pay him 
what Mr. Geere left to some of vs to dispose of for the 
Country, I suppose it may answer good part of his 
necessity, thoughe I perceiue lesse then 700/ besides the 
sale of much of his estate will not cleere him. 

Herin I shall wayt your pleasure and shall euer bee 
(as I am bound) Yours, Hugh Peter. 

Salem, 10 (7)* 

[The " Answer " of the Court to the foregoing petition appears in 
the margin thereof, in the handwriting of John Winthrop, Esq., Gover- 
nor, in the words following : — ] 

The Court vpon hearing this Petition, & muche argu- 
ment & consideration thereof did declare theire tender 
regard of the gentleman & his condition, & their ready- 

* Probably 1638. The General-Court Records are silent on the subject of this petition ; 
but in June, 1639, " It was ordered that a letter should be sent to Mr. Humfrey to send in 
the 100£ which is in his hand to further the college." — Colonial Records, i. 263. Subse- 
quently, an allowance of .£250 was made to Mr. Humfrey. — Ibid., i. 294. — Eds. 


nesse to lielpe to supporte him : but they are not satisfied 
that his estate is so lowe as it should call for any such pub- 
lic helpe, & if it should appeare so they would then see 
a faire waye how such helpe may be vsefull to him for the 
intended ende. 


Good Son, — My truest loue vnto you and all yours in 
Jesus Christ our deerest Lord. These may certifye you 
that I doe long for your company as much as the teeming 
earth for the rising sun. Let not your wife bee oner de- 
iected, for my part I am as deep in my obstructions as at 
Rotterdam. I pray speake to your wife that Mat: Lake* 
and my mayd hope may bee with her, and then I belieue 
shee shall haue two tolerable seruants. My head is not 
well, nor any part at present for I cannot get sleepe. I 
would you should send mee word what you will doe ther- 
in, but rather come ouer. Oh how my hart is with you. 
You doe not know how much I need frends and helpe. 

Tell my dear frend your sister Symonds that I am as low 
as euer, & wish I knew how to see her. Thus in much 
hast & perplexity I take leaue & am Yours euer 

Salem vlt. Sept: Hu : Peter. 


To our noble Gouernour, these present, in 'Boston. 

Hon. Sir, — I vnderstand by Mr. Pierse that Mr. Bel- 
lingham is very, very greedy for more mony, who hath 
already taken more then hee can answer : wherefore my 

* Mrs. Margaret Lake. She was a daughter of Edmand Keade, of Wickford, Essex 
County; and sister of Elizabeth, the second wife of John Winthrop, Jr. Her husband's 
name was John Lake. —Copy of Edmand Reacts Witt, in MS., dated 20 Nov. 1623. — Eds. 



humble request is that you would bee pleased to suffer none 
at all to touch it, synce the mony is properly myne, and at 
the Court wee hope to bee all there. Mr. Pierse hath 
also promised to vndertake for all the owners there, and I 
for those here, being iust halfe in eyther place, and so to 
issue all. 

I am bold besides to intreat you to let your seruant by 
your order to take all Mr. Lapthornes goods into your 
hands, that were at the ordinary, his trunke and other 
things are at your house already, and to pay 3/ to the 
Master for passage, and what the ordinary demaunds, and 
to keepe all his goods safe because hee wholy belonged to 
mee, and my brother who sent the man ouer to mee vpon 
my letter will expect my faithfulnes. Thus making euer 
bold with you I rest 

Yours in all due respects & vtmost service 

Hu: Peter. 

Salem 25. 8. 

I pray salute your animce dimidium & my noble Aunt. (?) 
I pray intreat her or some body to buy mee 5 or 6 dozen 
of candles vpon any termes. 


To my Worthy & reuerend brother, Mr. Cojoeland, preacher of the 
Gospell, in Bermuda. 

Good Brother, — By these you may vnderstand, that 
wee doe not a little reioyce at any intercourse betwixt your 
selfe & vs. These bearers I pray bid welcome to you as 
any of yours should bee to vs. The Master is an honest 
godly man of our church, and such as you will haue much 
ioy in, wee hope : and I pray helpe vs by prayers what you 
can. These can informe you of the state of things with 
vs, and how it is in England & Scotland, even sad enough. 


Wee haue a printery here* and thinke to goe to worke with 
some speciall things, and if you have any thing you may 
send it safely by these. Our churches flourish, & the more 
by some late familisticall errors intruded by Satan : and 
truly troubles wee must look for on all hands, but wee 
know whom wee haue trusted. The God of all peace bee 
with you and all your worke for him. Our plantations doe 
reach a great way South and East, and I am perswaded 
will looke into the West Indyes, of which I would haue 
your opinion. Good Sir bee earnest with the Lord for vs 
that wee may bee to his praise in Jesus Christ — amen. 

Yours euer Hugh Peter. 

Salem 10. lOber 1638. 


To our noble Governor These dlr. at Boston. 

Deerest Sir, — I humbly thanke you that you would 
please to mynd me for my sheepe. 

ffor this bearer, Walter Baker, hee hath demeaned him- 
self e very fayrly with vs, & our Elder who was to hyre 
him finds not the least fault with him, but that hee was to 
imploy him vpon the water in a canow, which he likes not 
of. I like the man very well, & you shall meet with many 
that will be farre worse. I can safely commend him so 
farre as I can heare or discerne. 

I shall be bold to communicate diuers things to you 
about the court, before the court, (God willing) ; ffor pre- 

* Under date of March, 1638-9, Winthrop writes : " A printing-house was begun at 
Cambridge by one Daye [Stephen], at the charge of Mr. Glover, who died on sea 
hitherward. The first thing which was printed was the freemen's oath; the next was an 
almanack made for New England by Mr. William Peirce, mariner; the next was the 
Psalms, newly turned into metre." The " Book of Psalmes" was "imprinted" in 1640. 
One or two copies are in the New-EnglanJ Library, in possession of the Old South 
Church in Boston. — Eds. 


sent I cease to bee further bold, & with my truest affection 
& due respect to yourselfe & all yours. I rest 

Yours in all duty Hu. Peter. 

Salem 25 of 8. 

I craue this bearers helpe about the shipping my ram. 
Your son & little (sic) are well gone yesterday to Ips: 
Mr. Cotton etc. wee see not. 


To the Noble Gouernor in Boston. 

Hon : Sir, — I much thanke you for yours, and together 
am sorry for the sicknes of our f rends. I am still trouble- 
some to you. I haue sent Mrs. D. Sh.* letter, which puts 
mee to new troubles, for though shee takes liberty vpon 
my Cossen Downing' s speeches, yet (Good Sir) let mee not 
bee a foole in Israel. I had many good answers to yester- 
day's worke and amongst the rest her letter ; which (if 
her owne) doth argue more wisedome, then I thought shee 
had. You haue often sayd I could not leaue her ; what to 
doe is very considerable. Could I with comfort & credit 
desist, this seemes best ; could I goe on, and content my 
selfe, that were good : my request is that this bearer my 
harts-halfe may well obserue what is best. For though I 
now seeme free agayne, yet the depth I know not. Had 
shee come ouer with mee I thinke I had bin quieter. 
This shee may know, that I haue sought God earnestly, 
that the next weeke, I shall bee riper : — 

I doubt shee gaynes most by such writings : and shee 
deserues most where shee is further of. My very hart is 
with you, & I am 

Yours euer, H : Peter. 

* Probably Mrs. Deliverance Sheffield, who soon afterwards became his second 
wife. — Eds. 


If you shall amongst you aduise mee to write to hir, I 
shall forthwith, our towne lookes vpon me contracted and 
so I haue sayd my selfe, what wonder the charge would 
make I know not. 


To our Noble Gouernour, These present, Boston. 

Honored Sir, — Synce my last I haue nothing to cer- 
tifye you but what fell out the last day of the last weeke 
in our congregation at a church-meeting, where Mr. Hol- 
graue denying some thing that was cleere to the congrega- 
tion, (hee being then dealt with,) was suddenly struck by 
Gods hand with the losse of his memory and such fum- 
bling in his speech that wee were forced to send him forth, 
and at his house hee talked very idly, slept, and is still 
weake but recouering : it did sadly affect vs all. The Lord 
helpe vs to make vse of it to his praise. 

I pray salute all our deerly beloued with you, & bee 
pleased to tell this story to honest Mr. Wilson whom I 
salute in the Lord. 

My wife* desires my daughter to send to Hanna that was 
her mayd, now at Charltowne, to know if shee would dwell 
with vs, for truly wee are so destitute (hauing now but an 
Indian) that wee know not what to doe. Thus with my 
deerest respects, I am Yours as you know, in all duty. 

Hu : Peter. 

Salem 4° Sept. 

* Peters first wife probably did not accompany him to this country. She appears to 
have been living in the early part of the year 1637; as per Downing's letter, ante, p. 45. 
Peter, in 1639, had married a second wife, who was the mother of his "only child," to 
whom, in 1660, he addressed "A Dying Father's Last Legacy." — Eds. 



Honored Sir, — My sudden and humble request vnto 
you is that you would bee pleased to accompany the 
deputy in putting your hand and seale to the Testimony 
will bee presented vnto you for Mr. Humfrey, now bound 
for England with his sonne only with him, and a very 
quiet contented mynd, purposing to returne in the Spring, 
hauing left his family and estate in Godly mens hands. 
I pray, Sir, fayle not herin. I meane the Country's Seale 
to it. At next meeting I shall giue you better satisfaction 
about himselfe and his departure. Thus with my humble 
respects and hartyest loue I leaue you thus hastily saluted 
& am Yours in all duty Hugh Peter. 

Salem vlt: Sept:* 

Your rundlet comes by the next. 


To our noble Gouernor These dd. Boston. 

Sir, — I humbly thanke you for your tender care of vs 
to let vs to vnderstand how the Lord hath honored him- 
selfe vpon these heathen. I am afrayd that these women 
& children are not where they should bee, nor can I 
foresee euents. 

ffor this woman that troubles you thus : indeed shee 
should haue any thing from mee were fit, but shee hath 
already bin very chargeable, & in conscience I cannot 
answer her desire. Shee hath 4 spoones, six slighter I sold 

* If we interpret the date of this letter to be the " last of September," it cannot refer 
to Humfrey's voyage to England in October, 1641, which is recorded by Winthrop; as Peter 
had sailed for England the August previous. Does this refer to another visit by Humfrey 
to England, or to a contemplated voyage never made? — Eds. 


Mr. Endecot which are euen broken with thinnes ; & for 
lyrmen, it is most disposed of ; but I haue striuen to giue 
her satisfaction by a letter to Mrs. Wilson. I desire my 
cossin Stephen should pay her passage, & 4:1 out of my 
beuer ; and that shee may haue all conuenient content ; I 
think a few words of your selfe would doe it. 

I was at Ipswich where the towne haue dealt very nobly 
with your son, & giuen him another farme neere the 
towne called Castle-hill, # where hee hath 100 akers of 
medow, & all intire to himselfe : but of this hee hath writ- 
ten to you. I intend to bee with you on Monday. Still 
remembring you all to him in whom I am, 

Yours if any thing. H : Peter. 

Salem 5 day. 

Mr. Endecot & Ancient Peade wonder at your bounty 
in your graynes sent, etc. 


To our Noble Gouernour these present at Boston. 

Right deere & Honorable, — I haue receiued yours, 
and this bearer Mr. Knolls f coming to mee from Pascata- 
way, and wholly depending vpon your selfe and mee for 
some directions in his matters, I would in his behalfe 
desire your wonted carefull tendernes to which wee are 
inuited by all the 3 parables in Luke 15. and heathens 
teach some thing when they say Ccesar dando, sublevando, 
ignoscendo, etc. 

I shall bee ready to attend your mynd for my coming 
over about it at any tyme, and I suppose it were not 
amisse I should bee there when hee speakes with the 

* " 1639, Feb. 11, he " (John Winthrop, Jr.) " is granted Castle Hill, and all the meadow 
and marsh within the creek, if he lives in Ipswich." — FeWs Ipswich, p. 73. — Eds. 
t Hansard Knollys. — See Winthrop's History of New England, i. 326. — Eds. 


ministers, vnles hee be referd to vs this way, which I 
should thinke farre better for the man. But the busines 
will bee to satisfye the State, which how it will bee before 
a Generall Court I cannot tell. I think dispatch will bee 
comfortable for him. Captayn Vnderhill intends likewise 
to come. I need not cast my drop into your Ocean, who 
knowe how to deale in these matters, only I tender the 
man etc. 

I still beare my share with you, though truly I am bur- 
dend in my spirit with your acknowledgments of I know 
not what to call it. 

Wee are iust now about meeting Mr. Hubbard and 3 
more of Ipswich to sell your sons Castle hill* to them, but 
you would wonder to see their dodging. If they haue it 
they must pay for it in some measure, else it were more 
honorable for him to giue it. 

Good Sir bee cheerfull in the Lord, the whole world 
shall change, but our God neuer: in whom I am 

Yours or no Hu : Peter. 

Salem 6° Sept. 

I pray exceedingly salute our worthy Sister etc. 


Salem 6° Septi. 
Honored and deerest in the Lord, — Wee receiued 
your basket of bounty and loue to those who must dye in 
your debt, but leaue requitall of all to him who must dis- 
charge our greatest skores. I had both written, and seen 
you before now, but that deepe melancholy is getting fast 
vpon mee agayne, and tethers mee at home, and much 

* This sale would seem not to have been effected at this time; for it appears from 
Felt's Ipswich, p. 73, that in 1645, Jan. 1, "he" (John Winthrop, Jr.) "conveys his farm, 
called Castle Hill, to his brother-in-law, Samuel Symonds." — Eds. 


occasioned by my brethren ingaged before this time to 
come in with the discharge of your matters, but they try 
my patience in waiting. I hope not to bee long from you, 
& the rather to aduise for Mr. John Winthrop going with 
Mr. Bois, to which I wholly inclyne : it will bee vsefull and 
exemplary. One mayne occasion of my writing at this 
tyme is in behalfe of Mr. Paddy, this bearer, who ear- 
nestly desires some course may bee taken for what is due 
from the Country to his father Freeman for his Armes they 
had in the Pekot seruice, for which hee might haue had 
40/, and now desires but 15/ of the Country, to bee payd 
as they please for species. Good Sir, let him haue reliefe 
by what meanes you can, synce you know the case and 
this present Governour doth not.* 

I thinke I shall neuer leaue to bee troublesome vnto 
you ; pitty and pardon, & salute your dearest, with all 
yours. Our Strong and mighty Helper, the God of Israel 
keepe vp your hart, & spirit, sweeten all your sowres, 
euen all your pathes and carry you through all difhcultyes, 
through Jesus Christ, In whom I am 

Yours fidelissime H : Peter. 

I take it Captayn Gibbons can tell best of these arms. 


For the Worshipfull John Winthrop, Esq. Ipswich. 

Deere Sir, — Wee are glad to heare of you, & my 
wife intends to bee with you per first. 

Your sister Symonds is deliuered last weeke of a dead 
child, and is in much weakness, it came by a fall, let your 
wife looke to herselfe. John Baker will tell you abun- 
dance of newes from the bay. ffor Ipswich it will neuer 

* This was in 1640, when Dudley was Governor. — Eds. 


bee well till the Church goe on, aduise them to that if 
you meane to save them. Wee are in good order here, 
blessed bee the Lord. Continue your affection to him 
who is Yours or nothing H: Peter. 

Salem 2d day. 

I must earnestly intreat you to giue Mr. Broadstreet £01 
in corne for me, or mony, it is for one goodman Tomp- 
son of your towne. I will make the mony good here, or 
any where. Salute your Betty & little Betty* from vs 

I haue sent you the booke of the proceedings at the 
Court, which when it is coppyed out for your towne I 
must haue agayne. 


To my honored brother John Winthrop se : Esq. these present, in 


Honored Sir, — These are to accompany Mr. Knollis. 
What aduise I gaue at my being there Mr. Wilson can 
informe you, whose letter I would desire you to reade, 
I being to giue an account to them that sent mee. Now 
my earnest request is that this bearer and 3 or 4 more of 
his frends may haue the liberty of sitting downe in our 
Jurisdiction, hee may [be] vsefull without doubt, hee is 
well gifted, you may doe well to heare him at Boston. 

They there are ripe for our Gouernment as will appeare 
by the note I haue sent you. They grone for Gouernment 
and Gospell all ouer that side on the Country. I conceiue 
that 2 or 3 fit men sent ouer may doe much good at this 
confluxe of things. These will relate how all stands in 
these parts. Alas poore bleeding soules ! 

* Winthrop's wife and child, both named Elizabeth, are here referred to: the latter 
was baptized in July, 1636. — Eds. 


I haue desired Mr. Endecot to write to your gouernour. 
I thinke this worke falls naturally vnder the care of the 
Counsell. If Mr. Larkam say and hold, hee hath 
promised mee to close with vs, but male audio. What 
are men ? 

I haue a neere Cossen, with him, a Justice of Peace's 
daughter with him very hopefull, and as handsome as any 
in the Country, 200/ for present & hopes to haue 100/ 
more ; I wish your sons any would take her and it. I am 
now seeking out a husband for her, but wish yours farre 
better euery way. Shee is lately by her frends my kindred 
commended to my care : I am sometymes thinking of 
Thorn : Reade, though I haue my feares ; if you please 
you may write me a word. Thus with my hartyest and 
humble salutes I rest yours, as your loue hath made 
me. H : Peter. 


To the right worshipfull John Winthrop Esqr this present. 


Deerest Sir, — I should not haue needed your last as 
a spurre to mee to write, had not my thoughts about your- 
selfe bin so succesles that I lost all courage that way, and 
am also at present fallen into a sore fit of my old hy- 
pocondriacal melancholy, through cold and care. My 
hartyest desires are for you and yours, and I could wish 
I knew what to doe to compas my purpose. 

What my aduenture was at Pascataway I suppose Mr. 
Larkham hath told you, and if death preuent not, I shall 
my selfe shortly. In the meane tyme remember mee 
where you may doe mee the most good, & I shall striue to 

The last newes sayes the Convocation made 17 new 


Canons, wherof one is that all ministers shall preach 
2ce per annnm for conformity, & 4 tymes for the 
King's prerogative ; what past betwixt Mr. Williams at 
Pascataway and my selfe I shall tell you. The Lord bee 
with your spirits. Yours euer & euer 

Hu : Peter. 
Salem vlt. Sept.* 

De nuptiis, nihil habeo prceter cetatem quod displicet, vi- 
dentur satis optandce. 

Salute the good gentlewoman: & all with you. 


ffor Mr. John Winthrop, at Boston. 

Honest Hart, — I must needs Salute you though but 
in 2 or 3 words, desiring you to assure all that world that 
I am coming to you & haue sent my wife before, for di- 
verse reasons. Dr. Child is come, that honest man who 
will bee of exceeding great vse if the Country know how 
to improue him, indeed he is very, very vsefull, I pray let 
vs not play tricks with such men by our ielousyes. 

I shall at my coming let you know I loue you & your 
good wife. Salute her, Mr. Symonds & his, with all 
friends, as if I named them all, Mr. Cotton, Mr. Wilson & 
all Boston frends, all the elders & others whom you 
please. I am Yours euer & euer 

Hu: Peter. 

Deale (?) 23 of June 45. 

* Probably 1640. For further information on the subject of this letter, see Winthrop's 
History of New England, ii. 28, 29 (year 1641). The events recorded are before Aug. 3, 
1641, when Peter sailed for England. — Eds. 


For Mr. John Winthrop the younger, dlr. 

J One line destroyed A 

salute thee hartily, and doe profes I know not what to doe 
for you, for truly I feare you want, as men of that quality. 
The Lord doe good vnto you, and that is all I can say. 
Wee haue here done & yet vndone. None will come to 
you because you persecute. Cannot you mend it \ Your 
brother Stephen* will bee Captayn of a Troope of horse 
with vs. I am coming ouer if I must, my wife comes 
of necessity to New England hauing run her selfe out of 
breath here : you know all, the Lord teach me what to 
doe. Wee are very hot vpon the West Indyes, and are 
likely to doe something : you must take one. I wish your 
father here in the house. Rainborowf is Major Generall 
for Ireland. Send my brother to his wife & family. I 
loue you & leaue you & am Yours as you know 
Salute your good wife. Hu : Peter. 

Gravesend 4 of Tber.J 

Bee sure you neuer let my wife come away from thence 
without my leaue, & then you loue me. 


ffor Mr. John Winthrop the elder my honorable /rend, in Boston. 

Deere Brother, — My coming was resolued vpon by 
this ship, but the Lord hath put in two impediments, the 
one is my want of health which is much impayrd, and 
21y my land given by the parliament is but euen now 

* Stephen Winthrop went to England in 1645, and did not return. — Eds. 
t Rainsborough was assassinated Oct. 29, 1648. Stephen Winthrop's wife (Judith 
Rainsborough) was of the same family; probably his sister. — Eds. 
J 1646. — See Winthrop's Hist, of N.E., u. 351. — Eds. 


turning into mony. It is worth 211/ per annum and I am 
putting it of. By the next ship I intend to come, if God 
giue any measure of strength, and your son Stephen stayes 
with me to that end. I desire his wife nor frends may not 
take it ill, for indeed he stayd not but vrged. For my selfe 

1 intend New England shall share in my comforts and 
wish men tender in forsaking it, I am sure my spirit these 

2 or 3 yeers hath bin restles about my stay here, and no- 
thing vnder heauen but the especiall hand of the Lord 
could stay mee ; I pray assure all the Country so, for I 
must write vnto your selfe now instead of many, being 
surprizd as I am hauing a full purpose to come in this 
ship really : my bookes you may tell the elders I shall 
bring with mee and it may be some thing else, but truly 
doe find things goe not well in my absence, and therfore 
would bee glad to see what I haue disposed of by my 
selfe. thus I Quaere 

1. Why Mr. Payne of Ipswich should have 120 and od 
pounds from my goods when neuer more then 60/ were 
here demaunded'? 

2. Why concluded without a word from mee, or any on 
this side the water for mee 1 

3. Why my goods sold at halfe the value to pay him, 
which they cost here 1 

4. Why my wife should dispose of any thing of my 
goods without your order, or the deacons, etc 1 

5. Why Rob: Saltonstall should trouble Shirt* of the 
noate and others for 100/ his father owed mee for bread 
for his family, and made mee be two yeers getting of my 
due, which his son it seemes would haue payd back 
agayne, the attempt being monstrous thus to thinke to 
cheat his fathers frends. 

* Abraham Shurt, the conveyancer; several of whose letters will be found among the 
miscellaneous letters in this collection, and to whose memory the late Mr. N. I. Bowditch 
dedicated his Suffolk Surnames. For the action of the General Court in this case, see 
Mass. Colonial Records, vol. ii. pp. 168, 231. — Eds. 


6. Why I should pay so much mony for the Country 
viz : 200/ and neuer considered of ! as Mr. Poccok sadly 
complayns, and why Sherly should not haue his 110/ onn 
agreament, vizt to relinquish the busines of Plymouth % * 

These things I leave to your wisedome, and desire you 
to salute all magistrates and ministers as if I named them 
all most hartily, whom I meane to see if I Hue shortly. 

I pray (Sir) haue an eye to my wife, if shee will come 
hither I hynder not, but I thought shee might bee better 
there, ffor things here, I have often written it vnto you 
that England will haue v[er]y much worke to stand, all 
manner of confusio[n co]ming vpon it. 

Ah sweet New England ! & yet sweeter if diuisions bee 
not among you, if you will giue any incouragement to 
those that are godly & shall differ etc. I pray doe what 
you can herin, & know that your example in all kinds 
swayse here. Appeales will hardly bee ouerthrowne nor 
doe I mynd it much as a thing you should bee troubled 
about. The Good Lord direct vs all to his praise, in 
whom I am Yours euer Hu : Peter. 

May 5, 47. 

Salute my deere sister, all your children, all frends most 


for Mr. John Wynthrop iunr. at Pequoit. 

My deere Hart, — how desirous am I to come vnto you, 
and how vnwilling to stay from you, and indeed nothing 
but this sad euill now befallen mee could haue stayd mee, 
viz. my old distemper springing from many, many surfets, 
oh that I were with you, and your good wife my deere 

* See an order for the settlement of these claims, in Mass. Colonial Records, vol. ii. 
p. 262. — Eds. 


daughter,* whom I pray salute from me hartily, if I come 
I bring you & them a good remembrance, if I dye, I forget 
you not, only take notice I loue you as myne owne soule, 
and haue had thoughts, if thither I come, to spend some 
tyme with you more than ordinary. Call your plantationf 
London derry or what you please, it will giue no offence 
here, and bee assured New England is a good country to 
bee in, if you can bee quiet among yourselues. Excuse 
my hast by this ship. My Gossen Stephen will bee honest. 
Cos. Downing is in a tosse indeed, brother Weld perplexd 
about coming to you. Live to Gods praise there, & you 
need not be troubled. Thus with my deerest respects I 
remayn Yours for euer, H : Peter. 

London 15 of March. 


ffor John Winthrop Jun Esqr. with a [t]oken in paper. 

Deere Sir, — I feare you are angry because you doe 
not heare from mee, nor I from you. I haue by Mr. Gott 
orderd you what I haue in New England [a line effaced^ 
word I euer loued you and yours, and am truly sensible of 
all your cares. Nothing vnder heauen hath more troubled 
mee then that you had not my company into New Eng- 
land with you. I haue sent you by this bearer a loade 
stone which I pray keepe for mee if I come, if not it 
is yours. Oh that I were [a line effaced^ my old malady of 
the spleene, & neuer had hart or tyme to attend any 
cure, that now I giue my life gone : & shall out Hue 
my parts I feare. My hart is with my God & desire after 
him in whom I am Yours euer Hu : Peter. 

30 of April 49. 

* Daughter-in-law. — Eds. 

f Doubtless New London ; where, Feb. 22, 1648-49, " the inhabitants did consent and 
desire that the plantation may be called London." — Caulkins's History of New London, 
p. 59. — Eds. 



ffor my lion : /rend John Winthrop iu : Esqr at Pequoit River 

or elsewhere. 

My deere Hart, — I salute you hartily, and yours as har- 
tily with all yours & myne. I pray you to take speciall 
notice, with Mr. Got,* of what I haue at Salem ; as also 
100/ Mr. Downing's house is bound to me for, as also 20/ 
Mr. Endecot hovse, with all my other matters. My inten- 
tion is you & yours should bee the better for it, as I have 
signifyed formerly. Let Mr. Gott take the income of all, 
& bee accountable, my child hauing another portion, which 
I may yet doubt, I must mynd your family, whom I pray 
salute in the Lord. All things here goe well. Wee are 
begging all England ouer for N. E. Wee hope it may 
come to some thing. One of our Colonnells hath begun 
100/ or 10/ per annum etc. Oh that I euer left New E ; 
or had neuer had this wife f so sent to me ! Oh deere Sir ! 
my dayes are gone : and I looke to my end apace. The 
Lord bee with you & Your Hu : Peter. 

17 of the 5 mon. 49. 

Entertayne honest Sister Bowdech & her husband if 
shee come to vou. 


ffor John Winthrop Esqr. at Boston or elsewhere, New England. 

Deere Sir, — Yours I had, and am sorry I am not fur- 
nished according to your desire as yet, & through many 
bodily infirmityes am now much succumbing. My iudgment 
is, you should come hither where you might many wayes 

* Charles Gott was deacon of the churcii at Salem. — Eds. 

t Peter's second wife, Deliverance Sheffield, became "distracted." — Eds. 



Hue comfortably. Your brother Stephen Hues, & very 
well, hee & I both concurre in your coming if [torn] not, you 
will haue some part out of my pittance. There to doe you 
good, [torn] I shall not bee wanting vpon my first ability. 

Things here goe exceeding well with vs, & euery day 
grow better : my hast is great but my distemper greater. 
Let your wife, sister Lake, & all with you haue my salutes, 
had I a little ease I should prouide some tokens, but am 
dumfounded yet loue you &. am 

Yours, H. Peter. 

21. 2. 52. 

ffor John Winthrop Esqr in New England. 

Deere Sir, — I salute you most hartily with all yours, 
your Sister Symonds & Lake, with all the rest of ours. 
I haue writ largely to Mr. Endecot concerning yourself e, 
but my counsell is you should come hither with your 
family for certaynly you will bee capable of a comfortable 
liuing in this free Comonwealth. I doe seriously aduise 
it : & you shall haue more by the next if you bee not 
come away. G. Downing is worth 500/ per annum but 
41 per diem* — your brother Stephen worth 2000/ & a 
maior. I pray come. 

I am yours euer, H. Peter. 

10. 8. 52. 


For my hon /rind John Winthrop, Esq. in New England. 

Whitehall 10. 4. 54. 
My worthy Frend, — I heard from you and your wife 
also this last yeere, and if I delighted in writing long you 
would haue some, but you know I doe not, and the many 


vnkindneses I had from New England hath much deadend 
me in these things, rather contenting myselfe with what I 
can doe here, then further to bee troublesome to them. 
They owe me much mony, which I would freely giue to 
your wife & children if they would pay it. Wee have 
still turnings here. John Lake is aliue and lusty. Your 
brother Reade the like etc. For your wife's demand of 100/. 
I shall not be idle therein. My charge is here so great & 
my experience that I can doe little for my frends, being 
opprest with myne owne & my brothers & sisters necessity, 
yet I haue sent you a small token. I haue often wisht 
you here, but synce the Gouernment grewe to such vncer- 
taynty I was doubtfull, & am, & doe yet thinke you are well, 
though Bushell is very earnest to haue you turn about his 
mynes of Siluer. Pray let vs know what & how you doe. 
Mr. Got writes of the sale of my house, Mr. Downing is 
not honest, owes mee 100/ for which his howse is bound 
to mee. These are not good dealings. Mr. Endecot owes 
mee mony, payes none. I payd 20/ in gold to Mr. Salton- 
stall also for him, but hardly acknowledged : that also I 
wish you had, with some of it for your sister Lake, but my 
hast must bee excused. 

I am Yours euer, H. Peter. 

Salute your wife, children, sister Lake, &c. 


ffor my honored friend John Winthrop, Esqr. 

3d. 1. 54. 

My deere Erend, — I haue had a great longing for 
you here, but truly things are vpon such great vncertayntye 
& changes, that I wish you & all frends to stay there & 
rather looke to the West Indyes, if they remoue, for many 


are here to seeke when they come over. I haue sent you 
2 peeces of black stufFe, a peece of searge, & a parcell of 
fyne lynnen, Mr. Stephen Winthrop, now Colonel, hath 
sent you a peece of course cloth, all by the hand of Mr. 
Norton of Boston, in a great chest of bookes sent agayne 
by Sir Kenelme Digby, who longs for you here. I haue 
little else. Your vncle Downing is at your brother, no pre- 
ferment yet, nor debts payd. Wee feare wee shall breake 
with France. Salute all with you most hartily. I wonder 
they would sell my house at Salem to Mr. Endecot for 
20/, wheras by my letters I gaue it you & all I had 
there, in trust for my daughter* if shee came ouer, & if 
not to you & yours, & that is my meaning, & pray you 
to looke to it, for Mr. Endecot hath not payd me a penny, 
owing mee much more. 

I am yours, H : Peter. 

I wish you had not medled with the French. Here 
is 900/ per annum for the Indians, I wish it were imployed 
for the English poore there. I wish you all good. Pray 
looke to my aifayres at Salem & speake with Mr. Got. 


ffor my good frend Mr. Gotte deacon at Salem now at Wenham. 

3. 1. 54. 

My deere Frend, — I had yours, and truly doe loue 
you hartily, though I haue bin some tymes troubled at 
my busines having no returnes, & you selling my house 
for 20/, & lending out my bookes & things & sending 
home nothing to mee, but only what Spencer sent a note 
of a colt & three sheepe etc. though I am no way angry 

* His only daughter, Elizabeth, by his second wife, and to whom he addressed 
"A Dying Father's Last Legacy." —Eds. 


with you, for I loue you hartily, but great payments haue 
gone forth, you write, & truly I know no debts but such 
as Mr. Payne made vpon mee. 

My mynd is that Mr. John Winthrop might bee spoke 
with about what I haue, to whom I assigned it long synce, 
vpon some conditions, though : I profes nothing but want 
of health (I thinke) could detayne me from New England : 
such is my loue to the place, & louely it will yet bee. I 
pray doe but for mee, as I would doe for you. Mr. Downing 
owd me 180/, no body would seise the horse hee made ouer 
to mee, & now hee is here, with him to make hast after 
him. Salute your good wife, pay yourselfe for what charge 
I put you to, & loue 

Yours, Hu : Peter. 




To my Honored and worthei freynd the worsliipfull John Win- 
throp the elder Esqr. Boston in Newe England. Per the George, 
Mr. Ino. Seuerne whome God presence. 

Honored and my worthei Freynd, — With tender of 
my best seruice I harteley commend me to you. I haue 
received your letter of the 25 June by the Ship Falcon, by 
which, as also by letter from Jno JollifF I take good nottice 
of your loue to me and reddyness to furder me in my 
occasyons there for which I yeeld you most hartye thankes 
and dessyre the contynuance thereof as occasyon shall bee. 
Were my discovragments but of small consequence I 
should bee verry loathe to bee troblesome. Errors I know 
I haue comitted, maney and great, by reposing trust in 
maney not worthey to bee trusted. Theise errors I must 
suffer for, and ame willing to beare, but would bee loath 
to haue that which is bad to bee made worsse, and affliction 
added to affliction. Truley I will yeet hope Mr. Mayhewe 
will geeue mee that satisfaction in all which may geeue 
resonable satisfaction to mee, & in so doinge I ame confy- 

* Matthew Cradock was the first Governor of the Massachusetts Company, and a gene- 
rous contributor to its support. He was a wealthy London merchant; and is said to have 
been, at one time, a member of Parliament. He never came over to New England, but 
had an agent and servants here to attend to his interest. He had a house at Mistick 
(Medford), which is still standing, one at Marblehead, and another at Ipswich; and em- 
ployed fishermen at each of these places. At his death he left a claim upon the Colony, 
which, in 1648, amounted to .£679. 6s. id. George Cradock, Esq., a gentleman employed 
in public posts in the Province in the last century, was a descendant. — See Young's 
Chronicles of Mass., 137, 138; Hutchinson's Mass., i. 18. — Eds. 


dent he will doe himselffe a great deale of right. It were 
to much for me to relate all passages vnto you and loth I 
ame to be therein offensyue to you with longe discourses, 
but if it bee so that my seruant Jno. JollifFe doe not re- 
cieyue satisfaction to content lett me crave that favour of 
you as to read ouer my letters wrote Mr. Mayhewe which 
I sent him by Jno. JollifFe & which I nowe send him by 
this convayance. I must confesse in regard of the length 
of them it is to much troble I putt you vnto, and yeet 
without hearing them read you can not, my selffe beeing 
absent, vnderstand wherein I fynd my selffe agreyued 
or whether that I propound & desyre to haue done be 
resonable or not, and I shall not desyre in ought to bee 
my owne Judge. And because I would bee the less troble- 
some to you seeing Mr. Peirse had a great hand at his last 
beeing in England, in my sending ouer so great an estate 
thether as I ded last yeere & was not wanting to haue had 
me sent as much this yeere. I wish that he also who is 
an intymate Well-wilier to Mr. Mayhewe may seey what 
I propound & wherein I fynd my selffe agreyued, And 
as I cane haue no other accounts but by calculacion, that 
the same may bee done with Judgment & vnderstanding 
and with your approbacion and then I shall leaue you to 
judge howe I haue thryuen and doe at present thryue in 
Newe England, onely bee pleased, I pray you, if occasion 
so requyre, to order Jno Jolliff [wi]th Mr. Pearse to take 
some paynes to goe to the depth of my buiseyness, and 
what can not appeare by accounts, that to estymat so as 
may be equall & indifferent boeth for income & expence, 
& where ought shall appeare difficult that you would bee 
pleased to geeue them your aduize for the better cleering 
of it, & [withjall to cast your eye vppon the chardges 
shalbee layd vppon me by Estymate that the same doe 
not exceede, whereby my loss should bee made heauier 
then r[ea]lly it is, or ought to bee. Had I receued that 
Correspondence from N. E. which I might justley haue 


expected in the course of my dealing thether, the publique 
had beene partaker thereof ere this more s[en]sybley, but 
I haue not beene so happey. Yeet what shall I say, Mr. 
Mayhewe is approued of all, and I desyre [he] may still 
contyneue so, & I [sh]albee harteley glad thereof as realley 
wishing his good and welfFare, but so as my welfare also 
may subsist with his. I knowe noe liberty he hath to 
trade in ought ffor himselfe, but the cleane contrary, by 
our Covenants which my servant Jolliff cane shewe you 
and they exspire not till about June next. The reading 
of these 2 letters affore-mencioned will shewe you more 
then I can heere express, and when your selffe shall haue 
heard and seeyne all, I ame perswaded you can not pro- 
pound that ffor me to doe which I shall not bee reddy to 
yeeld vnto, ffor yf Mr. Mayhewe doe realley approoue his 
Integrity I shall desyre to contyneue him in my Imploy- 
ment according to his owne offer by his Letters receiued 
by this shippe, and as I knowe him abell for my buiseynes 
so I ame perswaded when euer wee parte he will not ese- 
ley fynd one so willing to doe him good as I haue beene, 
and ame. I doe once more intreate your love, ffurder- 
ance and advize in this buiseynes of myne which doeth 
much concerne me to haue my affayres there setteled in 
some good way, and so as I may boeth cleereley seey what is 
become of my estate I haue or should haue there ; as also 
howe for the tyme to come I may haue an equall and 
ffayre carriadg of my buiseynes. I ame harteley glad to 
heare of the good approbacion of our newe Gouvernour 
there, Mr. Vane. The sicknes* heere weekeley increasing 
wee haue noe relacion nowe to the Court, beeing in this 
respect as banished men from thence, so as I make 
questyon whether it bee knowen there as yeet, howeuer 
I trust God will raise vp freyndes & meanes to furder & 
aduanse his owne worke ; yea wee may bee confident 

* The plague, which prevailed in London in 1636, and of which 10,400 persons died in 
that year. — Eds. 


thereof, he will neuer forsake vs if wee forsake not him, 
and if God be with vs wee neyde not feare who is against 
vs. I will heere conclude with harty commendations 
from me & myne to your selffe & yours, & will rest euer 
in owght I may 

Your assured louing ffreynde to bee Commaunded 

Mathewe Cradock. 
London, 13 Septemb. 1636. 

[Sir, — I haue a purpose to apply my selfe to tylledge 
& incresing my stock of Cattell, and hauing had recourse 
to a plase caled Shawe Shynn* where I heare none comes 
but my selffe, I desyre your fFauour when the Court shal- 
bee moued in my behalfe, that I may haue 2000 Acres 
there allotted to me where I shall ffynd it most conven- 
yent ffor mee. I know the orders made heere in Court 
allowe me maney thousand acres more then euer I intend 
to demand or looke after. This my suite I hope will geeue 
offence to none, & when I shall putt vp a tenement & a 
dame as I haue heerewith geeuen order thereabout, I 
hope in a short tyme others will ffollowe, if once a good 
mynister bee plased there, and I ame perswaded the more 
English Corne is cherished, the better it wilbee for the 
whole Plantacion. I once more take my leaue & Rest 

Yours Mathewe Cradock.] 

[The postscript which is included in brackets is cancelled in the ori- 
ginal, as explained by the writer in the next paragraph.] 

Sir, — I lyke my Implyments so well there as I desyre 
to troble my selffe less then I haue done, which hath made 
mee [to] cross out this postscript, I not intending to haue 
it mooued. God send me some meanes to dispose of that 
I haue, that somewhat may come of it, towards my exceed- 
ing great charge I haue beene & am at, my taxes in pub- 

* Now Billcrica. — Eds. 


lique beeing to be great maney wayes, considering howe 
my buseynes are there carryed by Mr. Mayhewe. I 
send you herewith a letter date the 13 January, which I 
thought to haue sent away then, but missed of convayance. 
that written in the margent [was] by mistake & should 
haue bene written in Jno. Jolliffs letter. That you maye 
judge of Mr. Mayhewes dealings by me I send herewith to 
Jno. JollifFe my chardge on him for what hath come 
meereley to his hands whereby he is debtor to me besyds 
the [in]crease of my Cattell & improuement of my grounds 
& profhtt by the labors of seruants which if sett against 
there chargs & other losses, yeet I should haue there aboue 
1150[0]Z. if I be well dealt with, & whereas accordingly 
I gave order to haue moneyes remitted home to mee in 
steede thereof I ame charged by Tho : Mayhewe without 
the knowledge of Jno. Jolliffe with great somes, whereas 
my expresse order was he should doe nothing in my bui- 
seynes without Jno Jolliff's consent. I must abrupt[ly] 
breake of, but doe pray you with your best aduize to flfur- 
der me in aught that may tend ffor my saffetey, by Mr. 
Pierse I hope to inlardg, hauing caused this letter to be 
returned me from Plymouth, whether I nowe send it to 
be sent you by the George, Mr. Jno. Seuerne. Thus 
with my best Respects I rest 

Your Worships to be commaunded 

Mathewe Cradock. 

London 21 February, 1636. 


Worthei Sir, — The greyffe I haue beene putt to by the 
most vyle bad dealinge of Thomas Mayhew hath & doeth 
so much disquiet my mynd, as I thanke God neuer aney 
thing ded in the lyke manner. The Lord in mercy ffreey 


me from this, I absolutely fforbad chardging moneys from 
thence or buying aney goods there. I thanke God my 
occasions requyred it not but I haue had great returnes 
made mee from thence by meanes of goods I sent thither 
by the direction of Thomas Mayhewe ffor aboue 5000/ in 
the last 2 yeeres & geeuing to much credditt to his insyn- 
nuating practises & the good opynion I by the reports & 
aduize of maney & more especialley of your selfe, ded appre- 
hend of him, but ffarr beyond all expectacion & contrary 
to my express order he hath charged me with dyuers 
somes & geeven bills in my name which he neuer had 
order from me to doe, & that not for small somes, whereof 
some party culers are specefyed in the inclosed which I 
pray you deliuer my servant Jno. Jolliff ; & good Sir lett 
me intreate your selfe & those in authority there to take 
some course that Thomas Mayhew may be answerable ffor 
that estate of myne which my sayd seruant can showe 
you hath come to his hands. This conveyance is vncer- 
ten & therfore I shalbee breiffer then I would or my 
necessety requyres but by Mr. Peirse, God willing, I shall 
Inlardge, but I knowe you may by this seey & apprehend 
my case. Bills come dayley almost presented to me of 
one kynd or other without aney aduize, but from Jno. 
Jolliffs aryvall he ought not to haue done any thing in my 
buiseynes without his approbacion & consent, but when it 
shall appeare ho we he hath dealt by me, you & all men 
that shall seey it I ame perswaded will hardley thinke it 
could be possible that a man pretending sincerity in his 
actions could deale so viley as he hath & doeth deale by 
me. This buiseynes is not to be delayed, if he can justefy 
his actions it were to bee wished but not possible, Lett 
me craue your fauour & the Courts so ffarr as you shall 
seey my cause honest & just, & boeth the Court & your 
selfe & the whole plantacion shall euer oblige me to be 

Yours euer to my power Mathewe Cradock. 

London 13 January 1636. 


Jno. Jollife, — ffayle not to send the shipp Rebecka 
Victualled for three monthes to Virginea to Mr. Thomas 
Steggs, with some commoditty such as you shall vnder- 
stand to be there most vendable ffor vallewe of 120/. or 
150/ at most. You may Rate all 20 per cent more then 
what ech cost per Inuoice sent from hence. Leaue the 
Shipp wholey to Mr. Tho : Steggs disposing & if he send 
ought back in her to you & Rich : Hoare (for so is our 
aduize) ffollowe his order therewith & with the shipp as 
neere as you cane. I wish Mr. Jno. Hodges to resvme 
command and goe Master in her & that he obserue Mr. 
Steggs order in her further ymplyment. Shee is to bee 
victualled for three monthes & to haue all her ordynance 
belonging to her with other necessaries whereof what all 
is I desyre an Inuentory may be sent me and the Masters 
hand to it. Yours 

Mathewe Cradock. 

Jno. Jolliff writes mee the manner of Mr. Mayheues 
accounts is, that what is not sett downe is spent : most ex- 
tremeley I ame abused. My seruants write they drinke 
nothing but water & I haue in an account lateley sent me 
Red Wyne, Sack & aqua vita? in one yeere aboue 300 gal- 
lons, besids many other to intollerable abuses, 10/ for 
tobacco, etc. My papers are misselayd, but if you call for 
the coppyes of the accounts sent me & examine vppon 
what ground it is made, you shall fynd I doubt all but 
forged stuffe. By Mr. Pierse I shall, God willing, inlardge, 
meane while I euer rest in ought I may 

Your worships at Commaund 

Mathewe Cradock. 

London 21 Febr. 1636. 



To my honored and much respected freind John Winthrop the 
elder, Esqr. Boston in Neiv England. By our goodfreynd Mr. 
Wm Peirse, ivhome God jpreserue. 

[The letter and postscript which precede the following, in the origi- 
nal, are copies of those dated 13 Sept. and 21 Feb., 1636 ; and are, 
therefore, not repeated.] 

Laus Deo. In London, 15 March 1636, Stilo Anglise. 

Worthei Sir, — All deue respects premised. The 
afore written are coppyes of my former. Theise to accom- 
panie our good freynd Mr. William Peirse by whome I 
had a full purpose to haue sent you an Antimoniall Cupp* 
which I make doubt whether I shall gett to send by him. 
Yf I bee not missinformed the vsse thereof (I feare immod- 
derat) was an occasion of shortening Sir Nathaniell Riche's 
dayes, who hath made exchange of this liffe ffor a better, 
ffor the pretence of the Dorchester men I knowe not 
what to saie, I thin eke if the trueth were knowen they 
rather should bee indebted to vs. I ame sure by sending 
the Company's shippe Lyon's Whelp for their occasions, 
the Company lost much money, beside the burden, ende 
commonley was laycl on the Londoners : ffor my partyculer 
I protest vnfeynedley to my best knowledge I ame out of 
purse for the generall Company twixt 3 & 400/, & haue 
bene so ffor maney yeeres, what recompence I shall haue I 
know not, and it is not fytt aney pryuat man should beare 
a burden the generall bodey of the Company ought to 
beare. I will indeauour to bee further informed of this 
buiseynes of theres if I cane, but I perswade my selffe if 
aney such thinge were by order of Court, the Court bookes 

* There is in the library of the Massachusetts Historical Society a curious tract, entitled 
"The Vniversall Medicine; or, the Vertves of the Antimjniall Cup. . . . By Iohn Evans, 
Minister, and Preacher of God's Word. London, 1634," — which contains a minute ac- 
count of the efficacy of this medicinal agent in the cure of various diseases, but makes no 
mention of cases like that of the unfortunate Sir Nathaniel Rich. — Eds. 


there will shewe it, and to my best remembrance they 
willingley gaue what they had there to goe vppon ao 
coumpt of there Stock Intended, ffor my bniseynes with 
Thomas Mayhewe I referre you to what is aboue written, 
& what this bearer Mr. Peirse will showe and accquaynte 
you with, & what I haue written to our Gouernour * to 
whome indeede I haue beene larger therein then I In- 
tended. I desyre your, his, & the ffauour of the Court so 
farr as my cause shall appeare honest and just, and I 
harteley pray you aduize and ffurder my seruant Jno. 
Jolliffe whereby hee may bee in possession of all my estate 
there & that it may bee publiqueley knowen Mr. Mayhewe 
neither had nor hath pouer or order to deale ffor me se- 
thence the tyme of John Jolliffs arryuall there, otherwisse 
then what is done with the knowledge, aduize and consent 
of the sayd Jno. Jolliffe. It would bee to long to relate to 
you my wrongs, and Thomas Mayhewes vniust and in- 
direct dealings by me in a most high nature, manner and 
measure, if truley knowen & vnderstoode, which I doubt 
not but Mr. Peirse will at lardge accquaynte you with, and 
I desyre he may bee imployed in helping to perffeckt 
my accowmpts with him. I hope by the next shippe to 
intreate a ffreynd that is mynded that way, if he do come 
thether to helpe settell my account, and some course also 
about my meanes I haue there before all bee consumed, 
ffor insteede of benefitt by New England I suffer to ex- 
tremley in my estate, as you will so one perseyue when you 
vnderstand the trueth of all things. Excuse me I pray 
you in beeing to troblesome to you heerein. I may not 
omitt to accquaynt you with one passage touching the 
generall, nameley of one Mr. Cleve and Mr. Tucker who 
this last yeere were with me and pretended great good to 
our plantacion & great ffauour they could haue at Court, 
& desired my approbacion of somewhat they intended, 

* Sir Henry Vane. — Eds. 


whereto I could say nothing till I saw what it was. 
Wherevppon they brought me a writing which hauing 
seeyne I vtterley dislyked & disavowed for hauing owght to 
doe therein, but taking it to peruse before I would geeue 
my answere, caused a coppy to bee taken which I send you 
herewith. Sence Mooreton from them came to me on the 
exchange, & Mr. Peirse beeing there, I hauing noe de- 
sire to speake with Mooreton alone putt him of a turne or 
2 on the exchange, till I ffound Mr. Pierse, & then caled 
him to me, and in his presence disavowed to haue aney 
thing to doe therein, for Moreton would haue had me 
pay the chardge or promiss some such matter in taking 
out somewhat vnder the seale this beeing done one or 
about the 9 January last, vppon the exchange, as Mr. 
Pierse cane relate vnto you. 

There is 4 or 5 sommes of 25/ a peece owing to pryveat 
men borrowed on the Companies seale, whereof there 
were maney more, but it seemes all paid saue th[ei]se, and 
theise I wish were paid, the not doing whereof by ill 
mouthes reflects [to] much to the disparagement of the 
Companie ; Take it to hart I pray you, ffor you would 
and the Companie would if they knewe & heard that I 
doe & must heare to my greyffe & disdayne of there 
base languadge of vs : ffor my partyculer though I beare 
alreddy euen by that the generall Company owes me 
as vouched before more then to much, yeet were I not 
ouerpressed by my heauey burdens, there lode on me by 
T. M. I would stop some of there mouthes if not all, 
though I paid it out of my owne purse, but I ame fforsed 
otherwise. God forgeeue him that is the cause of it. I 
will heere conclude, beseeching the Allmightey to blesse 
with good suckcess all your Indeuours. I doe thinke 
Mr. Gouernour* shall doe himselffe a great deale of Right 
to c[o]m[e] for England as soone as his yeere is exspired 

* i.e., — Eds. 


and I ame to [co]nfident if he negleckt it, it will exceed- 
ingly preiudice him in his outward estate, I knowe you 
wish him realley well. Consider seriouslei of it I pray 
you & aduize him ffor his good, wherevnto the Lord 
direct you & him, & so I euer Rest 

Your Worships assured to be Coma[nde]d 

Mathewe Cradock. 

I thinke I shal bee forsed to bee a suytor for some land 
at Shaweshynne, the best of myne as I ame informed 
neere my house beeing allotted to Mr. Wilson & Mr. 
Nowell,* therefore pray your furderance wherein shalbee 
needfull. Yours Mathewe Cradock. 

I pray you be plesed to lett Mr. Peirse amongst others 
she we you Mr. Palmers letter of Barnstable, whereby you 
will find a Strang passadge of Thomas Mayhewes by me. 
I maruell Mr. Hayne would drawe him into such a buisey- 
nes, but Mr. Haynes I am perswaded thought Mr. May- 
hewes delings to bee others then they will appeare when 
they are vnm asked. 


To the Bight Worshipfull Jno. Winthrop Esqr. Gouernour of Lon- 
dons plantacon in the Mattachusetts bay in New England in 
America. — dlr. 

Per the Desire of New England, Mr. John Cutting, lohome God 

Right Worshipfull, — My Loue & seruice presented to 
you. Yours of the 8. 8th I have receiued by my Cussen 
Cooke by which & other relacions I fynd my selfe still grow 

* See Mass. Colonial Records, i. 114. — Eds. 


deep indebted unto you, which I wish it lay in my power to 
requite. I was lateley caled vppon by Mr. Mutyes, Clarke 
of the Counsell for answere to the letter sent you, but I 
replyed I had received none, & sence heard noe more 
thereof from him. The Writts for a parlaiment are nowe 
abroad. I heare there hath beene great adoe at Westmin- 
ster theise 2 dayes about there burgesses, & not yeet agreed 
on. Come tuesday next the burgesses of London are to 
bee chosen, beeing the 4 March. God in mercy dyrect 
them & the whole kingdome in theire choise, that this 
parlament may produce good to the Realme ; approching 
euills being much to be ffeared. Great preparacions are 
in hand against the Skotts as is doubted, God in 
mercy graunt all may bee concluded in pease. Some 
3 dayes past this Inclosed* was & still contynues to 
bee openiey sould & are exceedingly bowght vp. In 
pervsing of it you will be able to judge more. Yf you 
shall thinke of owght fitt to bee mooued in parlament, 
consider seriousley of it with the Court there, to whome 
I pray you tender my best seruice with all deue respects 
and vppon nottice of your desires I doubt not but to fynd 
meanes to furder the same, wherein my best indeuours 
shall at least wise not bee wanting. I ame behoulding 
to the Court, & I harteley thanke them for easing me in 
the cuntrey rates this last yeere, Truley as I once de- 
lyuered at a full boord at Counsell tabell, so I haue great 
cause to accknowledge God's goodness & mercy to me in 
inabling me to vndergoe what I haue & doe suffer by New 
England, & as I spake then openiey so I profess sincereley, 
yf my heart deceyue me not, I joye more in the expecta- 
con of that good shall come to others there when I shal 
bee dead & gone, then I greyue for my owne losses, thowgh 
they haue beene verry heauey & greate, seeing God hath 
inabled me to beare them. I vnderstand there is volun- 

* The article enclosed cannot be identified at this late day. — Eds. 


tary contribucions towrds a Colledge in Cambridge, which 
I must confess is a worthey worke. I pray your wor- 
ship bee pleased to mooue the Court to cleere that debtt 
dewe to me by the Cuntry, out of which money I ame 
content and doe ffreeley geeue ifyftey pounds to the sayd 
Colledge & for the aduansment thereof;* I shall not troble 
you further at present but wish some serious course might 
be thought of howe returnes may bee prouided whereby 
trade may bee incoraged. I speake not for aney partyculer 
end of my owne, but for the publique good & ame of opy- 
nion to cherish a Magazine for ffish to bee the oneley way 
by Gods assistance. The well ordering of it is all, & noe 
better meanes I thinke then that some beginning bee made 
without expectacion of present proffitt oneley, that the 
ffishermen may be assured the ffish shalbee taken of there 
hands as ffast as they take it. This by degrees will drawe 
ffishermen to plant themselues there, & some must be 
dealt withall to begin to plant & to haue incoragement 
herein ; but I submit to grauer judgments of your selfe 
& those there who are better able to judge what may bee 
done. Next heerevnto pipestaues if the tymber be fytt 
when well sesened would be thought vppon. I craue 
leaue & with tender of my seruice & best respects shall 
euer Rest Your worships to be comaunded 

Mathew Cradock. 
London 27 ffebr. 1639. 

Remember my loue I hartely pray you to Mr. Downing. 
I doubt I shall not haue leisure to write him hereby. My 
selfe, wiffe, & mother desire to be remembred to your 
selfe and Mrs Winthrop. 

* No mention is made, in the early history of Harvard College, of the liberal contribu- 
tion for its establishment which Cradock here offers. — Eds. 




To my Deare & right wortliie ffriend John Winthrop Junior f 

Esqr. dd. 

• Dearest Sir, — I writt vnto you by Mr. Babbe wherein 
I gaue you full commission to sell my howse. And I doe 
by theise second it againe, desiring you to sell it to an 
honest man, else not to sell it. The price I writt was 
250U, what aboue you can. And if you see good you may 
abate some of it. I haue giuen order to Thomas Read 
who is now in England to finde out a chapman if hee can, 
as also to Mr. Peters in Holland, and haue written to him 
to make you acquainted with their proceedings that there 
be no wronge don to any. If God should so order that 
you can sell it, I pray you do so much as to certifie soe 
much by letter to Mr. Peters in Holland, who is at Roter- 
dam. There is no newes heere, all your ffriends are well. 
We had the greatest snow fell the xxixth of the 9th moneth 
that I haue seene yet since I came into the Land. The 

* John Endecott was one of the six original patentees of the Massachusetts Territory, 
granted 19th March, 1627-8. In June of this year, he embarked, with other colonists, in 
the "Abigail," for New England; and arrived at Salem on the 6th September. On the 
confirmation of the patent, 4th March the following year, Endecott received from the com- 
pany in England a commission as " Governor of London's Plantation in Massachusetts Bay 
in New England; " which office he held until the transfer of the General Government, and 
the arrival of the company under Winthrop, in 1630. He afterwards served as Deputy- 
Governor four years, and as Governor sixteen years ; being at the head of the administra- 
tion a longer time than any other under the old patent. He died 15th March, 1665, aged 
seventy-seven. — See Winthrop 's Hist, of N. E., i. 26 ; Young's Chron. of Mass., passim. — 

f John Winthrop, Jr., at the writing of this letter, was in England. — Eds. 


Crosse is much stood for, & I ame like to suffer in it.* 
The Lord his will be done. My wiefe remembers her loue 
to you & Mr. Williams. The good God bring you back 
againe in saftie to vs. To whom I committ you & rest 

Your assured loving ffriend & brother in the Lord 
Jesvs. Jo : Endecott. 

Salem the 8th of the 10th moneth 1634. 

I haue written to Mr. Eevell concerning my howse, it 
may be hee will buy it. If you please you may speake with 

To the right Worshipfull John Winthrop Esqr. Oouernour dd. 

Dearest Sir, — The bearer heereof Francis Felming- 
ham, being husband to the eldest daughter of Beniamyn 
Cooper deceased, who (as you haue already beene in- 
formed) dyed intestate in the way overbound to this place, 
doeth in the right of his wiefe & sonne, clayme his right 
in the goods & chattells of the said Beniamyn ; the rather 
for that the said Beniamyn gaue him no portion with his 
daughter. I therefore haue addressed him to your selfe 
to giue him some satisfaccion in that behalfe. I haue 
caused the order made in this particular to be put in prac- 
tise that the goods may not come to dammage, and that the 
younger daughter f be prouided for. But I conceaue that 
Scruggs, with whom the younger daughter is, will not be 
a convenent Guardian for her, both in regard of his judge- 
ment & his & his wifs breedinge, & therefore to take some 

* A short time previous to this, Endecott had "defaced the cross in the ensign;" and, 
at the next March Court, he was called to answer for it. — Winlhrop's Hist, of N. JE., i. 146, 
156. — Eds. 

t See letter of Emanuel Downing to John Winthrop, in this volume, p. 56 ei seq. — 


other when we shall meete. The wiefe of this Francis 
Felmingham (as I ame informed) is one that feares God. 
And her ffather brought her husband & her ouer vppon his 
owne chardge, and did intend to prouide for them heere. 
Having nothing else at present but my due respects vnto 
your deare wiefe, I leaue you to the Almighties guidance 
& blessing, resting 

Yours if any thing Jo : Endecott. 

Salem this 15 of the 6th moneth 1637. 


Dearest Sir, — The severall reports of your sick con- 
dition since I came home have bene so divers, that I can- 
not tell wether my feares or my hopes of your recovery 
have been the greatest. Though when I came from you, 
your phisick had wrought so kindly made mee scarce to 
doubt of the best effects. My truest love makes mee feare 
what my best hopes would willinglye carry mee through, 
especially when I consider the further imployment the 
Lord hath yet for you heere amongest his people. When 
the worst tidings come I am yet comforted in this, that hee 
that giveth both health and salvation to his people, heareth 
in heaven, and is overcome by his poore wrestlers here on 
earth. Such thoughts I have had of Gods dealings with 
you, and with us all in visiting you at present, and what 
his meaning might be therein. But his thoughts are 
aboue our thoughts, and hee is onely wise. Sure I am he 
will doe that which shall be for the glory of his owne 
name, the true comfort and the good of his people. We 
have had many former experiences of Gods great mercies 
unto us in divers great deliverances since we came over, 
and why might we not expect that mercy also, even your 
deliverance from death. Surely it was not our worthynes 
that procured the former, rnd I still hope that our un- 


worthiness (though it might justly) shall not bereaue us of 
this latter. Hee that raised up Lazarus can (why shall I 
not say will 1) also restore you unto us. Meethincks when 
I loock upon all things as they now are amongst us, I 
might be confident herein, witch the Lord in mercie 
graunt, if it stand with his good pleasure. I longe to see 
you, and would er this have bene with you, could I have 
conceaved myself to be any way usefull to you, and would 
however had not Mr. Peters illness onely detayned mee, 
for hee hath bene very ill. But I hope the worst is past, 
though hee be as sick in his thoughts as ever. We both 
resolve the begininge of the weeke to visitt you. In the 
meane while I commend and commit you into the armes of 
our deare and loving Father, the God of all our consola- 
tion, health, and salvation ; beseeching him to make your 
bed for you in your sickness, to comfort you in your greatest 
trialls and anguishes, to strengthen you in your greatest 
weakenesses, to stand by you as longe as you live, that you 
may live longe amongest us, if it be his bleassed will, to his 
praise, and at length to rest with him for ever in glorie, for 
the Lord Jesus Christ his sake, amen, amen. 

Yours truelie whiles I live Jo : Endecott.* 

Salem the 13 of the 3d. moneth 1638. 


To the right Worshipfull our truely Honored Gouernour John 
Winthrop, Esqr, dd. 

Dearest Sir, — I humblie thanck you for your last 
loving lettre. I will not at present reply any thinge. It 

* The above is from an old copy, evidently taken from the original. Concerning the 
subject-matter of this letter, Winthrop, under date of May 2, records : " At the Court of Elec- 
tions, the former Governor, John Winthrop, was chosen again. The same day, at night, he 
was taken with a sharp fever, which brought him near death ; but many prayers were put 
up to the Lord for him, and he was restored again after one month." — Hist, of N. K, 
i. 265. — P:ds. 


is well that your selfe & others of God's Children with 
you are satisfyed in that dismission. I confesse I yet ame 
not, but more heereafter of this particular. At present I 
ame bould to entreate your fauour in a case of Mr. 
Bishopps the bearer heereof. It is a case of conscience. 
I haue laboured to giue him the best satisfaccion I can, but 
it seemes hee is not satisfyed. I hope that hee is one truely 
fearing God & therefore I desire much, (if God see it good) 
hee may be satisfyed in his scruples & feares. It concerne 
chiefiie the Magestracie concerninge their power in matters 
of Gods Worshipp. I leaue him to state the question, that 
you may the better satisfie him & the better understand 
him. As also if you please to take in the helpe of Mr. 
Cotton, whom hee doeth much deseruedly reverence ; as 
also your good pastor, that at least hee may be convinced 
of his error. Kindnes doeth much prevail with him. This 
journey now into the bay is of purpose to seeke light as 
hee saith. The Lord giue him light, if it be his will. Hee 
is come of from his former judgment, that sanctification 
is not an euidence of our good estate. It may be hee may 
be brought of of this also. This being all at present, but 
my true seruice to your selfe & dearest yoakefellow, I com- 
mend you to the blessed protection of the Almighty & rest 

Yours euer Jo : Endecott. 

29th of the 8th moneth 1638. 


Dearest Sir, — Vnderstanding by diuers heere that 
Mr. Eaton* hath ingaged himself to diuers within this Juris- 
diccion in great sommes of money, as also abused others by 

* Reference is here made to Nathaniel Eaton, the schoolmaster of Cambridge ; concern- 
ing whom more will be seen in a letter of his brothe., Theophilus Eaton, among the 
miscellaneous letters in this volume. For a further account of the misconduct of this 
unhappy man, and the proceedings consequent thereon, see Winikvop's Hist, of N. E., 
i. 308-313; Mass. Colonial Records, i. 275, 277. — Eds. 


his base cariadges & now escaped the hands of such offi- 
cers as were sent after him ; I thought it my dutie to write 
vnto you onely to demaund whither it be not needfull to 
send after him where hee is gon, ffor I ame certainely 
informed that hee is gon in Neles barke to Virginiea. 
Now if you & the Deputie thinck meete to send to the Gou- 
ernour & State there to send him back, together with one 
Samuel Eale, a man of Mr. Natha Rogers, which Nele hath 
caryed with him : (though hee was informed whose seruant 
hee was, as Mr. Nathaniell Rogers tells mee) Mr. Younge 
his shippe is like to stay thise 2 or 3 dayes yet, who is 
bound for Virginea. I pray you if you thinck it meete & 
fit! that you will be pleased to send with what speede you 
can : I thinck if there be no other effect of it yet it will 
satisfie many men of the care this State hath of the welfare 
of their members. But it may doe the partie good to 
bring him vnder God's ordinances, & it may be a meanes 
of procuring parte at least of their estates who haue 
trusted him, as also prevent him from wronging others 
where hee may come. But I leaue all to your wise & 
Christian consideracon : and rest thanckfull vnto you for 
your louing tokens. I shall neuer come out of your debt. 
I must leaue another to repay all into your bosom, our 
good God, to whose blessed protection I leaue you. 
euer remayning Your Worshipps truely 

while I ame Jo : Endecott. 

10 of 8ber 1639. 


To the right Worshipfull & my truelie honored ffriend Jo : Win- 
throp, Esqr. Governour, dd. 

Dearest Sir, — What construction you may put vpon 
my silence I dare not conclude, but I hope the best. The 


wise man saith that a ffriend loueth at all tymes, and a 
brother is borne for aduersitie. And heere is my grief e, 
that I cannot shew my selfe either, as I desire or as my 
dutie binds [m]e. I cannot excuse my not writinge (though 
not out of neglect). But the present want of a more reall 
comfort & effectuall expression of my loue & seruice hath 
hithervnto hindred mee. If I should say I doe not truelie 
& heartilie reverence & loue you & yours, I should speak 
against my conscience. Yet I cannot satisfie my selfe with 
sole verball expressions. But I desire to waite vppon God 
who will in his tyme bring all our matters to passe, & work 
all our works for vs. I haue had many sad thoughts about 
your affliction* yet I neuer doubted to this howre of your 
comfortable deliuerance. I ame thinking sometimes that 
the Lord is trying of the whole Countrie, not but that hee 
knowes their hearts &c. well enough, but hee will haue you 
to see their loues & affeccons towards you also. Some- 
times I ame thinking hee is vppon the tryall of your selfe 
in the exercise of your faith & patience & other graces : 
that as you haue bene beneficiall & helpfull all your tyme 
since you came over, in the course hee had sett you, now 
hee will make you beneficiall another way to vs all in an 
exemplarie cheerefull vndergoinge of Gods afflicting hand 
in wisdom & patience. Sir let mee say thus much to 
you, that your last sicknes did you not good alone, but 
many others also, obseruinge the Lords guidinge of your 
spiritt vnder it : I blesse the Lord I can truely say I 
gayned by it ; & I know some others that exprest the same. 
This I am confident in. The Lord is now louinge of you 
deerely, and his corrections are the corrections of a louing 
ffather. If hee will haue you to be poore for a little while 
it is to make you richer hereafter, not onelie heere as hee 
did Job, but for euer heereafter to all eternitie. I ame 

* A further reference to Winthrop's affliction at this time, occasioned by an " unfaith- 
ful servant," may be seen in an admirable leder of Edward Winslow, written this same 
month, in Hutchinson's Collection of Original Papers, p. 110. — Eds. 



glad to he ere you are chierfull, yet I know (in respect of 
others) your cares cannot be a few & I feare griefs also. 
The Lord our good God in mercie cary you through them 
to his praise & your true comfort. I should haue bene 
with you at Court, but I ame aduised by all my friends to 
stay at home this tyme. And I was the more easilie 
drawen vnto it, because I finde my selfe worse & worse 
within this sennight then I haue bene this moneth : my 
cold which I haue had this moneth or 5 weekes increasing 
vpon mee, & head out of order vpon euery little wett in 
my feete. I therefore shall desire you good Sir to excuse 
mee to the Deputie & the rest of the Court, beseeching the 
Lord in mercie to sitt amongest you & to guide you all in 
his feare to doe his will. To whose blessed protection I 
committ you and rest 

Your Worshipps truelie & vnfeigned, whiles I ame 

Jo: Endecott. 

Salem the 2d of the 12 moneth 1639. 

Myne & my wiefs service remembred to Mrs. Wintrop 
your deare yoakefellow & to Mr. Jo : Wintrop & his wiefe 
& our true loues to all yours with you. Your sister's sonne 
is named after your name — John. 


To the rigid Worshipfull & my much honoured ffriend John Win- 
throp Esqr. deliuer theise at Boston. 

Dearest Sir, — I haue according to your desire aduised 
with Mr. Downinge & Mr. Hawthorne concerninge Mr. 
Peter his voyage for England. And we haue imparted 
our thoughts each to other about it. And we haue (ac- 
cording to the tyme) considered ffirst of the proiect it selfe 
& 2dlie of the persons to be imployed about it. ffor the 
proiect (if we mistake it not) viz. ffor an agent or agents to 


be imployed by the Country or Counsell to procure men or 
money or both for vs from England, wee (submittinge to 
better judgments) thinck it may proue more hurtfull then 
helpefull vnto vs diuers wayes. ffor ffirst it will conferme 
my Lord Say and others of his judgement that New Eng- 
land can no longer subsist without the helpe of old 
England ; espetiallie they beinge already informed of the 
forwardnes of diuers amongest vs to remoue to the West 
Indies because they cannot heere maintayne their families. 
2dlie. It is liklie to tend to the dishonour of God, when 
ill affected persons shall vnderstand that our necessities 
are such as we are forced to seeke for reliefe as before. 
3dlie. It may be a meanes (instead of sending over more 
persons & money vnto vs) of discouraginge & diuerting 
both from vs. The report of our pouertie having bene al- 
readie a manifest cause of debarringe most from vs. 4thlie 
It is to be feared that vnlesse the money we exp[ect they] 
would sollicit for, be freelie giuen vs, it will rather im- 
pouerish vs, & so bringe dishonour to God by such ingage- 
ments not duely satisfyed then doe vs good, though it 
should come vppo[n] easie termes. Plimmoth plantacion 
may giue vs some light herein. But to looke amongest 
our selues, if there were noe other ground but this, the due 
consideration how vnprofitablie the monies we haue had 
haue bene layd out ; as namelie, in wines & liquors, & 
English prouisions of dyett & vnnecessarie brauerie in 
apparell, all which tends to the scandall of religion & 
pouertie : much more might be said. 

Yet thus farre we thinck Gods prouidence might be 
serued, that if priuately some Godlie wise men in seuerall 
townes were spoken to (who are well knowen in England, & 
haue bene men of eminency & esteeme amongest them, as 
Mr. Cotton, Mr. Ezek: Rogers, Mr. Norrice, & many others 
such) to write to their acquaintances who are likelie to doe 
vs good, by way of counsell to aduize them, that it might 
be pleasing to God to further the work of the Lord heere, 


by their purses & persons, &c. This we thinck wilbe more 
effectuall then the other. 

Touchinge the persons some of them who are thought 
to be most fitt to be imployed in this dissigne, doe thinck 
(with submission) most vnfitt, which we are assured you 
will also be of our myndes, when we shall speake together, 
but I forbeare to write, for letters may miscarry, Onely in 
generall to take notice, that they are men well affected to 
the West Indies. Other thinges hereafter. These few 
quaeres I propose to your best thoughts. 

1 Quaere. Whither prayinge & waytinge (as the case 
stands) were not more agreeable to our state & condition 
then to runne vnder so many dangers to relieue our selues : 
the Lord hauing hitherto bene verie good vnto vs, beyond 

2 Quaere. Seeing it is likelie that the merchants in 
England & others are lookinge this way alreadie, whither 
it be not a forestallinge of the pr[o]uidence of God to 
run before it, & to hasten the worke our selues [which] 
the Lord would better effect in his tyme that his hand 
might be seene in it. 

3 Quaere. Whither it be not somewhat preposterous to 
goe from a place of safetie prouided of God, to a place of 
danger, vnder the hand of God to seeke reliefe for vs. 

4 Quaere. Whither it be proper fo[r [torn] mijnister 
to leaue his worke & to attend to secular businesses 
which may be done by others. Whither it be not some- 
thing Jesuiticall. 

5 Quaere. Whither the noise of procuring money out 
of England will not procure with it much envy from that 
State, & stirre vp against vs & the godlie there, the chiefest 
amongest them. Moneyes being denyed them by such 
men in case of such danger & waighty affaires in hand 

6 Quaere. Whither our scarcitie of money leads vs not 
rather to some more frugall course heere at home & to the 


strict reformation of the mispending of money then to seeke 
abroad for more to maintaine vs in our disorders, which I 
feare will hardlie be avoyded. 

7 Quaere. Whither there will not be more peace vnto vs 
& blessing vppon vs in a patient waiting vpon God then in 
a (seeming at least) distrust of his providence. 

These thinges I leaue to your more serious considera- 
tions : the Lord in mercie direct you in all, to whose blessed 
guidance & preseruation I leaue you, with my due & best 
respects & seruice to your selfe & deare yoakefellow, & 

Your worshipps truelie & heartily euer to be com- 
maunded Jo: Endecott. 

Mr. Steephens man Anchor I haue called before mee a 
moneth since & I haue examined him, & threatened to haue 
him to the Court, fearing hee should not speake the whole 
trueth but conceale something. Hee cannot witnes of 
any miscariadge towards Bennetts wiefe* [several words effaced^ 
But I gaue him not an oath because hee professed hee 
could not witnes any such thing in the least measure. Yet 
if this will not satisfie, vppon your intimation I will giue 
him an oath. 


Dearest Sir, — Hearing of the remarkable stroake of 
Gods hand vppon the shippe f & shippes companie of Bris- 
toll, as also of some Atheisticall passages & hellish profa- 
nations of the Sabbaths & deridings of the people & wayes 
of God, I thought good to desire a word or two of you of 

* Elizabeth Bennet was " censured to be whipped for her unchaste miscarriage," by the 
Court, 30th July, 1640. This letter must have been written before or about that time. — 

f This probably refers to the ship " Mary Rose," which " was blown in pieces with her 
own powder, being 21 barrels," in the harbor of Charlestown, on the 27th of July, 1640. 
Endecott's letter bears date the day after the occurrence. — See Winthrop's Hist of N. E., 
ii. 11, 72, 74. — Eds. 


the trueth of what you haue heard. Such an extraordinary 
judgment would be searched into, what Gods meaninge 
is in it, both in respect of those whom it concernes more 
especiallie in England, as also in regard of ourselues. God 
will be honred in all dealings. We haue heard of seue- 
rall vngodlie carriadges in that ship, as, ffirst in there way 
overbound they would constantlie jeere at the holie bre- 
thren of New England, & some of the marriners would in a 
scoffe ask when they should come to the holie Land % 2. 
After they lay in the harbor Mr. Norrice sent to the shippe 
one of our brethren vppon busines & hee heard them say, 
This is one of the holie brethren, mockinglie & disdaine- 
fullie. 3. That when some haue bene with them aboard 
to buy necessaries, the shippe men would vsuallie say to 
some of them that they could not want any thinge, they 
were full of the Spiritt. 4. That the last Lords Day, or 
the Lords Day before, there were many drinkings aboard 
with singings & musick in tymes of publique exercise. 
5. That the last ffast the master or captaine of the shippe, 
with most of the companie would not goe to the meetinge, 
but read the booke of common prayer so often over that 
some of the company said hee had worne that threedbare, 
with many such passages. Now if these or the like be 
true, as I am persuaded some of them are, I think the 
trueth heereof would be made knowen, by some faithfull 
hand in Bristoll or else where, ffor it is a very remarkable 
& vnusuall stroake. Pardon I pray you my boldnes heere- 
in. You shall command mee in any seruice I can doe. 
I write the rather because I haue some relation that way, 
& shall therefore be glad to be throughlie informed of 
theise things. This bein all at present, I leaue you with 
the Lord, desiring myne & my wie[f 's] heartie loue & ser- 
uice to be remembred to your selfe & your dearest yoake- 
fellow, & rest 

Yours euer assured Jo : Endecott. 

Salem the 28th of the 5th moneth 1640. 



To the right Worshipfull dt my wortliie & much honoured ffriend, 
John Winthrop Esqr. at Boston, dd. 

Deare Sir, — I called our towne together before your 
Lettre came seeing the spoile of timber which might serue 
for many good vses. And the towne agreed not to cutt any 
great tymber which is fitt for shipping planckes or knees 
&c. nor any for clapboard within twoe miles of the towne 
eury way, nor to fell any other timber but for their owne 
priuate vse. I think it were well if the Generall Court 
would make provision heerein. I pray you Sir if you heare 
any certaine newes by any Lettres concerninge the taking 
of Newcastle & Durham, and the winter parliament or any 
other newes out of England, that you will be pleased to 
let mee vnderstand of it. All the newes comes to your 
partes first. 

I am told that you are sollicited in a busines concerninge 
the girle * which was put to my keepinge & trust, whose 
estate was also committed to the trust of Mr. Hathorne 
[and] Mr. Batter. I have not bene made acquainted with 
it by you know whome, which if there had bene any such 
intendment I think it had bene but reason. But to let 
that passe, I pray you aduize not to stirre in it, for it will 
not be effected for reasons I shall shew you afterwards. 
The Lord in mercie keepe you & yours, to whose blessed 
guidance I committ you & rest. 

Yours truelie & heartily euer to commaund 

Jo: Endecott. 

28 llmo. 1640. 

* See a letter of Emanuel Downing to Gov. Winthrop, pp. 56-58, and also a former 
letter of Endecott, on p. 132, of this volume. — Eds. 



To the Worsliipfull my truelie honoured ffriend John Winthrop 

Senior Esqr dd. 

Dearest Sir, — Both your Letters I receaued, for 
which I humblie thanck you. And in answere to them 
both thus. I shall (according to your desire in the one) 
call the old planters together assoone as convenientlie I 
can. And we will recollect what the Lord shalbe pleased 
to bring to our memories. And with what speede I can I 
shall send it you. I feare it will not suddainelie be done, 
because they Hue at their farmes, but I will hasten it what 
I can. 

Touching that in the other about Eebecca Cooper,* the 
Lord knowes I haue alwaies resolued (& so hath my wiefe 
euer since the girl came to vs) to yelde her vp to be dis- 
posed by yourselfe to any of yours if euer the Lord should 
make her fitt & worthie, & you accept of, which also I 
know Mr. Peters can & will fully satisfie you in from both 
our expressions from tyme to tyme. And that is our pur- 
poses & resolutions still, if God hinder not. Now for the 
other for whom you writt. I confesse I cannot freelie 
yeald therevnto for present, for theise grounds, ffirst The 
girle desires not to marry as yet. 2dlie Shee confesseth 
(which is the trueth) herselfe to be altogether yet vnfitt for 
such a condition, shee being a verie gerle & but 15 yeares 
of age. 3dlie When the man was moued to her, shee 
said shee could not like him. 4thlie You know it would 
be of ill report that a girle because shee hath some estate 
should be disposed of so younge, espetiallie not hauing 
any parents to choose for her. ffourthlie I haue some 
good hopes of the childes comminge one to the best things, 

* See letter dated " Salem this 15 of the 6th month, 1637." — Eds. 


And on the other side I feare, I will say no more. Other 
things I shall tell you when we meete. If this will not 
satisfhe some, let the Court take her of from mee, & place 
her with any other to dispose of her, I shall be content ; 
which I heare was plotted to accomplish this end : but I 
will further enquire about it, & you shall know of it if it 
be true, fTor I know there are many passages about this 
busines which when you come to heare of you will not 
like. But I leaue heere. The Lord our good God keepe 
& preserue you & yours blamelesse to the comminge & 
appearing of his Sonne. And giue vs all faith hopefullie 
to waite vppon him who will doe for vs aboue what we 
can ask or thinck. In whom I ame 

Yours in true & heartie loue & affection while I liue 

Jo:: Endecott. 

Salem 5. 12. 40. 

My wiefe desires to haue her seruice remembered to you 
& Mrs. Winthrop. 


To the Worshipfull John Winthrop Senior Esqr dd at Boston. 

Deare Sir, — I hope I shall euer honour & loue you for 
your great care over mee & your wholsome counsell giuen 
to mee, which I haue through the mercie of God followed, 
so farre forth as I could vppon my best search chardge my 
selfe of the least appearance of giuing offence, either to 
the honoured maiestrates or ministers that subscribed the 
Letter. I think the church & all that heard mee will 
cleare mee of the things layd to my chardge. And I 
blesse God, so hath my honoured brother Mr. Humfries al- 
ready done & hath giuen me full sptisfaccion in his free 
acknowledgement of his failing heere, as also of his 
vniust chardges layd vpon mee there ; which we were all 



glad to heare, & do praise the name of God for him, 
and my heart is neerer knit to him than euer. Yet deare 
Sir let mee in loue tell you that you seeme in your Letter 
to tak all for granted that was related vnto you, which is 
not your wonted custome to doe, and that did at the 
first not a little greiue mee. Salomons rule would haue 
bene obserued. proverb 18. 17. If you had in the least 
measure suspended &c till I had written, it would haue 
sauored more of justice. But I cannot but thinck you in 
wisdome did it, to put mee to a deep search whereby the 
more to humble mee as I confesse I haue need to be. The 
Lord in mercie make mee thanckfull for all good helpes for 
my soul, & requite into your bosome all your labour of 
loue shewed to mee in this or in any of your former kind- 
nesses. With him I will leaue you & in him rest 

Yours most obliged Jo : Endecott.* 

Salem the 15th of the 1 moneth 1640. 


To the right worshipfull John Winthrop Esqr. Gouernour at 

Boston Dlr. 

Dearest Sir, — I humblie & heartilie thanck you for 
your last lettre of newes & for the trees you sent mee. I 
receaued your lettre lately & the trees I cannot yet heare 
of, but I hope I shall. I haue sent 2 or 3 tymes about 
them, & I cannot yet heare of them, the messenger you 
sent them by being gon to sea. I haue not sent you any 
trees because I heard not from you. But I haue trees for 

* This letter probably has reference to Endecott's opposition to Peter's appointment as 
agent to go to England, concerning which some difference of opinion was expressed be- 
tween Endecott and Humfrey. — See further in Winlhrop's Hist, of N.E., ii. 25, 26. — Eds. 


you if you please to accept of them whensoeuer you shall 
send. I thinck it is to late to sett or remoue. I could 
wish you to remoue in the latter end of the yeare your 
trees, & I pray you send mee what you want, & I will sup- 
ply what I can. My children burnt mee at least 500 trees 
this spring by setting the ground on fire neere them. I 
cannot send you any newes, but that your sister* is recouer- 
ing apace out of her sicknes, as Mrs. Gott who kept her 
told mee yesterday. I shall I hope see her this day my 
selfe againe. I heard you were not verie well. I desire 
the Lord to strenggthen you to the worke hee hath called 
you vnto & to restore you to your health. I vnderstand 
that Mr. Otely hath a suite with our Deacons for some 
goods that Morecruft left with Mr. Peters which Otely 
sais Mr. Humfry bought of him, but I thinck it will ap- 
peare that Mr. Peters hath bought them & paid for them. 
If you please therebye to stay the suite till Mr. Peter come 
ouer, who we hope will be heere this spring, I thinck it 
will not be amisse, fTor Mr. Otely is upon going away, & 
is turning euery stone to get something, ffor hee is poore 
& is like to be poorer in the courses hee is in. We haue 
heere diuers that are taken with Gorton's opinions, which 
is a great griefe vnto vs, & Mr. Norrice is verie much trou- 
bled. There is one of them that hath reviled Mr. Norrice 
& spoken euill of the Church. I thought good to aduize 
with you whether it were not best to bynde the partie ouer 
to Boston Court, to make such a one exemplarie, that 
others might feare, ffor assuredly both with you & with vs, 
& in other places that heresie doeth spread which at length 
may proue dangerous. The Lord in mercie keepe you, to 
whose grace I commend you & rest 

Yours euer to be commanded Jo : Endecott. 

Salem the 22d of the 2d mo. 1644. 

* Mrs. Lucy Downing. — Eds. 


Sir, Since I wrot my Lettre Mr. Norrice came to 
mee to tell mee, that hee heard that the Lady Moody* 
hath written to you to giue her aduice for her returne. I 
shall desire that she may not haue aduice to returne to 
this Jurisdiccion, vnlesse shee will acknowledge her euill in 
opposing the Churches, & leaue her opinions behinde her, 
ffor shee is a dangerous woeman. My brother Ludlow 
writt to mee that by meanes of a booke shee sent to Mrs. 
Eaton, shee questions her owne baptisme & it is verie 
doubtefull whither shee will be reclaymed, shee is so farre 
ingaged. The Lord rebuke Satan the aduersarie of our 


Dearest Sir, — I vnderstand by Mr. Tompson of our 
Towne, the sea man, that there is a great partie for the 
Kinge to the Eastward, and that they are makeing some 
preparations for some designes. They intertayned twoe 
of our Towne (ffayning themselues to be Caualiers) with 
much loue & good cheere, & they perceaue that something 
is in hand. They were plotting to take the Plimmoth pin- 
nace, & were sorrie they missed their opportunitie. It is 
about Richmond Hand that which I speake of, but they 
haue a partie in all those partes. And hearing that Mor- 
ton •(" went by sea to Gloster on the sixth day last, hoping 
from thence to get a passage to the Eastward, I sent a 
warrant to Gloster to apprehend him, if hee be there, 
ffor it is probable hee hath endeauored a partie to the 
Southward & now hee is gon to the Ea[stw]ard to doe 

* The Lady Deborah Moody became a member of Salem Church, April 5, 1640; was 
admonished for denying infant-baptism; and, to avoid further difficulty, removed to Long- 
Island in the summer of 1643. — Winthrqp's Hist, of N.E., ii. 123, 124; Felt's Annals of 
Salem, ii. 577. — Eds. 

f Thomas Morton, author of the New English Canaan, who, in the preceding year (1643), 
had returned to New England. — Winthrop's Hist, of N.E., ii. 151, 18th — Eds. 


the like. It is most likelie that the Jesuites or some that 
way disposed haue sent him over to doe vs mischiefe, to 
raise vp our enemies round about vs both English & In- 
dean. If you can send mee other speedy adui[ce] what to 
doe heerein I shall endeauour to put it in execution. If 
[it be] not to troublesom, I pray you send mee both ours 
& the Deputies propositions in our last conference touch- 
ing the differences amongst vs. Thus with my best re- 
spects to your selfe & Mrs. Winthrop, with many thancks 
for your manifold vndeserved kindnesses, I rest yours 
euer Jo : Endecott. 

Salem, 23 (4) 1644. 


To the ivorshipfull my much honoured ffriend John Winthrop Esqr. 
Deputie Gouernour & President of the Commissioners for the 
Vnited Colonies dd. at Boston. 

Sir, — There is a horse of one Goodwife Ingersoll a 
widow, which is prest for the seruice of theise warres. I 
cannot prevaile with the Cunstable to release him. I would 
not willingly put forth any power against the seruice of 
the Countrie, but the trueth is it is a horse which I alwaies 
vpon occasion ride on, & I haue none other of myne owne 
at present to vse, my mare is now great with fole which I 
vsed to ride, & my other mares are not yet backt ; besides, 
this horse I haue in price, because I would not be vnfur- 
nished vpon all occasions. And if the horse should goe 
it will be a losse to the Countrie, for I know hee will be 
spoiled. Hee is a costlie horse. Shee is offred tenne 
pownds for him, & I think 10^'. will hardlie fetch him. 
The Constable might haue good mares, & hee saith see- 
ing the warrant is for horses, hee will not take a mare. 
Doe in it what you shall see good. It is true the woeman 
hath another younge horse, but shee hath not seene him 
this three or 4 moneths, & if shee could finde him (which 


is a question whether shee can or noe, or whether hee be 
not lost) yet being a young horse not vsed to be rid, hee 
would also be vnseruiceable. ffurther I thought good to 
write vnto you that there are some prest which are ser- 
uiceable men & they haue no armes. If the Clarke of the 
band were sent for & dealt with, that hee hath not bene 
so carefull in this particular, it were well. There is some 
cause why I should not doe it, otherwise I would not haue 
thus written. The Constable is glad to presse other mens 
armes to supply theirs, so that some will be disarmed 
amongest vs, vnlesse you could supply them there with the 
Countries armes. I see that if we should be putt to it 
against a forraigne enemie, that the Countrie is raw & 
much vnfurnished. I shall looke to it (God willing) for 
the tyme to come. I ame sorrey you are so troubled about 
theise occasions. The Lord in mercie carry you through 
them. In whom I ame, 

Yours euer Jo : Endecott.* 

Salem the 20th of the 6 mo. 1645. 

This morning the Captaine came & tould me that di- 
uers Indeans were found driuing away the Cattle at the 
head of the riuer, neere my farme, & shot at the keeper 
of them & at the cattle, but I hope it is false, howeuer 
there are 5 horsemen sent out to vnderstand the trueth of 
it, & to seeke after them, if true. I purpose to-morrow, 
God willing, to range the woods with some more company, 
if the newes be true. 


To the Worshipfull my worthy good ffriend John Winthrop Junior 
Esqr. at Tenne Hills. 
My worthie good Ffriend, — I see your affeccion, & 
so I haue continuallie from tyme to tyme. I desire to be 

* Endecott was this year chosen sergeant-major-general. — Eds. 

1645.] THE WINTHROP PAPERS. 150 a 

thanckfull to God & to your selfe for your true loue, & I 
hope I shall euer acknowledge it. Yet let mee say truelie, 
I account not my selfe to be the lesse ingaged vnto you 
concerning what you wrote, ffor any such small courtesie 
as a few trees. But I shall endeauour, according to my 
abilitie, to shew myselfe thankfull, & to doe justice, though 
I must needs say I haue don you much wronge against my 
will, & ame sorry for it. It hath bene one of my greatest 
burthens. But I hope in tyme the Lord will enable 
mee — I say no more. What trees you want at any 
tyme, send to mee for them, & I will supply you as longe 
as I haue a tree.* And I will hold myselfe the more 
obliged vnto you, by how much you will be free with mee. 
I ame sorry you make so many apologies & cautiones to 
mee, I partly guesse from whence it proceeds, & that is 
because I told you I was ingaged to pay 1500, this 
springe. I haue almost paid them. & it was to excuse 
truely that I could not send you such trees as I would 
haue otherwise done ; but for small trees I can spare you 
as many more as I haue sent, & would now haue done it, 
but your man thought the horse (not being well) would 
not carrie them. 

The Lord in mercie keepe you & yours & let myne & 
my wiefes heartie loue & due respects be remembred to 
Mrs. Winthrop. My wiefe would be glad to see her at 
Orchard this summer ; for they otherwise will scarse 
know one another. Yours euer to commaund 

Jo : Endecott. 

Orchard, 19th of the 1 mo. 1645. 

Your man hath some Indico seeds for yourselfe & Mr. 

* Endecott would appear to have been engaged largely in the culture of fruit-trees ; as it 
is stated in Charles M. Endicott's " Memoir of John Endecott," p. 80, that, in 1648, he ex- 
changed five hundred apple-trees for two hundred and fifty acres of land. On page 68 of 
the same work is an account of the curious seal used by Endecott in his correspondence, 
a fac-simile of which is given in this volume. — Eds. 

150 6 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. E 16 " 18 - 


Dearest Sir, — I understand by Mr. Downing that you 
have received letters from Mons. D'Aulney, and that hee 
will send to us about the 7th month. I could wish, if you 
see it good, that the Commissioners were acquainted with 
it, I meane of the several Provinces, and moved (if they 
see good) to be here, because I desire they maybe as 
throughlie ingaged in what is done, or may be concluded, 
as ourselves. If you intend to call a General Court now, 
it will be in the middest of all our occasions, and the 
countrie will much suffer in it. If it be any tyme before 
D'Aulney's messenger comes to us, it will be well enough 
as farre as I can conceave ; and if it were just at the tyme 
it would be the better ; but I conceave that as uncertaine, 
unlesse hee hath appointed a certayne time : but I leave 
all to your better considerations. I humbly thank you for 
all the newes you have sent us at severall tymes : we finde 
here the hand of God much upon severall men's grayne 
by caterpillers, which threaten a dearth. The Lord fitt 
us for what he shall call us unto. To whose blessing I 
commit you, and all yours, and rest 

Yours unfeygnedly, Jo : Endecott. 

My wiffe desires to have her service remembred to Mrs. 

9th 5 mo : 1646.* 


To the right worshipfull & our truelie honoured Gouernour John 
Winthrop Esqr. at his house at Boston. Dd. 

Dearest Sir, — I ame vnfitt to travaile, hauing an in- 
firmitie vpon mee that I cannot well sitt on horseback nor 

* This letter is also published in Hutchinson's " Collection of Original Papers," the 
year of date being erroneously printed as 1746. — Eds. 


trauaile on foote such a journey, & my eldest sonne hath 
bene so ill that we haue much feared his life, but is through 
Gods mercie much better, though not recouered. I waite 
for the next oportunitie of a warme day to admister phi- 
sick vnto him, & to take some my selfe. I ame the more 
sorrie I cannot be at this Court, because I doe not heare 
of your recouerie,* which the Lord in mercie grant in his 
due tyme. I desire you to examyn the trueth of what I 
writt vnto you in my last. Capt. Bridges & Mr. Saltonstall 
can fullie (I conceaue) informe you therein, ffor it much 
grieueth mee that your spirit should be iustlie troubled 
with the proceedings of that Court, in respect of that triall 
of Land. I doe not know vpon due examination that 
therein or in any other case concerning you ,or yours, that 
I haue bene averse, neither doe I know any iust ground 
why I should so be. I haue (I thanck God) euer highlie 
esteemed of you in my heart & were I able, I hope I 
should manifest it in effect. 

Good Sir let vs labour to loue another & harbour 
the best thoughts one of another, we haue not longe 
to Hue heere in this life, yet we shall heere remaine 
as longe as our appointed times are sett. I cannot tell 
whither any expressions in my last lettre may trouble you. 
I did not (I ame sure) intend any such thing, & therefore I 
beseech you take all in good parte. And labour for chier- 
fulnes of spiritt, you know who hath commaunded it. 
You serue a good Maister, & therefore reioice in him. I 
will see you (God willinge) assoone as convenientlie I can. 
In the meane tyme I shall not cease praying vnto our good 
God for you, to whose grace & mercie I commend you & 

Your most affectionate seruice (sic) 

Jo : Endecott. 
Orchard. 5. 1 mo. 1648. 

* Governor Winthrop died on the 26th of March, 1649, — three weeks after this letter was 
written. — Eds. 


Sir, Since I ended my lettre there are diuers came to 
me, viz. Farington & his sonne & one Henry Ingolls, who 
complayne that Mr. Downing hath sent for the hay which 
was giuen vnto Farrington vpon a judgement which was as 
they say about 5 load, & 2 loads of an other mans, namely 
Ingolls, who cutt it & made it himselfe, & cut it in Liue- 
tennant Walkers ground. The mens cattle are like to 
perish, & what the issue wilbe you may judge. I thought 
to acquaint you with it, that some course might be taken 
about it. 


To the worshipfull my truelie honoured ffriend John Winthrop 
Esqr. at his plantation at Pequott present theise. 

Salem April 28, 1650. 

Deare Sir, — Your Loving Lettre was welcome to mee, 
wherein I see the goodnes of God to yourselfFe & familie 
notwithstanding the bitternes of the winter, which hath 
occasioned death in some & diuers sicknesses to others. 
The Lord hath bene good vnto mee & my familie also in 
preserving of vs all in health. I doubt not but you haue 
heard of the newes of England & Ireland ; in the generall 
all yet goes on well, Ireland is almost if not altogether 
subdued. England is quiet, notwithstanding the last new 
oath to be true to the State, as it is now moulded without 
King or Nobles in parliament. The Army hath taken the 
oath. All the Garisons haue taken it, & the Lord Maior 
& many Aldermen haue taken it. And such as refuse it, 
are as out-lawes, without benefitt of Courts of Justice or 
votes to choose parliament men. The arriers of souldiers 
pay is paid out of the King's Land made over to them & 
their heires foreuer which they willinglie accept of. The 
Archbishopps house at Lambeth is sould & pluckt downe, 


& it seemes sould vppon that condition, & I thinck the rest 
will scape no better. I haue other newes which I doubt 
you haue heard of, & therefore shall not trouble you. Wee 
expect Capt. Leuerett euery day who I suppose will fur- 
nish vs. I shall send to you by the first oportunitie I meete 
withall. Mr. Peters is Colonell of a foote regiment in 

Touching Wiequashcooke's men if I knew any way or 
if you will giue mee any directions whereby I might be 
serviceable to you I shall heartilie & readilie endeauour it. 
Sir my heartie loue & my wiues due respects to yourselfe 
& good Mrs. Winthrop & Mrs. Lake remembered, with all 
our salutations to your children, whom I desire the Lord 
to blesse & prosper, I rest 

Your vnfaigned ffaithfull & loving ffriend & servant 

Jo : Endecott.* 

My twoe sonnes remember their humble seruice to 


Deare Sir, — I haue written Mr. Williams an answere 
to his letter you were pleased to bring mee, & I hope to 
satisfaccon as much as lyes in mee. And I heartilie desire 
you that you will labour with the Sachims of the Narro- 
gansetts, Ninecroft & Mixam, that they will be peaceable 
with their neighbour Indeans till their complaints be heard 
& answered, which I shall indeavour to effect the next 
generall Court. 

There is a Sachim that dwells at Quinnuboag, his name 
I know not, that complaines of Ninnecroft & Mixam who 
haue threatned the said sachim because hee will not goe to 
warres with them. I pray you if you haue the oportunitie 

* Endecott was, at this time, Deputy-Governor of the Colony. — Eds. 



to lett them know that the English will take it ill if they 
should wronge him, ffor he is resolued to come vnder the 
English that hee may learne to know God. I cannot write 
you any newes but what you heard when yow were heere ; 
onelie Joseph Grafton came from Newfound land the last 
weeke, & there being 2 parliament ffrigotts who bring 
word that Lilly is taken wholie by the English & that 
there are gon 2 ffrigotts to the Barbados & -many (the 
number I cannot tell you) marchants shippes, men of 
warre, to see what can be done there. There was no re- 
markeable thing done in Scotland the xijth of June last. 
The armyes haue not mett. This is all. Onelie I desire 
the Lord to blesse you & yours, to whom I desire myne & 
my wiefs due respects & harty loues be remembred & rest, 
Truelie Yours Jo : Endecott. 

Salem the 15. 6. 51. 


To my right Wourthie & ivorshipfull good ffriend John Wintrop 
Esqr at Pequott, iheise present. 

Wourthie Sir, — Your Indean came to me at Salem 
the 16th of this moneth with the Dutch Governours 
packett, and I dispatched him this morning which is the 
18th day. There is no newes in the Dutch Gouernours 
Lettre ; onelie moues for continuance of peace & trade : I 
haue sent him an answere, such a one as I could without 
the Counsell. The Court brake up the middle of the last 
weeke, when all the Magistrates met. Had his lettres come 
then to our hands, he had had a fuller answere, yet with- 
out the Commissioners we cannot perfect any thing as 
touching peace or warre, wherefore we thinck shortlie to 
meete to consider of theise things. I thanck you for the 


extract of the Dutch lettre. Some things certainely are 
mistaken if not all. We expect to heare shortlie from 
England, everie day looking for twoe shippes from Bris- 
tow. I heartilie thancke you for your care of sending the 
packett. If I could send you any good newes I should re- 
joyce. But the newes heere with vs is sad. I suppose you 
haue heard it. Mr. Cotton's death.* The late great href 
at Boston, wherein 8 howses were consumed & 3 young 
children burnt, & it was a wonderfull fauour of God the 
whole towne was not consumed of the hire ; Mr. Wilson's 
howse & goods, Mr. Sheath's house & goods & 3 young- 
children, Mr. Shrimptons howse & goods, Mr. Sellick's 
howse & goods, Mr. Blackleech his howse & goods. The 
other[s] I haue forgotten theer names. It was the most 
dreadfull fire that I euer saw, by reason of the barrells of 
gunpowder which they had in their howses, which made 
men fearfull to come neere them. The Lord sanctifie his 
hand to vs all. Mr. Norton I thinck will succeede Mr. 
Cotton in his place, it is as good as concluded. The Lord 
in mercie preserue you all with yours. I pray remember 
my heartie & due respects to Mrs. Wintrop, & my loue to 
your children, not forgetting Mrs. Lake. Also Mr. Blin- 
man & his wiefe. I haue no more at present but cordiallie 
to tell you that I ame Sir 

Your truely loving ffriend & servant for euer 

Jo : Endecott. 

Salem, 18 of the 1st moneth, 1652. 

* Rev. John Cotton, of Boston, died Dec. 23, 1652. — Eds. 

f The exact date of this fire, respecting which some uncertainty had existed, is re- 
corded by John Hull, in his diary, as "1653, 14th, 1st," — only four days before the date 
of this letter (1652-3). It was known for many years after as " the great fire," and is so 
called by Josselyn in the Chixmoiogical Table appended to his New England's Rarities Dis- 
covered, printed in 1672. — See Josselyn, p. Ill; Arclmologia Americana, vol. iii. p. 174. — 




To the Right Wbrshipfull Mr. John Winthrope, Gouernour of the 
Massachusets, these be old. 

Beloued Sir, — I thanke you for your letter touching 
Mrs. Huchingson ; I heard since of a monsterous, & pro- 
digious birth which she should discouer amongst you ; as 
also that she should retracte her conffession or acknowledge 
mente of those errours, before she wente away ; of which 
I haue heard many various reports. If your leasure 
would permite I should be much behoulden vnto you, to 
certiffie me in a word or tow, of the trueth & forme of 
that monster, &c. Vpon the Information & complainte 
of our neigbours at Sityate, I am requested by our assist- 
ants to write vnto you, touching a late parttition, or limit- 
ing of confines, betweene you & vs ; of which we heard 
nothing till of late. Wherin we vnderstand you haue 
intrenched farr vpon those lands, which we haue concerned 
to belong to vs by right diverce waies ; as first by compos- 
sision, & anciente compacte with the natiues to whom the 
right & souerainite of them did belonge, which did extend 
as farr as Conahasete, which was the bounds between the 
Sachimes of the Massachusets, & those of these parts ; 

* William Bradford, the second governor of Plymouth Colony, was born at Austerfield, 
Yorkshire, March, 1589-90. He came over in the " Mayflower," in 1620 ; succeeded Carver, 
as chief magistrate, in 1621 ; and from that time to 1657, when he died, he had but five 
years' release from that office. He wrote a history of the Colony, which was freely used 
in manuscript by Morton, Prince, Hutchinson, and others; and which, after being lost 
for over seventy years, was recovered, and published, for the first time, in 1856, by the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, as vol. iii., third series, of their Collections. — Eds. 


21y. It since hath been confirmed vnto vs by patente from 
his Majesties authoritie. 31y. Herevpon we haue posest it, 
& planted it some years agoe. We desire you will giue vs 
a reason of your proceedings herein ; as also that ther 
may be a faire, & freindly desission of the controuercie ; 
that we may preserue peace & brotherly loue amongst our 
selues, that haue so many enimies abroad. Ther was not 
long since hear with vs Mr. Cottington & some other of 
your people, who brought Mr. Williams with them and 
prest vs hard for a place at, or near Sowames, the which 
we denid them. Then Mr. Williams informed them of a 
spatious Hand caled Monachunte,* touching which they 
solisited our good will, to which we yeelded, (so they would 
compound with Ossamequine,) the which we heard was ill 
taken by you, but you may please to vnderstand that it is 
not in our Pattente, (though we tould them not so) for it 
only was excepted out of it. And we thought (if they 
likte it) it were better to haue them, (though they differ in 
oppinions) then (hapily) worse neigbours, both for vs, & 
you. We thinke it is also better for vs both to haue some 
strength in that Bay. Thus comending you, & your affairs 
to the Lord ; with my loue remembred to your selfe, & the 
rest of my worthy friends with you, I take leaue & 
rest Your vnworthy freind 

William Bradford. 

Aprill .11. 1638. 

{Memo : indorsed by Gov. Wintlirop on the above Letter.'] 

My Answere to this Lettre (which I shewed to the De- 
puty) was to this effect : that before we did anything we 
acquainted Mr. Hatherly & had men of either parte to sett 
out the bounds, but they not agreeinge &c, I tould Mr. 
Winslow, & wished there might be some friendly course 
for setlinge the same, so as might neither strengthen Sci- 

* Probably Aquedneck, or Rhode Island. — See Clark, in Mass. Hist. Coll., fourth series, 
ii. 24; Calender's Historical Discourse, pp. 29, 30; B.I. Hist.' Coll., iv. 84. — Eds. 


tuate nor Hingham. He answered, that what our Patent 
gave us we must have, & it was all one to them whither 
Scituate fell to them or to us &c ; & aduised us to sett out 
our boundaries &c : which we did accordingly &c, but haue 
nede (?) to acte upon it, nor disposed anythinge to Hingham 
&c : ergo we see not why we should be called to give a 
reason of; &c ; that this was upon some misinformation or 
want of information ; that we would be sorry e that matter 
of jurisdiction should bringe our peace & loue into ques- 
tion : that if we had come hither for lande or if we had 
feared that our frends of Plymouth would haue bounded 
us to 3 : or 4 : miles of Natanscott, we could haue more 
easily haue enlarged our Grant than theirs. For the kings 
confirmacon I supposed it a mistake — the king dothe not 
use to confirme Indians grants. For their purchase of the 
Indians, it was the 1st I heard of it, & it would be hard to 
make their title good, & as hard to proue their grant 
to them, ffor Mr. Hatherly's company : we thought it 
were better for us bothe, if they were further off: we had 
not to doe with it but we were persuaded they would not 
haue furthered them &c, before they had aduised with us ; 
& they might haue expected the like correspondency from 
us. Conclusion for a friendly devision &c. (2) 16. 1638.* 


To his worthy & much Honoured freind Mr. John Winthrop 
Esquire these he dd. 

Sir, — Not knowing of this conueiance till they were 
ready to goe, I thought good to scrible a word or tow by 
candle light, rather then not to advertice you of so serious 

* Sec Winthrop's Hist, of N. E., i. 284 ; Bradford's Hist, of Plym. Plantation, 
pp. 307-372; Lincoln's Ili^-t. 6f Hingham, p. 53; Deane's Hist, of Scituate, p. 3. — Eds. 


a mater ; I am informed by good intelligence that the 
Narhiggansetts haue made a great colection amongst thcr 
people ; and sent a great presente, both of white & black 
beads to the Mowhakes,* to entreate their help against 
you, & your freinds, if they see cause. And they Mow- 
haks haue receiued their presente, & promised them aide, 
biding them begine when they will, & they will be ready 
for them, & doe encourage them with hope of successe. 
The thing is true, but I may not reveile the author. It 
would cost the Hues of some if it should be known, neither 
would I haue it voulgarly knowne that it came from hence, 
least it should be susspected ; their owne commone people 
doe not know it. I fear they are too well furnished with 
peeces by too much remisnes. Thus in hast I take leaue, 
with my harty saluts to you & yours, & many thanks for 
my kind entertainmente when I was last with you. 

Your euer louing freind William Bradford. 

Plim. 29 of 4 month 1640. 

I pray you remember my lque to the Gouernour,"|* & ac- 
quainte him hearwith. And if you haue any spetiall 
newes from England I would be glad to know it. 


To his worthy & beloued freind Mr. John Winthrop Esquier these 

be dd. 

Worthy Sir, — I most kindly thanke you for your loue 
& paines in aquainting me with the newes from our owne 
Countrie ; the Lord be mercifull to them, & vs, & teach vs 
to make that vse thereof that is befitting so sade a condi- 
tion. I had sundrie courantoes came to my hands out of 

* See Winthrop's Hist, of N. E., ii. 8. — Eds. 

f Thomas Dudley was Governor of Massachusetts at this time. — Eds. 


Holand ; in one wherof (bearing date in Nouember last) 
ther is mention made of an Inquision, & search made 
through all Englande of all the papists in the land, & the 
number giuen to the King weer aboue tow hundred thow- 
sand families ; & of them were found to be .16000. of the 
spiritualitie (as they call them). What may be the reason 
of this search is not expressed, but is not hard to be con- 
jectured. We hear a rumorie that our freinds of Coo- 
nightecute intend to begine a warr with the Narrigansets 
speedilie. If you know any certain tie therof, I desire you 
would be pleased to aquaint vs with it, that we may the 
better looke to our owne defence. I wish they may goe 
vpon good grounds, least they bring euill vpon them selues 
& their nighbours ; but if justice or necessitie compell 
them, they shall not (in my judgmente) doe well to linger 
so longe as to giue them time to geather in their corne. 
But the Lord direct them to doe, & you to counssell them, 
as may be for the best in so waighty a case. Thus with 
my humble thankfullnes vnto you for your loue ; which I 
esteeme precious, I rest 

Your vnworthy freind William Bradford. 

Plim. 16. 6. month 1640. 


To his much honoured freind Mr. John Winthrop, Gouernour of 
the Massachusetts, these dd. 

Beloued Sir, — Hauing so fite an opportunitie, I 
thought good to salute you with these few lines. We 
were much troubled when we heard you kepte watch in 
your townes the sharp weather, .& so much the reather 
because we could not hear the reason therof, nor vnder- 
stand any thing from the Indeans of our quarters. We 
haue heard since of some messengers that haue been sent 

1644.] THE WLNTHR0P PAPERS. 161 

vnto you ; if ther be any thing materiall conscerning our 
comone saftie, I desire you would be pleased to informe vs 
in a word or 2 how things stand aboute the Narigansets or 
Mowhaks. We allso conceiue that our time of paimente 
to you, aboute Mr. Andrews money is expired, and ther- 
fore haue charged a bill on Mr. Hill to make this paymente 
vnto you. I pray you let vs hear a word of your accept- 
ance. Sundrie haue been sicke amongst vs this winter, & 
some still are. God hath taken away Mr. Atwood, & Mr. 
Jeney by death ; Mrs. Atwoods state being but low is in- 
tangled to Mr. Seawell of Ipswich, by a bond of .1000^'. 
She prayes me on her behalfe to craue your aduice whe- 
ther she had best administer or no, her husband haueing 
made her exsecutrixe ; and if she refuse whether she may 
not haue her thirds ; ther will be sufficente she conceiues 
to satisfie any accounte of money due to him, & some thing 
for her selfe, but by the bond the title of the land is to be 
restored to him, & Mr. Atwood hath sould it to Mr. Sher- 
ley, but he tould me it was only in trust, as he had it, but 
he tooke no writing vnder his hand that so it is. Thus 
comending you & all your affairs to the Lord, with saluta- 
tions, I rest, in hast 

Your louing friend William Bradford.* 

* This letter was written some time during the year 1644, in which the decease of Mr. 
Atwood and Mr. Jenney took place. — Eds. 





To the Worshippfull his much respected ffriend John Winthrop, 
Esqr. these he oVd. — Coneetacut. 

New Plym. the 22th of the 4th moneth.f 

Worthy Sir, — I perceiued by a letter of Mr. Brews- 
ters J of a mocion of yours to him to procure you hay for 
an 100 beasts. We had a purpose to haue sent some cat- 
tle thither, but so discouraged by him, through the injurious 
dealing of his intruding neighbours, as we feare there will 
not be long living for man or beast, but if you please to 
make vse of our right, my brother shall sett your servants 
to worke in our names & by our order, & affourd them 
what ever personall helpe shall be thought meet, to the 
utmost of our power. What we shall yet doe I know not, 
but will know ere long, and if New England will affourd 
no Justice, will appeale further ; but God forbid we should 
be put on such extremities : But were it not for Christs 
cause in that our profession may come to suffer by it, we 
would not be satisfied with the tenth of our demand, but 

* Edward Winslow was one of the most accomplished and influential men of Plymouth 
Colony. He came over with the celebrated Mayflower company in 1620; and was 
Governor of the Colony in 1633, 1636, and 1644. He went to England four times as agent 
of the Massachusetts or Plymouth Colonies, and from his last visit never returned. In 
1654, he was appointed one of three commissioners to determine the value of the English 
ships destroyed by the King of Denmark; and his original commission from the Protector is 
now at Plymouth. In 1655, he was sent by Cromwell, as the chief of three commissioners, 
to superintend the expedition against the Spanish possessions in the West Indies; and died 
at sea, near Hispaniola, on the 8th of May of that year, in the sixtieth year of his age. — See 
Davis's ed. of Morton's memorial, pp. 259-261; Young's Chron. of Mass., 274, 275. — Eds. 

f Probably 1636. — Eds. 

\ Jonathan Brewster of Connecticut, son of Elder Brewster. — Eds. 


would hasten another way. These oppressors deserue no 
favor, their pride would be taken down. Tis pitty religion 
should be a cloake for such spirits. News I suppose I 
cannot send more then you heare. I haue now written to 
your Government, & exspect answere ere long. I thank 
you for the good office you endeauoured when you were 
aboue, but sorry to heare how little effect your words tooke 
with them. God in time I hope will shew them their folly. 
In the meane time & ever God direct you in all your pro- 
ceedings. Be you kindely saluted & all that feare God 
with you, who in mercy preserue you & them, so 
prayeth Your assured ffriend. 

Edw : Wynslow. 


To the rigid Worshippfull his much honored ffriend John Win- 
throp Esqr. Gouerner of the Massachusetts, these be dd. 

Much honored Sir, — Your many & undeserued kind- 
nesses, as formerly so more especially at my being last 
with you, tie me if possible yet neerer in heart & af- 
feccion towards you & yours, whom I salute in the Lord. 
At our comming home, by the goodnes of our God, there 
was an Indian newly commen from Titacutt to advertise 
us that they had that day, being the day of our travells & 
2d of the weeke, discovered the track & footing of a party 
of Indians, which could not be lesse in number then an 
hundred, which made either towards Duxburrow or your 
parts, advising us to be in readines to receiue them, not 
knowing what their intent might be. Thomas Willet is 
commen from the Dutch, your son Mr. Stephen in good 
health, who hath written to you by him. Capt. Vnderhill 
& the company at the ffort in health, he hath violently 
taken a Pecoat woman from the Dutch which was a Sa- 


chims wife, & hath her prisoner, knows nothing of what 
we heare concerning Capt. Mason, bnt onely that he was 
exspected downe with ninety men. Mr. Gardner it seems 
much discourageth common men by extalling the valor of 
your adversaries, preferring them before the Spaniards. 
Your Sachim of the Massachusets is in some jealousie 
amongst others because, say they, he was at Narrohiggan- 
set & saw the willingnes of the multitude to become your 
enemies when the head was brought & did not acquaint 
you. The Pecoats follow their fishing & planting as if 
they had no enemies. Their women of esteeme & children 
are gone to Long Island with a strong gard at Pecoat. 
They professe there you shall finde them, and as they were 
there borne & bred, there their bones shall be buried & 
rott in despight of the English : but if the Lord be on 
our side, their braggs will soone fall. The truth is if onece 
they be routed we know their courage will faile : ergo, feere 
not. I pray you when the questions are once stated for 
the conference, let us haue a coppy of them. My letters 
heer but newly deliuered. The Lord in mercy goe along 
with you. I durst not lose this opportunity, nor can I 
write more being called on to seale. 

Yours assured to his power 

Edw: Winslow. 

May 22, 1637. 

I pray you salute your Assistants, also Mr. Wilson, Mr. 
Peaters, Mr. Shepheard, &c. Let my hast excuse me. 


Right Worshippfull, — Although you cannot but be 
overburthened with busines of divers kinds yet I am bold 
once more to trouble you, giving thanks for your last 
remembrance in sending the coppy to me, which I haue 


sent againe, not knowing whether you haue any other, but 
hope we shall never be troubled with the reallity thereof. 
If such a thing be, I perswade my selfe it never was with- 
out my old neighbour Isaack,* whose head is alwaies full of 
such projects, & hath too great familiarity with our com- 
mon adversaries : but were he as well knowne to yours as 
us, they would rather haue kept him heer then any way 
haue incouraged his going over : but what I write I would 
not haue made publick ; but the truth is he loveth neither 
you nor us. 

We heare there is a noble man commen over unto you, 
but cannot beleeue till we can receiue more credible in- 
formacon. If you could spare us a line you should further 
obliege us. I am sorry to heare the differences are as great 
as ever, but glad that our good God hath sent over men of 
such abilities to helpe in his cawse. I pray you salute your 
brother Peeters, Mr. Damportf (unknowne) also Mr. Eaton 
& Mr. Hopkins. If I be not too bold with you, and if you 
heare from Mr. Stoughton & Mr. Wilson I beseech you let 
us know how things stand. Thus with my prayers for 
you & yours take leaue remayning 

Yours assured to his power Edw: Winslow. 

Plym. the 1 of the 5th mo. 1637. 


To the Worsliippfull his much honored ffr lend Joh. Winthrop Esq. 
at his hoivse at Boston, these be dd. 

Sir, — Yours of the 18th of this present I lately re- 
ceived, being perswaded, as you write, that if it were your 
owne case you would not stand with me, but in a case be- 

* Isaac Allerton. — Eds. 

t Rev. John Davenport arrived at Boston, June 26, 1637, in company with Theophilus 
Eaton and Edward Hopkins. — Eds. 


tween a stranger & you wherin you are betrusted, & for 
the publick &c. I hope you conceiue of me as of one 
that would not desire any thing that should appear to be 
unjust: but for the cattle to be valued by two publick 
persons of your owne might haue satisfied the publick ; and 
for Mr. Andrews tis true he desired cattle of such an age 
& price ; but the price at that time was under their worth 
by a yeares growth : for yearlings & the advantage were 
ordinarily sold for 15/. Againe Mr. Andrews is well ac- 
quainted with payments in England & how easie a thing it 
is to turne any valuable commodity into money, but it is 
otherwise heer, & especially at this the most hard & dead 
time of all other these many yeares : I speak as it is with 
us : but if you conceiue the Gentlemen valued them too 
high I am contented to let them goe as I offered to your 
selfe at 18^' per head the fiue. If you say it is too high, 
truly I marvell at it, being this weeke Mr. Hatherly made 
payment to Mr. Freeman & Mr. Atwood in cows (& in a 
busines Mr. Andrews, if I be not much mistaken, is inte- 
rested) at 18^' 15^. per head. Nay since these valued 
some passed in account between Mr. Paddy & some of 
your parts at 2QU per head ; & therefore I pray you take it 
into further considerac.on, & remember you may fall into 
an extreame. Truly Sir it is my desire to discharge it that 
makes me importune you, neither doe I conceiue how you 
can justly suffer in it : & to avoide suffering I see is not 
possible : for I finde innocency (by lamentable experience) 
will little helpe amongst men, yea wherein I haue been 
most carefull, therein most abused, & therefore in dis- 
charging a good conscience we must leaue all events to 
God. If I had any hopes of a chapman I would make 
money of them but haue none, however I thanke you that 
haue been so kinde to giue me time : but I feare that time 
will rather hurt then helpe me, & therefore beseech you 
againe either to accept them or acquaint Mr. Stoughton 
with it that he may write to Mr. Endecot about it: for 


they may doe it as well by letter as presence, onely I pray 
you conceale what I offer if they must value them : & if 
you please I will send them vpon the first notice. 

I thanke you for your loving manifestacion about mine 
owne busines. There hath nothing beene done in it since 
the Gentlemen (to whom I am much bownden) were heer. 
As there shall be any thing done I take it my duty to ac- 
quaint them who haue taken so much paines therein. 
Only my purpose is to study waies to satisfie for words so 
far as a good cause will permit. The Lord in mercy 
direct me who haue need of more then humane patience 
to beare these things from this people : ffor ten times 
more from others were not a tenth part so much, nor 
can any beleeue that seeth not, that I should suffer as 
I doe from them. The Lord lay it not to their charge & 
giue me wisdom & patience to beare it. Be you saluted 
& yours together with those Gentlemen (especially my 
respects to your Gouernour.*) Good Sir let me haue 
your prayers who remaine Yours till death. 

Edw: W[ins]low. 

(4) 27. 40. 

I thanke you for your English new r s. I received a letter 
from Mr. Sherley this yeare ; he writes that in steed of a 
letter he had thought to haue seen me, but is glad I came 
not, for if I or any partner had commen Mr. Beauchamp 
had trowbled him, & had for that end entertayned a Soli- 
citer, etc. He writes me of the Lord Keepers f death, & 
that Secretarie Cooke J hath letters of ease, which is to me 
very sad : for New England in those two is stripped at 
once of our best friends at the Board : so that now we 
must live by ffaith without any dependance on meanes 
at all. Mr. Downing to whom I desire to be remembred 

* Dudley. — Eds. 

| Thomas, Lord Coventry, who died Jan. 13, 1640. — Eds. 

\ Sir John Coke, Secretary of State. — Eos. 


with all thankefulnes, can better informe you about it 
then my selfe. 

I would haue written to the Gentlemen about our busi- 
nes, but knew not how you would take it, but what you 
shall write in it I will stand to, & therefore I pray you let 
it be dispatched & let me haue word that I may send 


To the Wbrshippfull his much respected ffriend Joh. Winthrop 
Esqr. at his howse at Boston these be dd. 

Worthy Sir, — Your last letter I received & giue you 
thanks for your continued loue in imparting unto us such 
news as you heare from England. What will be the issue 
of these sore beginnings the Lord onely knoweth, but it 
concerneth us deeply to be affected with them as a people 
that must share with them in weale & woe. The Lord in 
mercy so order & dispose as what is amis may be reformed, 
& his name may be glorified. 

Concerning your acceptance of the fiue cows I am 
willing to send them, & becawse the wether is so hott, the 
flie so busie, & the woods so thick, I haue agreed with 
Robert Waterman to bring them by water. I pray you 
send me a receipt under your hand for them upon the back 
of the note or bill I left with you. Thus with my kinde 
salutes to your selfe & all yours whose wellfare I desire as 
mine owne, with all due respects to you & them take 
leaue remayning Yours assured 

Edw: Winslow. 

Plym. (5) 7—40. 



To the worshippfuU his much honored ffriend Joh. Winthrop, 
Esqr at Ids howse at Boston, these be dd. 

Sir, — By the enclosed you may perceiue the ernest 
request of your unfaithfull servant Luxford * who hath no 
lesse but much more importuned me since I received his 
lines, using Paul's plea for Onesimus &c. but you know 
the man & his manner of importunity, pleading his paines 
& care so many yeares, & however his fay lings were great, 
yet I perceiue he thinks his paines to be greater, & that 
in his extreame necessity you should take compassion on 
him, but I refer you to your mercy & yet would haue you 
consider well what you doe. The truth is I thinke he is 
very pore : for he worketh not, yet offered me his labor 
this harvest for his dyet, which for some reasons I durst 
not accept, but pitty the man. He hath taken a ffarme of 
Mr. Hanbury which was Mr. Brown's at 4? per annum, 
but how he will pay it or raise it I know not, especially 
when he hath neither stock, security, foode, nor credit. 
He saith there are some in the bay that will affourd him 
some help, but who they are or what it is I know not. 

I suppose you haue heard what was the issue of the day 
of humiliacion concerning the eleccion of Mr. Chancey. 
But things are like still to goe ill, for on the 2d day of this 
weeke a mocon was made by Mr. Paddy & some that in- 
ordinately cleaue to him for his setling at Jones river, some 
three miles from Plimouth, who purposeth there to lay the 
foundacon of an Academy, & reade the arts to some that 
are fitt for that purpose, that so they may also haue use of 
his gifts. I manifested my dislike to the Gouernour who 

* See Winthrop's Hist, of N. E., ii. 3 ; Gov. Winthrop's Will, dated (4) 25, 1641, in 
Appendix to the same volume, pp. 359-361 ; and i lso Hutchinson's Coll. of Original Papers, 
p. 110. — Eds. 



still pressed his gifts, but I told him they must still retaine 
his errors etc. with his gifts, which were like to weaken if 
not destroy both the Congregations of Plymouth & Dux- 
burrow, being seated in the midst equally between both, 
having already manifested his judgement to be more rigid 
then any Separatist I ever read or knew, he holding it 
lawfull (nay a duty for ought I heare) to censure any that 
shall oppose the major part of the Church, whether it be 
in eleccion of officers or receiving in or casting out of 
members if they will not be convicted & yield, by which 
meanes 10 or more may be cast out to receiue in one. 
But what will be the issue of these things the Lord onely 
knoweth. I feare the Lord hath a quarrell with us, & 
the rather becawse Mr. Bradford & Mr. Eeyner are both 
drawn to yield to the mocion which is so contrary in my 
apprehension to the peace of the Churches, especially 
when I consider the confidence or rather selfewillednes of 
the man. Truly Sir, I conceiue if you conceale how you 
came by your informacion, & giue your Christian advice to 
Mr. Bradford spedily about it, you may be the instrument 
of much good ; for my selfe however I am ready to de- 
mand a dismission from them, yet I simpathise with them 
& desire their welfare as^nuch as ever, & for me to oppose, 
he hath such a party as I might rather expect dismission 
with a censure then otherwise. But entreating you to 
conceale your author, & commending you & it with all 
yours to the blessing of the blessed God, with many thanks 
for your last ioue take leaue remayning 

Yours till death Edw : Winslow. 

Careswell, this 10th of 8th 1640. 

Mr. Blindman salutes you. 



To his much honored ffriend Joh : Winthrop Esqr. at his hoiose at 
Boston these be dd. 

Worthy Sir, — When I remember your constant & 
long continued loue I cannot but blame my selfe that 
hauing no speciall busines into your parts this winter sea- 
son, & thereby debarred sight, haue not so much as written 
these two moneths unto you. This later I must needs 
confesse is inexcusable, but for the former howeuer it is 
busines enough for me to see the face of your selfe & 
yours, together with the many godly & pretious friends 
& brethren I haue both in Boston & elsewhere amongst 
you, yet the many businesses I haue had (& the more in 
regard of Mr. Blinman's friends that are come to liue 
with us, & the streightnes of place to receiue them) & our 
preparacons to enter into covenant, together with many 
affliccons in my ffamily, God being pleased still to exercise 
me under his hand by taking away one of my children by 
death, & some others in my ffamily exercised with sicklies, 
together with some other outward losses in my cattle, may 
rather cawse me to stay at home and consider, then to be 
exercised abroade. But, God willing, I shall take a due 
season to see you, & them : in the meane time let these 
my lines witness my continued loue to you & them whose 
welfare,, if my heart deceiue me not, I desire as mine 

I received letters lately from Mr. Endecot & your 
brother Peters, & make bold to trowble you with convey- 
ance of my answers to them, together with many smale 
pamphlets, bownd up together, which we printed in the 
Netherlands, occasioned by one of them called the Peoples 
Plea for the exercise of Prophesic, which he much desired 


me to procure & send him, & which I entreat you to 
convay by the first opportunity ; for it was long before I 
could call to minde where I had lent it, & could not 
procure another in all Plimoth. There is a ffriend of 
mine that desired me to crave your advice in two particu- 
lars : the one in case he hath sold a parcell of goods of 
some value to one upon day, & hath but a bare bill for 
his security, & the person['s] sufficiency suspected, whether 
your Court allow not an arrest for better security ] or if 
he cannot be that way relieved, then by what other ] The 
2d is of greater consequence, vizt. having an estate of lands 
still in Wales, tho' as formally made over to another as 
advice of law would passe it, & acknowledged before a Mas- 
ter of the Chancery, yet since his comming away is credibly 
informed that he was called in Court of Star Chamber & 
fined 200^' for not appearance, but was never served with 
any precept nor heard of it till within these 14 daies, nor 
can conceiue any thing saue malice should be alledged 
against him. Now what course you will advise him to 
take in it. I pray you Sir pardon my boldnes with you, 
& let me receiue a word or to from you as your occasions 
will permit. Be you kindely saluted, also Mr. Cotton, 
Mr. Wilson, your sons Mr. Joh. Mr. Steph. & Mr. Adam, 
with all other my beloved ffriends with you, whose prayers 
I desire, especially in that great & weighty worke which 
doth so much concerne the glory of God in raysing up his 
church amongst us. And the Father of Mercies & God 
of Comfort raise & keepe up your spirit aboue all the 
crosses of this life, & fill you with his comforts in Christ 
Jesus. Amen. Yours in many bonds 

Edw: Winslow. 

Careswell 11. 28. 1640. 



Sir, — I have deferred writing many times in hope of 
time to enlarge my self e to you, but never more streightned 
then at present, yet ashamed to withhold any longer, but 
I pray you pardon my brevity. Concerning the Vnion 
our Majestrates & Deputies approue well of what is done, 
& two of our townes passed it before the Court ; vizt. Pli- 
moth & Marshfield : the rest of the Deputies carried it 
from the Court to their townes to be confirmed, none 
doubting of it, & with order to returne their votes this 
moneth, so that there is no doubt of our thorow close with 
you therein. 

Concerning the cattle, I sent the fiue cowes, a two 
yeare old heyfer, & a yearling steer, by Roe according to 
your order, but one of the cows calved two daies before, 
& he would not take the calfe with him but left it, which 
was prised at 7s, another calfe at 14s, & two other calues 
at 36s, & the two yeare old heyfer at Sli 15s, which in all 
amounted to 6li 12s, the just sum which was due to me 
for the wintering of those seaven beasts : Mr. Bulkley 
affirming that but to make even money he would not haue 
yielded to so much. And for the skin of the beast that 
miscaried at winter I allow 13s 4:d. for it, which was due 
to me upon the former de vision. I would haue enlarged 
but the tide is almost spent, & I haue other letters must 
needs write, & so hope you will excuse me who saluting 
you in the Lord Jesus take leave & remaine 

Yours to his power Edw: Winslow. 

Careswell 13 (4) 43. 

Mr. Collier & my selfe chosen Commissioners to con- 
firme, & so for the following season. 



To the right tvorshippfull his much honored ffriend Joh. Win- 
throp, Esqr. Governour of the Massachusetts these be dd. 

Worthy Sir, — Another opportunity offering it selfe 
I can do no lesse then write, hoping I am not trowblesom 
therein, for if I be I should be much more if I lived neer 
you in often discourse. Since the receipt of yours who 
intimate enlargement if time had permitted, I understand 
by Mr. Prence who had it from an Indian of good esteem 
amongst them, that the Narr. prepare for war, that the 
Mowhakes haue promised to aide them with a thowsand 
men in the spring, that when they come neer they will 
make a stand that so Vncas may haue notice of it ; where- 
upon they conceiue he will flie to the English : that done 
they purpose to send a message to the English & demand 
Vncas, and as they receiue answere so to proceed. Since 
this we heare from the Dutch that they haue an army 
of an 120 men, English & Dutch against the Indians. 
These seeke them & haue slaine 20 Indians with the losse 
of 2 English ; they haue also taken 4 Indian prisoners 
whom they make per force to be their guides. That 
Captain Patrick is slaine by a Dutch man, being probably 
suspected to haue a hand in directing the Indians in their 
late mischiefe, the manner thus, Patrick having holpen 
them to an Indian guide to bring them to a ffort, led them 
amis the whole night, at day knowing where they were, 
went again to Patrick's howse, where a Dutch man called 
Patrick traytor. He returned the lie & spet in the Dutch 
man's face, whereat he bent his pistoll & shot him in the 
head, so as he fell down dead & never spake more : the de- 
linquent was committed to the safe custody of Captain 
Vnderhill but since escaped.* 

* See further concerning Capt. Patrick, and the circumstances attending his death, in 
Winthrop's Hist, of N. E., ii. 151.— Ens. 


Concerning Morton, our Governor gave way that he 
should winter heer, but begon as soon as winter breaks 
vp. Capt Standish takes great offence theerat, especially 
that he is so neer him as Duxburrow, & goeth sometimes a 
fowling in his ground. He cannot procure the lest re- 
spect amongst our people, liveth meanely at 4s per week 
& content to drinke water, so he may dyet at that price. 
But admit he hath a proteccion yet it were worth the while 
to deale with him till we see it. The truth is I much ques- 
tion his pretended employment ; for he hath heer onely 
shewed the fframe of a Common Weale & some old sealed 
commissions, but no inside knowne. As for Mr. Bigby if 
he be so honest, good & hopefull an instrument as report 
passeth on him, he hath good hap to light on two of the 
arrantest known knaues that ever trod on new English 
shore, to be his agents east & west, as Cleves & Morton : 
but I shall be jealous on him till I know him better, & 
hope others will take heed how they trust him who invest- 
eth such with power who haue devoted themselves to the 
mine of the Countrey, as Morton hath. And for my part 
(who if my hart deceiue me not can pass by all the evill 
instrumentally he brought on me) would not haue this ser- 
pent stey amongst us, who out of doubt in time will get 
strength to him if he be suffered, who promiseth large 
porcions of land about New haven, Narrohiganset, etc. to 
all that will goe with him, but hath a promise but of one 
person who is old, weake, & decrepid, a very athiest & fitt 
companion for him : but indeed Morton is the odium of 
our people at present, & if he be suffered (for we are di- 
versly minded) it will be just with God who hath putt him 
in our hands & we will foster such an one that afterward 
we shall suffer for it. But the Messenger cals for my let- 
ter & I must breake off, & therefore saluting you in the 
Lord take leaue & remaine 

Yours ever to be commanded 

Cares well 7. (11.) 43. Edw I WlNSLOW. 


I pray you Sir, in your next write whether ever the mes- 
sage were sent to the Mowhakes, & as you haue occasion 
salute our ffriends at Coneeticutt & New Haven from me, 
& if you judge any of these things materiall impart it. 


To the right worshippfull his much honored ffriendJoh. Winthrop, 
Esq. Governor of the Massachuset, these be dd. 

Worthy Sir, — About a moneth since I wrote to you, 
& now within a few daies it came to my hands againe, yet 
haue I sent it, being glad of the present opportunity by 
Mr. Paddy to salute you & all yours in the Lord Jesus. 
And becawse we would save your Government a labor to 
send to us for the money due by bond from Mr. Bradford, 
my selfe, &c. to your Government upon Mr. Andrews 
gift ; I haue given Mr. Paddy a bill of exchange for the 
discharge of it, onely becawse I know not the exact sum 
I haue left a blanck for it, & given him authority to insert 
it ; that so he may take up the bond upon the delivery of 
the bill to your selfe. 

We heard you were upon your gard, but becawse we 
had no notice from your selfe about it it did not trowble 
us. We heare you have news from New haven & Conee- 
tacut. I hope you will impart it to us if there be anithing 
materiall ; however shall be glad to heare of our brethren 

Thus with my prayers to the Almighty for the continu- 
ance & increase of his mercies towards us, humbly take 
leaue & rest 

Your assured Edw. Winslow. 

Marshfield 7. (12) 43. 




To his much honored ffriend John Winthrop, Esqr. Deputy Go- 
vernor of the Massachusetts , these be dd. 

Worthy Sir, — Your loving letter & large manifesta- 
cions of continued affeccon I received with much comfort 
after so long silence, no lesse desiring what communion 
can be mainteyned at such a distance as our all ordering 
God hath cast us. Your large letter I prised, & as I 
thanke you for your great paines, so I cannot but simpa- 
thise with you in these ungratefull requitalls you receiue 
at the hands of some from whom you haue better deserved : 
but I know you serue not men alone in what you doe, & 
hope you haue comfort between God & your selfe in the 
greatest discomforts you heer meet with. I thanke God I 
haue tasted of the same cupp : & tho it were bitter in the 
mouth, yet my owne impatiency hath more trowbled & 
grieved my spirit vpon coole deliberacon then all the rest. 
I beseech God to giue you such a measure of spirituall 
strength & wisedome under the present temptations as to 
carry you more comfortably on ; & then when these storms 
are blowne over, the calme will be the more comfortable 
to you, & your adversaries more ashamed of their turbu- 
lent courses, which the Lord in much mercy grant, and I 
doubt not but to see, if the Lord spare us life, in a short 

I haue been ill since our Court till this present, tho' now 
at Plymouth : whether I hastened so soone as God gaue 
strength, becawse of some distraccions I heard of amongst 
them upon their removall ; where I finde things better 
then I heard, & see no likelihood of the Churches depart- 
ure at present, tho' they haue given way to some unsetled 
brethren to goe into the bottom e of the Bay of Cape Cod. 
I write nothing to you about the determinacon of our 



Court concerning the beaver trade, becawse I haue written 
to your Commissioners largely thereabout, & trust they will 
see cawse to desist, assuring my selfe otherwise they will 
repent too late. 

As for the Narrohigansetts etc. if there be occasion I 
shall willingly come over upon notice & haue the passages 
in particular in writing as they were agitated at Hartford, 
which I shall endeaver to preserue: fTor I tooke their 
severall allegations & defences. Thus with my due re- 
spects to your selfe & wife & all yours & theirs, saluting 
you & them in our common Saviour, & desiring my saluta- 
con & due respects may be tendered to your Governour* & 
Mr. Dudley, & other my knowne ffriends, take leaue & 

Yours as his owne Edw : Winslow. 

Plym. 28, (1,), 45. 


To his much honored ffriend John Winthrqp, Esqr. Governor of 
the Massachusetts, these be dd. 

Much honored Sir, — Yours of the 3d of this present 
I received by Mr. Hutchenson, & remaine thankefull for 
your care & loue manifested as often as you write. 

Our eleccion is over. Mr. Bradford Governor ; the 
Assistants the same, saue onely Mr. Thomas insteed of 
Mr. Freeman, whom I suppose the countrey left out in 
regard of his professed Anabaptistry & separacon from the 
Churches. Mr. Brown & Mr. Hatherly are our Commis- 
sioners for the yeare. 

We haue a sad accident heer befallen the Captain of the 
man of war, who reproving & commanding one of his 

* Endecott was Governor in 1645. — Eds. 

1646.] THE WINTHROP PAPERS. • 179 

company silence, who most notoriously abusing his person, 
command, & whole company, (being a trowbler of earth, 
aire, & sea whilest he lived), tooke the mans rapier out of 
his hand, which he offered to draw upon his Captain, & 
first struck him with it in the scabberd : but he continuing 
his raging & vilefying his person & company chiefely, 
strooke him with the hilt of it on the head, the blow falling 
on the crosse barre most unhappily peirced his scull, & he 
is dead thereof. But however he was never out of quar- 
rels at sea as they say, or on shore since they came in 
hither, having been twice in the field tho' not at sharp, 
through the wishes of others who detayned his rapier from 
him, yet the quest fownd he died of the stroake given by 
Capt. Crumwell. This morning we purpose to send for 
him whom we heare attendeth his triall, onely desireth 
these two favors, that he be not committed to the ordinary 
prison nor put into the hands of the Marshall, but into the 
custody of such as will be bownd body for body for him. 
The 2d is that he be not tried by a pety Jury, but by a 
Cownsell of War according to the nature of his offence & 
place, wherein I commend him, & I conceiue it may be 
granted him, but if his commission be so full as we heare 
by those of ours which haue seen it, vizt. as full power for 
the exercise of marshall discipline by sea & land over his 
company as any Generall on the shore or Admirall on the 
seas, it will soone be ended.* 

Their purpose is yet unknown to them selues, in that one 
of their prises holds being unbroke up, but cannot be so 
little worth, as some of their soberest men report, as fifty 
thowsand pownds. And thus much for news at present, 
their deboistf humor being well blunted before they come 
to you, for which you are beholden to us, & the people from 

* An account of this affair is given by Bradford, in his History of Plymouth Plantation ; 
and also by Winthrop. — See Mass. Hist. Coll., vol. iii. 4th ser. p. 441; Winthiop's Hist, of 
X. !■:., ii. 263. — P2ds. 

f Debauched, riotous. — Eds. 


desperate rudenes become civill in a pretty measure, & now 
as wary, as prodigall at their first landing. Many of our 
worser sort of people which could endure their cursing 
etc. getting well by them, but the better sort very little, 
for they want little or nothing which the Countrey hath, 
but wine, which they begin to be weary off. 

Your debitor Cole I suppose is now well able to pay, if 
you put him in minde of it, having taken at lest 200U as is 
supposed of them. 

The bearer heerof being an industrious & well affected 
young man desired me to entreate you to further him in a 
seeming just demand : he being lately married, it seems 
there is one Samuell Crum, a wine cooper, lately come from 
sea, & a kinsman of his wiues, that is departed this life 
with you. Whereupon in his wiues behalfe he desireth 
letters of administracon, he having no other kindred so 
neerly allied in the countrey, & therefore I pray you shew 
him all lawfull favor. His name is James Waker, & I 
shall take any kindnes to him as done to my selfe, & there- 
fore I beseech you, being he is a stranger & young, put him 
in some cowrse to accomplish it. 

I trust when Mr. Dudley goeth to Mr. De Alney* 
he will put an end also to our controuersie with him, & 
make but one worke of both. But I shall impart it to our 
Governour*|" &c. Thus saluting you & yours hartily, take 
leaue & remaine 

Yours as euer 

Edw : Winslow. 

Plym. this 4. (4.) 46. 

* See Winthrop's Hist, of N. E., ii. 259, 260. — Eds. 
t Bradford. — Eds. 



To his much honored ffriend Joh. Winthrop Esqr. Governour of the 
Massachusetts, at his howse at Boston, these be dd. 

Worthy Sir, — I was sorry to see you so much dis- 
turbed & trowbled in your spirit (as appeared by your last 
to our Governour) at our proceedings with goodman Chees- 
borow : * & so also at some passage aboue the rest in our 
general letter to you, when as nothing is more ordinary then 
for yours to come to us, & ours to you, & all without offence 
on our part : and I assure you, to me it is indifferent, & I 
thanke God I rejoyce as well in your prosperity as our 
owne : & with all good conscience can say I sympathise 
with you in every condicon. And if at any time difference 
doe arise, it is not without great griefe of spirit ; & there- 
fore far be it from me to consent to his sensvre because he 
brought your letters etc., but the truth is hearing both 
sides speake (which you did not) I beleeve things are far 
otherwise then as they were presented to you : but this I 
am sure, in mine owne opinion (which is but weake) he 
was favorably dealt with, yea so favorably as lesse could 
not stand with his personall safety, in respect of revenge & 
the weale publick of the Country, in this uncertaine sea- 
son. But I leave the answere of yours to our Governour 
who I suppose will fully satisfie. 

The mayne occasion of my writing (besides the whetting 
of, & quickening of our affeccions towards each other) 
being partly to condole the evill that I long feared con- 
cerning Gorton, for want of some due course & able per- 
son to prosecute it, to informe against him & render a 
reason of your proceedings with him & the rest, well 
knowing how potent a ffriend he was sure to finde, & I 

* See Plymouth-Col. records, ii. 103. — Eds. 


pray God the same his friend prove not otherwise to you 
& vs, but I feare, I feare, onely heerein I rest, he can 
act no more then God hath determined ; yet becawse 
the relacon I haue is possibly imperfect, I could be glad if 
time will permit to receive a word about it from you. A 
2d thing which moved me to put pen to paper is to entreat 
you to be better prepared, (at least to staue off prejudice 
against your Government in the Committee of Parliament) 
in regard of the peticoners _& many others who are very 
busie, who not onely threaten us as well as you, but grossly 
abuse us & insult & boast as if the victory were attayned 
before the enterprise is begun if I may so say : ffor I con- 
fesse I received a very proud letter lately, which makes me 
feere things are not to begin : but I will not mencon any 
particulars in it at present, but leaue it till God bring us 
together, when you shall also see my answer to it. If you 
say ; twill be time enough to answer when we are accused, 
& we shall not be condemned before we are heard ? Tis 
true ; but if prejudice once take place in their bosoms it 
will be hardly rootted out, when it may be easily prevented 
by right informacon of such men of wisedome & cowrage 
as may be sent. The common error alwaies entreate such 
persons as haue busines of their owne to carry them over 
to doe some what in the publick busines : but this busines 
will appeare to be of such consequence if well weighed as 
your ablest men may not escape it, neither must you stand 
upon the charge. If you doe I conceiue you will also too 
late repent it. But I am over bold with you I confes, onely 
tis my loue to your State which sets me aworke, & ergo hope 
the same affeccon in you will cover my infirmity. But it 
may be you will say, I hope you of Plymouth will be well 
provided &c. Truly Sir I feare no, & therefore presse the 
harder vpon you ; not that we intend to trowble you with 
our busines, who know not our proceedings, ergo not 
capable of making defence for us : but &c. & we are so 
many (since we followed your example in one particular, 


which we too late repent,) to consult, as tis very hard for 
any to say what will be done, tho' he should know what is 
most wholsome for us. And ergo it much concernes vs to 
be instant at the Throne of grace, that our all ordering 
God would set vs in a right way : which the Lord in much 
mercy grant to you & us. Thus saluting you & yours, with 
all my honored ifriends with you, take leaue & remaine 

Yours till death Edw : Win slow. 

June ult. 1646. 

I should be glad to heare how your sonne Mr. Joh. 
Winthrop, my deare ffriend, proceedeth in his plantacon at 
Pecoatt. I pray you when you write to him salute him 
from me. 

Sir, When you haue done with your bookes of news 
I should take it very kindely to haue the perusing of some 
of the chiefest of them, & returne them if you desire it. 






For the rigid Worshipfull John Wintrop Esq. Governor of the 
English in the Massachusetts. 


Much honourd & beloved in Christ Jesu, — Your 
Christian acceptation of our cup of cold water is a blessed 
cup of wine, strong & pleasant to our wearied spirits. 
Only let me craue a word of explanation : among other 
pleas for a young councellour (which I feare will be too 
light in the ballance of the Holy One) you argue from 25 
in a Church Elder : tis a ridle as yet to me whether you 
meane any Elder in these New English churches, or (which 
I belieue not) old English, — disorderly functions, from 
whence our Jehovah of armies more & more redeemed his 
Israeli, — or the Levites who served from 25 to 50, 
Numb. 8., 24; or my selfe but a child in euery thing, 
(though in Christ called, & persecuted euen in & out of 
my fathers howse these 20 yeares), I am no Elder in any 
church, no more nor so much as your worthy selfe, nor 

* Roger Williams, the founder of the Colony of Rhode Island, arrived at Boston, Feb. 8, 
1630-1 ; and, after a few weeks' residence there, accepted an invitation from the church 
of Salem to succeed Higginson as their teacher. Becoming obnoxious to the Govern- 
ment, he removed, about August of that year, to Plymouth, where he resided for two 
years; returning to Salem about August, 1633. Failing to commend himself to the favor 
of the Government of Massachusetts, an order for his banishment was passed, Sept. 3, 
1635. He is supposed to have left Salem about January, 1635-6; and to have become 
settled at Providence about June following. He died at Providence in 1683. — See Win- 
throp's Hist, of N. E., i. 41; Mass. Colonial Records, i. 160. — Eds. 

t Written during Williams's residence at Plymouth, between August, 1631, and Au- 
gust, 1633. The reference, in the postscript, to Nowell's resigning the office of ruling elder, 
shows that Williams is writing about July, 1632. — Eds. 


euer shall be, if the Lord please to graunt my desires that 
I may intend what I long after, the natiues soules, & yet 
if I at present were, I should be in the dayes of my vani- 
tie neerer vp wards of 30 then 25 ; * or whether Timothie 
or Titus be in thought &c, at your leasure I craue interpre- 
tation. Sorry I am since Rationalls so much circumround 
& trouble you, that bestiale quid (& mine especially) should 
come neere you : but since the Lord of heaven is Lord of 
earth allso, & you follow him as a deare child, I thanck- 
fully acknowledge your care & loue about the cattell, & 
further entreate if you may (as you give me incourage- 
ment) procure the whole of that second, & let me know 
how, & how much payment will be here accepted, or in 
money in England. The Lord Jesus be with your Spirit, 
& your dearest one, & mine, in their extremities. To you 
both & all the Saints our due remembrances. 

Yours in all vnfeyned & brotherly affections 

Roger Williams. 

The brethren salute you. 

You lately sent musick to our eares, when we heard you 
perswaded (& that effectually & successfully) our beloved 
Mr. Nowell to surrender vp one sword : & that you were 
preparing to seeke the Lord further ; a dutie not so fre- 
quent with Plymmouth as formerly : but Spero meliora. 

* If Williams here intends to say that he is, at the time of writing (1632), "upwards 
of thirty" years of age, it would favor the tradition, that he was born in 1599, rather 
than in 1606, according to the opinion of Dr. Elton. The statement in this letter, that the 
writer had been "persecuted in and out of" his "father's house these tAventy years," 
strongly corroborates this view; and all is confirmed by another declaration of his in a 
letter published by Backus, often .quoted, dated 21st July, 1679, where he says he is " now 
near to fourscore years of age." — See Elton's Life of Roger Williams, pp. 9-13; and com- 
pare Arnold's Hist, of R. Island, i. 47-50; Backus' s Hist, of N. E., i. 421. — Eds. 






[tor?i~\ much honoured* Mr. [torn] Wintrop Deputie Governor these. 

Much honoured Sir, — The frequent experience of 
your loving eare, ready & open toward me (in what your 
conscience hath permitted) as allso of that excellent spi- 
rit of wisedome & prudence wherewith the Father of 
Lights hath endued you, embolden me to request a word 
of private advise with the soonest convenience, if it may 
be, by this messenger. 

The condicion of my selfe & those few families here 
planting with me, you know full well : we haue no Pat- 
tent: nor doth the face of Magistracie suite with our 
present condicion. Hietherto, the masters of ffamilies haue 
ordinarily mett once a fortnight & consulted about our 
common peace, watch, & planting; & mutuall consent 
hath finished all matters with speede & peace. 

Now of late some young men, single persons (of whome 
we had much neede) being admitted to freedome of inha- 
bitation, & promising to [be] subiect to the orders made by 
the consent of the howseholders, are discontented with 
their estate, & seeke the freedome of vote allso, & sequa- 
litie, &c. 

Beside, our dangers (in the midst of these dens of 
lyons) now especially, call vpon vs to be compact in a 
civill way & power. 

I haue therefore had thoughts of propounding to my 
neighbours a double subscription, concerning which I 
shall humbly craue your helpe. 

The first concerning our selues, the masters of fami- 
lies : thus, 

We whose names are here vnder written, late inhabi- 
tants of the Massachusetts, (vpon occasion of some difference 
of conscience,) being permitted to depart from the limits 


of that Pattent, vnder the which we came over into these 
parts, & being cast by the Providence of the God of Hea- 
ven, remote from others of our countriemen amongst the 
barbarous in this towne of New Providence, doe with free 
& ioynt consent promise each vnto other, that, for our 
common peace & wellfare (vntill we heare further of the 
Kings royall pleasure concerning our selues) we will 
from, time to time subiect our selues in actiue or passiue 
obedience to such orders & agreements, as shall be made 
by the greater number of the present howseholders, & 
such as shall be hereafter admitted by their consent into 
the same priviledge & covenant in our ordinarie meeting. 
In witnes whereof we here vnto subscribe, &c. 

Concerning those few young men, & any who shall 
hereafter (by your favourable connivence) desire to plant 
with vs, this, — 

We whose names are here vnder written, being desirous 
to inhabite in this Towne of New Providence, doe promise 
to subiect our selues in actiue or passiue obedience to 
such orders & agreements as shall be made from time to 
time, by the greater number of the present howseholders 
of this Towne, & such whome they shall admit into the 
same fellowship & priviledge. In witnes whereof, &c. 

Hietherto we chose one, (named the officer,) to call the 
meeting at the appointed time : now it is desird by some 
of vs that the howseholders by course performe that 
worcke, as allso gather votes & see the watch goe on, &c. 

I haue not yet mencioned these things to my neigbours, 
but shall as I see cause vpon your loving councell. 

As allso since the place I haue purchased, 21y, at mine 
OAvne charge & engagements, the inhabitants paying (by 
consent) 305 a piece as they come, vntill my charge be out 
for their particular lots : & 3rdly, that I never made any 
other covenant with any person, but that if I got a place 
he should plant there with me * my quaere is this, — 

Whither I may not lawfully desire this of my neigh- 

188 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. , [1636. 

hours, that as I freely subiect my selfe to common con- 
sent, & shall not bring in any person into the towne 
without their consent : so allso that against my consent no 
person be violently brought in & receaued. 

I desire not to sleepe in securitie & dreame of a nest 
which no hand can reach. I cannot but expect changes, 
& the change of the last enemie death, yet dare I not 
despise a libertie, which the Lord seemeth to offer me, if 
for mine owne or others peace : & therefore haue I bene 
thus bold to present my thoughts vnto you. 

The Pequts heare of your preparations &c, & comfort 
themselues in this, that a witch amongst them will sinck 
the pinnaces, by diving vnder water & making holes &c, 
as allso that they shall now enrich themselues with store 
of guns, but I hope their dreames (through the mercie of 
the Lord) shall vanish, & the devill & his lying sorcerers 
shall be confounded. 

You may please, Sir, to take notice that it is of maine 
consequence to take some course with the Wunnashowa- 
tuckoogs & Wusquowhananawkits, who are the further- 
most Neepnet men, for the Pequts driven from the sea 
coast with ease, yet there secure & [strengthen them- 
selues, & are then brought downe so much the neerer to 
you. Thus with my best respects to your loving selfe & 
Mrs. Wintrop, I rest 

Your Worships vnfeigned, praying to meete you in this 
vale of teares or hills of mercie aboue, 

R : Williams.* 

* This letter, ■which bears no date, was written, it will be perceived, after a brief 
residence of Williams and his few companions at Providence. They had become esta- 
blished there, it is supposed, about June, 1636. The letter is addressed to Winthrop as 
Deputy-Governor; which office he held for the political year ending May 17, 1637; on which 
day he was again elected Chief-Magistrate. The reference to the preparations against the Pe- 
quots may refer to Endecott's expedition, which sailed 24th or 25th August, 1636, with three 
pinnaces and two shallops. This letter is interesting, as affording, perhaps, the earliest ac- 
count extant of the way in which the civil affairs of the little community at Providence were 
conducted at its first settlement. Of the agreements, or "subscriptions," which Williams 
here has thoughts of propounding to his neighbors, the second only is extant among the 
records of the town of Providence. — Eds. 



For his much honoured Mr. Governor or Mr. Deputie Governor, 
\ these with speede. 

This last of the present weeke in the morning.* 

Sir, — Miantunnomu with a great traine arrived the 
same day that Anthony Dike departed hence with his sad 
tidings, & confirmeth with the most the report of Antho- 
ny. The Nanihiggonsicks are at present donbtfull of 
realitie in all onr promises : I haue alleadged the best 
arguments I haue heard or could invent, to perswade rea- 
litie of purpose & speedie performance, as allso reasons 
of delay. Miantunnomu & his best Councell here with 
him, haue requested me earnestly to make this proffer to 
you. The Pequts are scarce of provision, & therefore 
(as vsually so now especially) they are in some numbers 
come downe to the sea side (& 2 Hands, by name Munnaw- 
tawkit & Manittuwond especially) to take sturgeon & 
other fish, as allso to make new fields of corne, in case 
the English should destroy their fields at home. 

Miantunnomu desires to goe himselfe with one We- 
quash f here at present with him, in this pinnace here left 
by Anthony, or any other that shall take him in at the 

He will put in 40 or 50 or more as the vessell will 

He will put in vitailes himselfe for his men. He will 
direct the pinnace to the places, & in the night land his 
men, despoile them of their canowes, cut of the men he 

* Perhaps May, 1637, while Vane was Governor, and Winthrop Deputy-Governor; and 
before the annual election on the 17th of that month. — Els. 

f The Pequt of whorae I haue formerly writ. — [Williams's.] Wequash was the 
guide of Mason, who led the attack on the Pequot fort on the morning of the 26th May, 
1637. — Eds. 


finds (the greatest number being women & children, which 
for the most of them he would cut of) as allso spoile their 
fields : & this he proffers to doe without landing an Eng- 
lish man, with whome he will remaine aboord in English 
cloths which he desires for himselfe. 

John, a seaman aboord, calls the Hand Plum Hand, & 
is very willing to goe on the designe, & thincks, as allso 
Miantunnomu doth, that if within 2 or 3 dayes they 
went forth, they would be here againe within 4 or 5 or 

Sir, for my selfe I dare not advice : but if my 
thoughts be asked I shall (with all due submission) say 
this : — 

It will at present wedge them in from any starting 
aside vntill your forces shall follow. 

If they speede it will weaken the enemie & distresse 
them, being put by their hopes : as allso much enrage the 
Pequts for euer against them, a thing much desirable. 

Beside, the charge or danger of the English will be 
none, vnless Miantunnomues course cloths & a large 
coate for Wequash the Pequt guide, a man of great vse. 
The Most Holy & only Wise be pleased to smile vpon the 
face of the English that be his : (we haue all, if euer, 
cause to examine our selues, our errands & worck) in the 
face of Jesus Christ. 

While I write a Messenger is come to Miantunnomu 
from Neepemut, reporting a farr greater slaughter then 
that Anthony brought word of, & since the for[mer] a great 
number at the Plantacions, & some persons are mencioned, 
but I will not name either, but hope & long to heare it 

In case that Anthony or other seamen can not be gotten 
suddenly, here is one with vs willing to make vp a third 
man, (to the other 2 left with the pinnace), to carrie the 
vessell, though I iudge Anthony himselfe the fittest. 

Sir, Miantunnomu desird me to giue you a hint that 


the 6 fathom of beades which he gaue for the slaying of 
Audsah be repaid him, & sent now if it may be, his warrs 
keepe him bare. 

Your worships vnfaignedly respectiue 

Roger Williams. 

For any gratuities or tokens Caunonicus desires sugar ; 
Miantunnomu powder. My humble respects to all my 
loving friends. 

Sir, Miantunnomu is close in this his proiect, & there- 
fore I thinck the messenger is sent only for the beades : 
it is very convenient that Miantunnomues cloths & We- 
quash his coate be sent by him. 


New Providence 
this 6th of this present weeke, toward midnight.* 

Sir, — By John Throckmorton I was bold to advertize 
of the late mercifull successe it hath pleased the Father of 
Mercies to vouchsafe to the first attempts of our countri- 
men against these barbarous. 

After his departure toward you I went over to the 
Nanhiggonsick, partly for intelligence & partly to en- 
courage the Nanhiggonsicks in case the sad newes of 
all their men & yours defeated were true. 

I found the first newes of the cutting of the whole Fort 
of the Pequts at Mistick to be certaine & vnquestionably 
true, as I sent, with litle or no variation, of which here- 

The newes of the cutting of 3 hundreth Nanhiggon- 

* Probably Friday, 2d June. The attack upon the Pequot fort was on the morning of 
Friday, in the preceding week, 26th May, 1637. — See Winlhrop's Hist, of N. E., i. 225.— 


sicks & all the English held still for currant & confirmed 
that they were opprest with multitudes, their provision 
being spent & the English wanting powder & shot & the 
Nanhiggonsicks arrowes. 

I gaue the best reasons I could to perswade that they 
were all either gone togeather to Qunnihticut for provision, 
or vpon some second assault vpon the other of the Pequt 

As allso I was bold to promise (in Mr. Governours name) 
that allthough all these or more were cut of, yet there 
should be fresh supplies of the English who would never 
sheath their swords, &c. 

This 5th day past toward night I haue receaved tidings 
(blessed for euer be the Lord of Hosts) that the Nanhig- 
gonsicks are all came safe home yesternight, (at noone I 
came from thence), & brought word that the English were 
all safe, but the first 3 slaine at the Fort with 2 of their 

As allso that indeede they fought thrice that day of their 
first victorie with no losse of their side, & with the losse of 
2 Pequts more. 

That themselues & the English prepard next day after 
for their other Forts, found all fled, made themselues 
lords of one, in which both English & Nanhiggonsicks 
now keepe. 

That Maumanadtuck one of their biggest, with great 
troops, (as before he gaue out he could) is gone to Wun- 
nashowatuckqut (the further Neepmucks.) 

That Sasacous said he would to Long Hand, & thither 
is gone or hid in the swampes, but not a Pequt is to be 

That Miantunnomu is come from Pequt to Nayantaquit, 
& was resolued homeward to send out to Wunnashowa- 
tuckqut where the enemie shelters & haue Forts. 

Now Sir, considering the worck is effected (through the 
mercie of the most High) in these parts, & that the Qun- 


nihticut English, togeather with Capt. Patrick & his, are 
sufficient to mainteine what they haue gotten, & pursue 
Sasacous in all his motions thereabouts : I conceaved (with 
submission) that it might saue the count rcy no small 
charge, & hazard, & losse, timely to advertize & give 

The Wunnashowatuckoogs & Pequts with them are 
about the distance from you that we are : on them I con- 
ceaue & vnderstand the Nanhiggonsicks next fall. 

If you see cause & grounds to make a stop for a day or 
2, if the Lord please, the 2nd day or 3d of the next weeke 
I hope to acquaint you with Miantunnomues & Caunon- 
nicus their advice & desire, which it may be will be to 
meete his companies at the hither Neepmucks & none 
to come this way, or some the one way & some the other. 
This morning I goe over (if the Lord please) to consult 
with them, hoping to be at home (if possible) to morrow 
evening, & so to dispatch some messenger the 2nd in the 

Sir, your late message to the Neepmucks (through the 
Lords mercy) hath wrought this effect, that whereas they 
staggerd as nevters, they brought this present weeke divers 
basketts of their nokehick &' chesnuts to Canounicous 
towards his wars. 

Sir, I vnderstand that the cause why the English hurt 
so many of the Nanhiggonsicks, was want of signes or 
marcks. You may please therefore to prouide some yel- 
low or red for their heads : the Qunnihticut English had 
yellow but not enough. 

Thus beseeching the God of Peace to be at peace with 
vs, that all the fruit may be the taking away of our sinn, 
(which if not removed will vnstop worse vialls) to guid 
your consultations & prosper your expeditions to the prayse 
of his owne most holy name, I rest 

Your worships faythfull & affectionate in all civill 
bonds Roger Williams. 



Sir for the young man that accompanyes my man, the 
countrey may please to recompence his time, or I shall. 

Our best respects to Mrs. Wintrop & all your & our 
loving friends. 


For his much honoured Mr. Governour these. Mr. Stoughton or 
Capt. Traske, on their way, may please to reade this* 

New Providence this 4th of the weeke, mane.-\ •. 

Sir, — John Gallop (blessed be the Lord) is safely ar- 
rived at our dores, & hath brought from the Lord & you a 
mercifull refreshing to vs. He be graciously pleased to 
recompence it a thoughsand fold to the whole land & 
yourselues especially. 

He relates that there is now riding below 3 pinnaces, 
(the names of the masters Quick, Jiglies & Robinson,) 
& the 2 Shalops, as allso that the other, whereof — — 
Jackson of Salem is master, was in company with 
them the night before, & waighed anchor togeather, but 
being not able to turne about was faigne to chop to an 
anchor againe, but they hope is in by this time. 

Sir, I heare our loving friends, Mr. Stoughton, Mr. 
Traske &c. are on their way, & 160 (the intended number) % 
with them. I hope the continuance of the number will 
be seasonable, if not for pursuit of Sasacous & the Pe-, 
quts, (of whome it is said that they are gone farr & 
finally,) yet for the quelling of their confederates the 
Wunnashowatuckoogs & Monashackotoogs &c, who Hue 
neerer to you on the westward, &c. Some 200 of these 

* It was perhaps thought that the bearer of this letter might meet these persons " on 
their way" to join their Connecticut allies. — Eds. 

| June, 1637. In the latter part of this month, Stoughton had arrived at Pequot River 
with about one hundred and twenty men. See Mason's Hist, of the Pequot War, p. 14. — 

1 See Wmthrop'e Hist, of N. E , i. 222. — Eds. 


(since the slaughter at the Fort) came in revenge vpon 
the Nanhiggonsicks : which the Nanhiggonsicks them- 
selues knew- not till three Pequts (now fallen to them) 
related it : for it pleased the Lord to send a great mist that 
morning that they durst not fight, & so returned : so that 
there is cause to take some course with them, & especially 
if it be possible for the clearing of land passage to Qunnih- 

I vnderstand it would be very gratefull to our neigh- 
bours that such Pequts as fall to them be not enslaved, like 
those which are taken in warr : but (as they say is their 
generall custome) be vsed kindly, haue howses, & goods, & 
fields given them : because they voluntarily choose to 
come in to them, & if not receaved will [go] to the enemie 
or turne wild Irish themselues : but of this more as I shall 
vnderstand : thus in hast with best salutacions to Mrs. 
Wintrop & all yours, with my poore desires to the Lord 
for yours I rest 

Your worships vnfaigned 

Roger Williams. 

My best respects to Mr. Deputie, Mr. Bellingham, 
theirs, & other loving friends. 

For his much honoured Mr. Gouernour these. 

New Providence, this 6th instantis.* 

Much honoured Sir, — It having againe pleased the 
Most High to put into your hands another miserable droue 
of Adams degenerate seede, & our brethren by nature, I 
am bold (if I may not offend in it) to request the keeping 

* Probably July, 1637. See Winthrop's Hist, of N. E., i. 232. — Eds. 


& bringing vp of one of the children. I haue fixed mine 
eye on this litle one with the red about his neck, but I 
will not be peremptory in my choice, but will rest in your 
loving pleasure for him or any, &c. 

Sir, Capt. Patrick giues me a hint of the likely returne 
of most of youer forces (Sasacous & about a score of men 
with him & other companies, 4 score in one, surviving,) I 
shall humbly propound whether it be not considerable, 
that better now then hereafter the pursuit be continued. 

1st, Because it may stop a conglutination betweene them 
and the Mowhauogs, which longer time is like to make. 

2ndly, Longer time will put many opportunities of occa- 
sionall revenge into their hand, as we see in the 3 last cut 
of vpon Qunnihticut river, after the fort cut of. 

Capt. Patrick allso informes me of a great itch vpon the 
souldiers to fall fowle vpon our neighbours. Litle sparkes 
proue great fires. The God of Peace who is only wise be 
pleased to guide vs. Capt. Patrick confesseth that they 
were the chiefe actors in the last captiues, & had taken 
all by a wile & slaine 2 before the English came. I heare 
no speech at present about ingequalitie, but content & affec- 
tion toward vs. 

I much reioice that (as he sayth) some of the chiefe at 
Qunnihticut (Mr. Heynes & Mr. Ludlow,) are almost 
averse from killing women & children. Mercie outshines 
all the worckes & attributes of him who is the Father of 
Mercies, vnto whome with earnest supplications for you & 
yours I rest Your worships vnfained 

Roger "Williams. 

My best respects to good Mrs. Wintrop, Mr. Deputie, 
Mr. Bellingham, & theirs. 

1637.] THE WINTHR0P PAPERS. 197 


New Providence this 2nd 7nsc.* 

Sir, — Concerning your prisoners taken at Block Ilandf 
I haue informed the Sachims of your care not to iniure 
them & desire to haue them cleared; accordingly Cutsha- 
maquene (now come from pursuing Sasacous who is fled 
Southerly, fair out of reach) I say he hath receaued testi- 
monie from the Sachims Princes that they are Nayantaquit 
men, (Wepiteammocks men) & so all are Nanhiggonsick 
men, & so indeede Sir I had thought to send you word at 
this present, had not I receaued your letter, for it was con- 
tinually affirmed to me for truth by all the Nanhiggonsick 
men occasionally being here. 

Sir, the last messenger that caried letters from you to 
Pequat, related to the Sachims at Nanhiggonsick, that you 
were displeased that the captiues brought to the [Bay 
lajtely were taken by the English from the Nanhiggonsicks, 
as allso the spoile vpon them, which was giuen to the 
English souldiers. I haue answered that I thinck it was 
not so, but I shall vnderstand the truth shortly ; & there- 
fore, Sir, be pleased in your next to intimate a word, that I 
may satisfie them, for though I would not feare a jarr with 
them yet I would fend of from being fowle, & deale 
with them wisely as with wolues endewed with mens 

The last weeke is a battell fought betweene the hither 
Xeepmucks & and the farther, the Wunnashowatuckoogs 
&c. the successe is not yet knowne : it will be of conse- 
quence, for it is said they fortifie, ioyning with scattered 

Sir, The last day of the weeke Wequash the Pequt guide 

* 2nd septimanse; that is, the second day of the week, or Monday. Probably July 10, 
1637. See notes on p. 202. — Eds. 

f See Winthrop's Hist, of N. E., i. 232. — Eds. 


neere hand, slue his country man Sassawwaw, a Pequt, 
allso Miantunnomues speciall darling, & a kind of Generall 
of his forces. There was yesterday some tumult about it 
because Wequash Hues with Canounicus, & Miantunnomu 
pursues the revenge & justice, &c. 

By the way although Wequash it may be haue trea- 
cherously allmost slaine him, yet I see the righteous hand 
of the most High Judge, thus: Sassawwaw turnd to the 
Nanhiggonsicks & againe pretends a returne to the Pequts, 
gets them forth the last yeare against the Nanhiggonsicks 
& spying advantage, slue the chiefe Pequt Captain & whips 
of his head, & so againe to the Nanhiggonsick : their trea- 
cheries exceede Machiavills &c. 

Sir, Capt. Stoughton left sick at my house one souldier, 
a Boston man Tho : Roberts, his master is absent, & Mr. 
Harding hath charge of him. I haue sent to him &c. The 
man was neere death. Through the Lords mercy my wife 
hath gott him vpon his legs, though very weake, only his 
hearing is quite gone, & I should be glad to receaue any 
helpe for him in that great losse. So with my respectiue 
salutacions to Mr. Deputie, Mr. Bellingham, yours & theirs, 
& other loving friends & my poore sighes to heauen to 
meete you there if not here below, I rest 

Your Worships vnworthy yet vnfaigned 

Roger Williams. 


For his most honou[red] Govemour these. The second letter. 

New Providence 2ndo Septimana?.* 

Sir, — In the morning I wrote by John Throckmorton, 
what I heard "& thought in generall. It hath pleased the 
Lord now this afternoone to send this messenger, (Assote- 

* Probably written on the same day with the preceding letter. See address. — Eds. 


muit) with varietie, & plentie, & strangenes of newcs & 
tidings, I hope true, & for ought I can discerne, true, 
blessed be the holy name of the most High, who breakes 
the bow & cuts the spear &c. Psal. 46. 

This man was sent this morning from Miantunnomu & 
Caunounicus (as I conceaue allso from all their chiefs in 
councell) with charge to bring relacion to my selfe of what 
hath lately happened amongst the Pequts : as allso that 
with my letter he should make speede to your selfe with 

He relates that a Pequat man & some 5 Pequt women 
came 2 dayes since to the Nanhiggonsick, & with their 
ordinary submission begd their liues, & libertie to declare 
in the name of many others what had happened amongst 
them : before that Pequt came one squaw, & a second came, 
but was questioned much for their truth, but vpon the 
comming & report of the old Pequat, he saith, they all 
take his report for true. 

. This man himselfe, Assotemuit, is a noted messenger 
from the Sachims, & one whome Miantunnomu hath com- 
mended to me for an especiall messenger from him. 

This Pequot & the women report that (as I allso heard 
before) all the Pequts were assembled some 10 dayes since 
with Sasacous in councell : some perswaded to fight & 
fall first vpon the Nanhiggonsicks (this allsow I heard be- 
fore) the greater part dissented & were for remoovall: 
Sasacous & about 4 score resolved for Mauquowkit, alias 
Waukheggannick, where the men eaters are ; a hundreth 
more for Long Hand ; another company, the least, for 
Qunnihticut, some part of it, with purpose to take finall 
leaue of their countrey. 70 men, women, & children, (of 
men betweene 20 & thirtie,) resolved for the Nanhiggon- 
sicks to beg their liues &c. 

Sasacous & his company were wroth with these resolved 
for the Nanhiggonsick, & a skirmish past betweene 
them where some were wounded, but away they got, & 


each company packt vp & departed their intended iour- 

Miantunnomu sent word to this company remayning 
in the mid way betweene Pequatit & Nayantakick, that he 
was in leauge with Mr. Governour, & therefore of him- 
selfe would say nothing, but desired them there to rest (at 
Cuppunaugunnit) in the mid way, vntill he sent to Mr. 
Governour, & what he said that he would assent vnto. 

They tould Miantunnomu that they had brought f3 guns 
with them. He sent the women for the guns, who fetcht 
them from that place, Cuppunnaugunnit, & there they are 
with him. Only he claimes a promise of one to himselfe, 
which he desires may be out of these 3, as allso some pow- 
der & shot to it, as indeede was promised.* I haue much 
laboured with this man to find, if it were possible, any 
deceit or falsehood, but as he himselfe & the Sachims 
question not the Pequt man & women, so I can not ques- 
tion him. 

I aske him (in discourse) what he thincks were best to 
be done, he answereth that as Miantunnomu himselfe 
when he sent to Canounicus to speake his minde, & Cau- 
nounicus refusing sent to him to speake first, Miantun- 
nomu would say nothing, but would say as Mr. Governour 
said so himselfe would likewise say nothing. Yet in dis- 
course I hsht out divers hints of their owne desire & good 

As first, that there is not amongst these any Sachim or 
any of those who were murtherers of the English ; if there 
were they should die. 

2ndly, That if Mr. Governour were so minded, they 
incline to mercy & to giue them their liues : & I doubt 
not but your owne breasts are farr more tender, like the 
mercifull Kings of Israeli. 

ordly, That divers more beside these remaine in the 

* When Mr. Vane was Governour. — [Williams's Note.] 



woods, & resolve to come in & submit if these be ac- 

4. For the disposing of them, I propounded what if Mr. 
Governour did desire to send for some of them into the 
Bay ; leaue some at the Nanhiggonsick & so scatter & dis- 
perse them : this he liked well, that they should Hue with 
the English & themselues as slaues. I then propounded 
that if they lived amongst the English or themselues, they 
might hereafter be false to the English &c, & what if there- 
fore they were appointed & limited to liue vpon Nayan- 
tacawnick or some other Hand : & this he thought allso 
well of, if not best, because they were most of them fami- 

5. That they desire you would please to send some 
English to take possession of the Pequt countrey & there 
to inhabite. 

6. That for their owne hunting sake, Miantunnomu de- 
sires that the English would inhabite that part neerest 
Qunnihticut, & that Mistick * & thereabout might be free 
for them. I told him that they might hunt in the woods 
as they doe at Massachusett & here, notwithstanding the 
English did generally inhabite : & this satisfied. 

7. That they desire the Pequts corne might be enioyed 
by the English & themselues as Mr. Governour please. 

8. That the Wunnashowatuckoogs are also afraid & 
fled, so that there is hope of a safe passage to Qunnihti- 
cut by land. 

9. That there is no hope that the Mauquawogs or any 
other people will euer assist Sasacous, or any of the Pe- 
quts, against the English, because he is now as it were 
turned slaue to beg his life. 

If all this be true (as I hope it is) we may all see the 
God of Heaven delights in mercy & to draw by loue & 
pitie then by fury & wrath. I hope Si 1 *, now that troubles 

* Which is neerest, & where the slaughter was. — [Williams's Note.] 



may arise from other parts, his holy Majestie is pleased to 
quench these neerer fires. He be pleased to confirme this 
newes, & tune all hearts to his prayses in the ordering of 
our conversation aright. So I rest praying 
Your worships vnfained 

Roger Williams. 

This man relates that yesterday, the Lord's day in the 
morning, a Pinnace arriued, but he knowes not yet what 
she is. 

I pray Sir forget not to reward this messenger with a 
coate, as allso some powder for Miantunnomu. 

My loving respects to Mrs. Wintrop, Mr. Deputie, Mr. 
Bellingham, & theirs &c. 


For his much honoured Mr. Governour these. 

This 3rd 7*e.* . 

Sir, — Yesterday by our neigbour Throckmorton I 
wrote concerning those Nayantaquit men your pinnace 
tooke. This bearer Jvanemo j" (one of the chiefe Sachims of 
that place & chiefe souldier) came last night with neere a 
score of his men to enquire after them. He was very desi- 
rous of a letter to you : I told him I hoped he would find 
his men at libertie. He hath brought a musket & a bar- 
rel! of a leue piece which his men tooke from the Pequts. 

* The third day of the week; probably July 11, 1637. See note following. — Eds. 

t Alias " Ninigret," Sachem of Niantick. A portrait of this chief is in possession 
of the Winthrop Family, from a copy of which (made for the late Lieut.-Gov. Winthrop) 
an engraving was made for Drake's History of Boston. There is an interesting tradition 
that the life of John Winthrop, Jr., was once saved by him. Winthrop records the 
arrival of " Ayanemo" at Boston, on the 12th July, with seventeen men. This was 
Wednesday. Williams's letter was written on Tuesday, " 3rd 7 as " (that is, 3d septimanae) : 
probably the day before, or July 11. It appears, further on (page 204), that the bearer had 
returned to Williams by the next " Lord's day ; " which fell on the 16th. — Eds. 


There was a speach that 3 of these men were Nayan- 
takoogs & one a Peqnat : it seemes he is a Pequt borne, 
but hath long since bene theirs, fallen to them, & done 
good service in their warrs against the Pequts. 

Sir, this Jvanemo is a notable instrument amongst them 
&c, your wisedome, I know therefore, will lay hold of this 
his visit, to engage him the more to you. 

Thus humbly begging mercies from the God of heaven 
for you & and yours in all affaires, I rest, in hast, 
Your Worships vnfaigned 

Poger Williams. 

All due respects & salutacions, &c. 


New Providence, this 15th of the 5th.* 
Sir, — For the captiues & bootie, I never heard any of 
these Natiues question the Acts of the English, only that 
Natiue who brought letters to you from Capt. Patrick, & 
was twice at Boston, related so much as I wrote of in my 
former, at his returne to the Nanhiggonsick, viz, that your 
selfe should be angry with the English, &c. I met since 
with him, & he sayth he had it not from your selfe, but an 
English man at Roxbury. I thought good to cleare your 
name, & remooue suspicions from Mr. Stoughton, &c. 

Wequash is aliue, so is allso the other like to recover of 
his wound : I never heard that Miantunnomu was dis- 
pleased with Wequash, for any service to the English, but 
that Wequash was suspected to deale falsely when he 
went to hunt for the Pequts at the rivers mouth. Tis 
true there is no feare of God before their eye, & all the 
cords that euer bound the Barbarous to Eorreiners were 

July, 1637. — Eds. 


made of selfe & covetuousnes : yet, if I mistake not, I ob- 
serue in Miantnnnomu some sparkes of true friendshipp, 
could it be deepely imprinted into him that the English 
never intended to despoile him of the countrey, I probably 
coniecture his friendship would appeare in attending of vs 
with 500 men (in case) against any forreigne enemie. 

The Neepmucks are returned with 3 heads of the Wun- 
nashoatuckoogs, they slue 6, wounded many, & brought 
home 20 captiues. 

Those Inlanders are fled vp toward the Mowhauogs : so 
they say is Sasacous : our friends at Qunnihticut are to 
cast a iealous eye at that people ; they say (vnles they are 
belied) that they are to warre with the English, &c. 

Truely Sir, to speake my thoughts in your eare freely, I 
blesse the Lord for your mercifull dealing &c. but feare 
that some innocent blood cryes at Qunnihticut. Many 
things may be spoken to proue the Lords perpetuall 
warr with Amalek extraordinary & misticall ; but the 
2 Kings, 14, 5. 6, is a bright light discovering the ordi- 
nary path wherein to walke & please him. If the 
Pequts were murtherers (though pretending revenge for 
Sasacous his fathers death, which the Dutch affirmed was 
from Mr. Governour) yet not comparable to those trea- 
cherous servants that slue their lord & king, Joash K. of 
Judah, & tipe of Jesus, yet the fathers only perish in 
their sinn, in the place quoted, &c. The blessed Lambe 
of God wash away iniquitie & receaue vs graceously. 

Thus with best salutes to your loving selfe & yours, Mr. 
Deputie, Mr. Bellingham, & other loving friends with 
them, & dayly cryes to the Father of Merceys for 
you I rest Your Worships vnfaigned 

Roger Williams. 

Postscript. — Sir, to yours brought by Jvanemo on the 
Lords day I could haue litle speech with him ; but con- 
cerning Miantunnomu I haue not heard as yet of any 


vnfaythfullnes towards vs ; I know they bely each other ; 
& I obserue our country men haue allmost quite forgotten 
our great pretences to K. & State, & all the world, con- 
cerning their soules, &c. I shall desire to attend with my 
poore helpe to discover any perfidious dealing, & shall de- 
sire the revenge of it for a common good & peace, though 
my selfe & mine should perish by it : yet I feare the Lords 
quarrell is not ended for which the warr began, viz. the litle 
sence, (I speake for the generall that I can heare of) of their 
soules condicion, & our large protestations that way, &c. 
The generall speech is, all must be rooted out, &c. The 
body of the Pequin men yet Hue, & are onely remooved 
from their dens. The good Lord grant, that the Mow- 
haugs & they & the wh[ole] at the last vnite not. For 
mine owne part I can [not be] without suspicions of it. 

Sir, I thanckfully expect a litle of your helpe (in a way 
of justice & sequitie) concerning another vn[just] debtour 
of mine, Mr. Ludlow, from whome allso (in mine absence) 
I h[aue] much suffered. The good Lord smile vpon you 
& yours in the face of his annointed. 

Your Worships vnworthy R. W.* 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, "Mr. W: ms about We[quash] & the 

For his much honoured Mr. Governour these. 

New Providence, 21 of 5th monthe.f 

Much honoured Sir, — My vnfaigned loue & respect to 
your soules eternall comfort, & firme perswation of your 
levelling at the highest white, J haue imboldned me once 

* This letter is printed from the original, contained in a collection of miscellaneous 
papers, among the manuscripts of the Massachusetts Historical Society. It was written in 
July, 1637. The day on which it is dated (the 15th) was Saturday. The "postscript," 
acknowledging the receipt of a letter from Gov. Winthrop, by Juanemo, " on the Lord's 
day," must have been written afterwards ; perhaps on Monday. This letter was printed 
in a former volume of our " Collections," but not in its proper place; and it is here intro- 
duced for its connection with the letter immediately preceding. — Eds. 

t July, 1637. — Eds. t The mark at which an arrow is shot. — Eds. 


more to tell you of some poore thougk[ts] of mine owne, 
penned & sent to some friends amongst you ; which hap- 
pily, (if the good Lord so please) may some way conduce 
to your sowles satisfaction in the midst of all your troubles. 

I haue bene long requested to write my grounds 
against the English preaching, &c. & especially my answers 
to some reasons of Mr. Robinson's for hearing. 

In the midst of a multitude of barbarous distractions, I 
haue fitted some thing to that purpose : & being not able 
at present to transcribe the whole ; yet having bene long 
sollicited by Mr. Buckley (from whome I receaved some 
obiectpons,)] & by many others, & of late by my worthy 
friend Mr. Peters, [who had] sight of them, I haue 
thought good to send so much [as I] haue transcribed, to 
the hand of my loving friend Mr. Buckly. 

Sir, I am bold to give you this intimacion, because in 
these first loose leaues, handling the state of a National! 
church, from the 38 page I haue enlarged the differences 
betweene Israeli & all other states. I know & am per- 
swaded that your misguidings are great & lamentable, & 
the further you pass in your way, the further you wander, 
& haue the further to come back, & the end of one vexa- 
tion will be but the beginning of another, till conscience 
be permitted (though erronious) to be free amongst 

I am sorry my straights are such that I can not tran- 
scribe the remaynder, & especially what concernes the 
matter most concerning your deare selfe, & therein* espe- 
cially the assoiling of some obiections, but if the Lord 
please I liue, I shall endeavour the rest, & thanckfully re- 
ceaue any intimacion from your selfe, yea from the 
least, whereby I might my selfe returne from any wan- 
drings. The Lord Jesus be to you & me the Way, the 
Truth, & he will be the Life allso. So prayes 
Your Worships most vnfained 

Roger Williams. 


I haue no newes, but from Qunnihticut, the receauing 
of Sasacous, his present & company by the Mawhauogs, 
& some promises of theirs to him to setle him againe at 
Pequt. This weeke Souwonckquawsir, old Sequins sonn, 
cut of 20 Pequt women & children in their passage to 
the Mowhauogs, allso one Sachim who 3 yeares agoe was 
with you in the Bay with a present. 


For his much honoured Mr. Governour these. 

Much honoured Sir, — I was fearefull that those dead 
hands* were no pleasing sight (otherwise then a remarke- 
able vengance had seazed vpon the first murtherer of the 
English, Wauphanck) yet I was willing to permit what 
I could not aproue, least if I had buried the present 
myselfe, I should haue incurd suspicion of pride & 
wronged my betters, in the natiues & others eyes : I haue 
alwaies showne dislike to such dismembring the dead & 
now the more, (according to your desire) in your name. 

I was allso fearefull that mine owne hand (having no 
commission from my heart (which is not in mine hand 
but in the hand of its Maker, the Most High) to write 
you ought of mine owne returne in spiritualls) I say 
fearefull that mine owne might not be so gratefull & 
pleasing to you : but being calld vpon by your message 
& your loue, (your paper), I am emboldened. 

Concerning the Pequts, the souldiers here related to 
me that Okace the Mohiganie Sachim had about 300 
men with him on Pequt river, some 16 mile from the 
howse, which I belieue are most of them Pequts & their 
confederates the Wunnashowatuckoogs & their Inlanders 

* See Winthrop's Hist, of N.E., i. 237. — Eds. 


(who me he charged vnder paine of death not to come 
to Canounicus) & with whome he hath made himselfe 
great. This man is but a litle Sachim, & hath not aboue 
40 or 50 Mohiganeucks which as the English told me 
were all he could make. 

It is generally confirmed that Thomas Stanton* (as him- 
selfe allso confest to me at my howse) was grossly cousend 
& deluded by one Wequashcuck (a Nayantaquit Sachim) 
who sheltred 4 Pequts Sachims & 60 Pequts at Long 
Hand where now they are, where peace was made with 
promise from the natiues not to permit one Pequt : yet 
Wequashcuck marrying Sasacous his mother hath thus 
deceaved you. This Wequashcuck was the man (to my 
knowledge) that sheltred Audsah, the murthrer of Mr. 
Oldham, & kept his head so long vpon his shoulders: 
yet to this man Thomas Stanton (as it appeares) did to 
much listen, slighting, I feare, to much the Nanhiggon- 

I find our Neighbours very eager to pursue these 4 
Sachims & the 60 Pequts there, I presse them to patience 
till Mr. Governours mind be knowne, & Miantunnomu (to 
my knowledge) doth all he can to restreine them, or els 
long since they had bene there. They plead that Mr. 
Governour may please to accompanie, or send himselfe 
against them, but can not by any article in the leauge bind 
them to suffer so many of their enemies in a knot so neere 

I presse them to humane consideracion of so much 
blood spilt, they answere if they haue the Sachims heads 
they will make the rest Nanhiggonsicks, & for the Long 
Ilanders themselues & Wequashcuck, they will not medle 
with them, because of the peace Mr. Stoughton made with 

Concerning the ketles: Miantunnomu answeres, that 

* A resident of Connecticut, who rendered great service as an Indian interpreter. — Eds. 



lie hath bene much wronged by the reports of enemies 
& false friends to whom some of vs (as he saith) haue 
hearkned before himselfe. 

He saith he never knew of more then 2, one of which 
the English vsed at the howse, & the other as he heares 
is at the Fort still : he sayth he hath many of his owne, 
& in deede when I came first hiether I saw neere 10 or 
12 which himselfe & Canounicus had. 

He repaid me with a grievance about a Pequt canow 
which he desired might be ordred by your owne hearing, 
but it was denyed him : his plea seemes very faire : thus 
this brother Yoteash having taken the great Sachim 
(Puttaquappuonckquame who was kept in the pinnace 
aliue sometime) tooke his canow, which, sayth he, the 
English Captaines sitting all togeather were very willing 
vnto : this canow Mr. Stoughton afterwards brought 
about homeward : Miantunnomu & his brother claime it : 
twas denyed : he requested that it might be left at my 
howse till Mr. Governours mind was knowne. Capt. 
Stoughton would not yeald, but desired him to go along 
to me, but sayth he, I would not trust my selfe with him, 
seing he would not stand to Mr. Governours determination 
about the canow : I would not haue mencioned this 
least it might provoke Mr. Stoughton or any : but I 
know to whome I intimate it : & I haue prettie well 
appeased the matter allready. 

He answeres all I can obiect to him with this : let 
Mr. Governour haue the hearing of it : I will rest in his 
word, & obiecting to him in the particular before divers, 
that the English complaine he was proud, he desired that 
I would present to Mr. Governour these particulars, that 
he had cause to mainteine his right, because, the Qunnih- 
ticut English equalld Okace & the Mohiganeucks with 
himselfe & his men. 

Whereas sayth he these Mohiganeucks are but as a 
twig, we are as a great tree. 



They fell to the English but last yeare, we haue bene 
euer friends &c. 

Okace & his men had a hand in the death of all the 
English & fought against the Rivers mouth (at Qunnihti- 
cut) we never kild nor consented to the death of an Eng- 
lish man. 

When the Dutchmen & we fought with the Pequts the 
Mogianeucks ioyned against vs. 

When Capt. Endicot came against the Pequts the Mo- 
higaneucks receaved the Pequt women & children & kept 
them, while the men fought with him &c. 

Okace brought presents to Canounicus, & Miant[unno- 
mu], yet at the same time killd 2 of his women treache- 

They fell to the English this yeare in feare or other 
policie, & we, (sayth he) haue continued friendship & loue 
euer since they landed. Thus he pleaded &c, & yet proud 
& covetous 8c filthy they are &c. only I was willing to gra- 
tifie him in this, because as I know your owne heart stu- 
dies peace, & their soules good, so your wisedome may 
make vse of it vnto others who happily take some more 
pleasure in warrs : The blessed God of Peace be pleased 
to giue you peace within, at home, & round about you 
abroad, So prayes 

Your worships vnfainedly respectiue 

Roger, Williams. 

To Mrs. Wintrop, Mr. Deputie, Mr. Bellingham &c. all 
respectiue salutacions. 

I haue at present returned Rich. Collicuts Pequt girle 
which Miantunnomu found out, 8c desired me to send 
home, with promise of further enquiring. 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, " Mr. Williams, 7:9: 1037." 



For his hind friend Mr. Richard Collicut, these. 

Kind Friend, — I lately wrote vnto you : once when I 
sent home your boy, & againe when I sent the girle : 
concerning either of them, if you be minded to put 
either of them away, I desire to giue you your desire: 
otherwise I wish you much comfort in the keeping of them. 

As I am many wayes indebted, so I haue many debts 
comming to me. I take it very lovingly that you please 
to helpe me concerning Mr. Ludlow. I haue accord- 
ingly sent you power to deale in it. In 3 respects I 
request you to be serious & punctuall. 

1st, It is now an old debt, especially my cow was 
mine, left behind 4 yeares agoe for me in Virginia, & some 

2ndly, I have requested the last yeare divers to helpe 
me & gaue them power, but all failed me, so that I 
shall haue cause to be thanckfull to you aboue others. 

3rdly, If his payment like you, I shall request you first 
to satisfie your selfe, & shall remain e 

Yours most vnfained Roger Williams. 

I shall gladly satisfie not only your charge, but allso 
your time & paines in dealing with Mr. Ludlow. 


Memorand : that I, Eoger Williams of New Providence, 
doe constitute & ordaine Richard Collicut of Dorchester 
my true & lawfull Atturney, for me & in my name to aske 
or demaund, sue or arrest, acquit or release George Lud- 
low of -all such summes of money or goods as are due unto 
me from him. per me Roger Williams. 

This 12th of the 7th mon. (commonly calld) 1G37. 



For his much honoured Mr, Governour these. 

Sir, — Having vsed many meanes & many Atturnies (in 
my absence) to recover a debt of Mr. George Ludlow, & 
fayled by all, & now last of all by Richard Collicut who 
vndertooke seriously, but comes of weakly in it : let me 
humbly beg what helpe in a righteous way may be afFoorded 
(now in his departure) to cause him to deale honestly with 
me who haue many yeares & in many wants bene pa- 
tient toward him. The debt was for mine owne & wiues 
better apparell put of to him at Plymmouth. My bills 
are lost, but his owne hand which the bearer will deliver 
is testimony sufficient. He hath vsed so many slights & 
told so many false hoods that sir, if you believe more then 
you see, I must patiently giue my debt for desperate : how- 
euer with my best respects to your kind selfe & Mrs. Win- 
trop, & sighes to heaven for you, I rest 

Your Worships vnfaignedly faythfull till death 

Roger Williams. 


New Providence, the 2nd of present weeke.* 

Much honoured Sir, — I am bold to interpose (in all 
humble respect) a word or 2 concerning the bearer, Mr. 
Greene. Being at Salem this last weeke to take order 
about the sale of his howse, & comming away, an ancient 

* Probably Monday, 18tb September, 1637. At a Quarter Court held at Boston on the 
19th, the bearer of this letter, "Mr. John Greene, of New Providence, was fined 20?., 
and committed until the fine of 201. be paid, ... for speaking contemptuously of the 
magistrates." — Mass. Col. Records, i. 203. His fine appears to have been remitted; 
but see further in Winthrop'6 Hist, of N. E., i. 25G. — Eds. 


acquaintance meetes him (Ed. Batter) & questions whether 
he would come & liue there againe, vnto which he an- 
swered, how could he vnles he might enioy the freedome 
of his soule & conscience. Ed. Batter replied- he might 
so, to which he again replied he knew that could not be, 
for the power of the Lord Jesus was in the hand of civill 
authoritie ; vpon this came by Mr. Endicot, calls Ed. Bat- 
ter & questions him (as himselfe related to Mr. Greene) 
what was their conference: the summe whereof being 
told, Mr. Endicot warnd Mr. Greene to appeare at this 
Generall Court. 

Sir, for my selfe I have no partiall respect to Mr. 
Greene nor relation, but of neighbours togeather : only 
for the better following of peace, (euen when it flies from 
vs) I am bold to acquaint with passages of truth (as I 
can not but hope) before hand : I shall grieue much that 
any molestation or trouble should arise vnto you from 
hence, or that there be the appearance of any further 
jarr. Sir, I know to whome I speake. Mr. Endicot had 
neede haue a true compasse for he makes great way &c : 
the Father of Lights & Spirits mercifully be pleased to 
guide all our steerings. 

Mr. Greene here, is peaceable, a peacemaker, & a lover 
of all English that visits vs. I conceaue he would not 
disturbe peace in relating his judgment to his friend, (if I 
may so call him) demanding it first allso of him, or els 
I presume he should not haue heard a word of such mat- 
ters, if I know Mr. Greene. 

Sir, I here yet knot of any of the runnaway captiues 
amongst our neighbours, yesterday I heard that 2 scapt 
from them to the Pequt. If any be or doe come amongst 
them I suppose they shall be speedily returned, or I shall 
certifie where the default is. 

Sir, I desire to be truely thanckfull for the boy intended : 
Ids father was of Sasquankit, where the last fight was : & 
fought not with the English, as his mother (who is with 


you & 2 children more) certi[fi]ed me : I shall endeavour 
his good & the common, in him. I shall appoint some to 
fetch him, only I request that you would please to giue a 
name to him. 

Sir, concerning captiues (pardon my wonted boldnes) 
the Scripture is full of mysterie & the old Testament of 

If they have deserued death tis sinn to spare : 

If they haue not deserued death then what punishments 1 
Whether perpetuall slaverie. 

I doubt not but the enemie may lawfully be weaknd & 
despoild of all comfort of wife & children &'c, but I be- 
seech you well weigh it after a due time of trayning vp to 
labour, & restraint, they ought not to be set free : yet so as 
without danger of adioyning to the enemie. Thus ear- 
nestly looking vp to heaven for you & all yours I rest 
Your worships vnfaigned 

Roger Williams. 

My best respect to Mrs. Wintrop, Mr. Deputie, Mr. Bel- 
lingham &c. 


To his much honoured Mr. Governour these. 

Sir, — Some while since you were pleased to desire me 
to signifie to the Sachims, the promise of the Block 
Ilanders to your selues, & therefore their exemption from 
all other submission & tribute. Their answere was that 
as they had left them to Mr. Governour formerly vpon 
Mr. Oldames death, so haue they done since, & haue had 
no other dealing with them then for the getting of the 
head of Audsah the chiefc murtherer : as allso that they 
viiderstand the 100 fathom of beades to be yearely paid to 


Mr. Governour, in which respect they haue bene farr from 
desiring a bead from them, & doe acknowledge them to be 
wholy Mr. Governour s subiects. 

Sir, I heare that there is now at Pequat with the Mona- 
higaneucks one William (Baker I thinck his name is) who 
was pursued, as is said, by the English of Qunnihticut for 
vncleanenes with an Indian squaw, who is now with child 
by him. He hath there gotten another squaw & lies 
close, vnknowne to the English. They say he came from 
a trading howse which Plymouth men haue at Qunnihti- 
cut, & can speake much Indian. If it be he, when I lived 
at Plymmouth, I heard the Plymmouth men speake much 
of his evill course that way with the natiues. 

The occasion that our neighbours know of him was 
this : some 8 dayes since 6 Nanhiggonsick men were com- 
ming from Qunnihticut, & by the way fell vpon some 
Pequts, who were rescued out of their hands by the Mona- 
higaneucks, who allso bound those 6 Nanhiggonsicks 
many dayes togeather at Monahiganick (vpon Pequat 
river, where this William was) and spoild them of their 
coats & what els they had. 

The Sachims & the men are greatly incensed, affirming 
that they can not but revenge this abuse offerd to their 
men ; yet I haue got this promise that they will not doe 
ought without Mr. Governours advice. 

Sir, I haue long heard, & these 6 men affirme, that there 
are many of the scattered Pequts randevouzed with Okace 
the Monahiganic Sachim & Wequash the Pequt, who 
being employed as one of the guides to the English in 
their late warrs, is growne rich & a Sachim with the Pe- 
quts : & hath 5 or 6 runnawayes. There are all the 
Eunnawayes harboured (which vpon long & diligent 
inquirie) I am certaine & confident of, & can giue good 
assurance that there is not one amongst all the Nanhig- 

Mr. Stoughton hath bene long assured that Meiksah, 


Canounicus eldest sonn hath his squaw, but having en- 
quired it out I find she was never at the Nanhiggonsicks, 
but is married to one Meiksomp a Sachim of Nayantaquit, 
which being neerer to Pequt is more friendly to the Pe- 
quts : & where as I heare that Wequashcuck (who long 
sheltered Audsah & so grossly deluded Tho : Stanton in 
the late warrs) hath filled many baskets with beades from 
Pequts Sachims & 120 Pequts which he sheltreth now at 

Okace the Monahiggon & Wequashcuck were lately 
at Long Hand, from whence some few dayes since, Okace 
caried away 40 Pequts to Monahiganick, & Wequashcuck 
30 to Nayantaquit. 

•While I write Miantunnomu is come to my howse & 
afhrmeth the same ; professing if I would advise him he 
would goe over to Mr. Governour to acquaint the Gover- 
nour that Caunonicus & himselfe haue no hand in these 
passages. He askes me often if he may safely goe, & I 
assure him if he haue an honest heart he neede not feare 
any deceit or treacherie amongst the English : so I 
thinck within a day or 2 he will be comming towards 

He tells me what I had not heard that of those Pequts 
to whome at the first by my hand you were pleased to 
giue life, but 7 came to them, of which 5 allso long since 
are gone to Monahiganick. 

Sir, I forget not your loving remembrance of me con- 
cerning Mr. Ludlowes debt. I yet know not where that 
tobacco is: but desire if Mr. Cradocks agent, Mr. Jolly, 
would accept it, that it may be delivered to him in part 
of some payments for which I haue made over my howse 
to Mr. Mayhew. 

Sir, your servant Pepriue lodged here 2 nights, & Mian- 
tunnomu tells me that 5 dayes since he lay a night with 
him & is gone to Block Hand. He is very hopefully im- 
prooved since I first saw him : & am bold to wish that he 


might now take his last farewell of his friends, to whom 
you would be rather pleased to giue leaue to visit him at 
Boston, for you can not belieue how hard it is for him to 
escape much evill & especially vncleanenes while he is 
with them. The good Lord be pleased to blesse him to 
you & to make you a blessing to him & many others. 
[Torti] run headlong (without once hearing of it), in[to] 
everlasting burnings. So prayes dayly 

Your worships vnfaigned B, : [Williams]. 

To Mrs. Wintrop, Mr. Deputie, Mr. Bellingham, & 
theirs, respectiue salutacions. 


Sir, — I acquainted this Indian Miantunnomu,* with 
the contents of your letter sent by him, who rests well 
perswaded that if it breake not first with them, the leauge 
is firme & lasting, & the English are vnfaigned. 

I haue bought & paid for the Hand : f & because I de- 
sired the best confirmacion of the purchase to your selfe 
that I could, I was bold to insert your name in the origi- 
nall here inclosed. 

The 10 fathom of beades & one coate you may please 
at leasure to deliver to Mr. Throckmorton : who will allso 
be serviceable in the conveyance of swine this way. 

Your natiue, Repriue, requests me to write a word for 
himselfe & another for the Sachim of Block Iland^ Jac- 

For himselfe he tells me when he departed hence being 
alone he wandred toward Neepmuck: At Nayantuquit 

* Winthrop's History of N.E., i. 243. — Els. 

I Probably Prudence Island, in Narragai. sett Bay; tbe deed of which is dated Nov. 10, 
1637, — the day on which this letter was written. — Eds. 



Jvanemo said he was a spie from Mr. Governour, & threat- 
ned to kill him, denied that there was Pequfs, saying 
(though Pepriue saw many himselfe) that they were all 
gone to Monahiganick. So he came back in feare of his 
life to Wepiteammock (Miantunnomues brother in law) 
who lent him a canow to Block Hand where he staid 
but 6 dayes. 

From Jaquauntu, Block Hand Sachim, that he is prepar- 
ing 13 fathom of white, & 2 of blew to present you with 
about the 1st Month. 

That they are greatly in feare of the Nayantaquit 
men who threaten them, in case the English fall vpon 

I am glad to see this poore fellow Repriue carefull 
to please you, for he sayth you gaue him leaue for 28 
dayes & though he could stay but 6 dayes where he desired 
to stay longest, yet he will not lye. 

He sayth his brother goes along with him to stay some 
while, till the spring. 

Sir, There are 2 Pequt squaus, brought by the Nanhig- 
gansick, allmost starved ; viz : Mr. Coles his natiue, & one 
guirle from Winisimmit : there was a 3rd (I thinck Mr. 
Blackstones) who had scapt before to Nayantaquit. I 
promised these, if they would stay at my howse & not run 
away, I would write that they might be vsed kindly. The 
biggest, Mr. Cole his natiue, complain es that she of all the 
natiues in Boston is vsed worst : is beaten with firesticks, 
& especially by some of the servants. 

The litle one makes no complaint of vsage, but sayth 
she was inticed by that other squaw, which I thinck was 
Mr. Blackstones. I asked the biggest, who burnt her & 
why, she told me Mr. Pen because a fellow lay with her, but 
she saith, for her part she refused. 

My humble desire is that all that haue those poore 
wretches might be exhorted as to walke wisely & iustly 
towards them, so to make mercy eminent, for in that at- 


tribute the Father of mercy most shines to Adams misera- 
ble ofspring. 

Sir, I feare I am tsedious yet I must craue leaue for a 
line more: I receaved a letter from some in Charlestowne, 
(in speciall from one Beniamin Hubbard) intimating his 
& others desire (with my helpe & furtherance) to be my 
neighbours in some place neere adioyning: Mr. James 
hath not declared himselfe to be one, but I guesse he is 
inclining to accompanye them. On the Nanhiggonsick 
side the natiues are populous, on the side to Massachuset- 
ward Plymmouth men challenge, so that I presume if 
they come to the place where first I was, Plymmouth will 
call them theirs. I know not the persons, yet in generall 
could wish (if it be either with countenance or conni- 
vance) that these wayes might be more trod into these 
inland parts, & that amongst the multitudes of the barba- 
rous, the neighbourhood of some English Plantation (es- 
pecially of men desiring to feare God) might helpe & 
strengthen. I shall be thanckfull for a word of advice, 
& beseeching the Most Holy & only Wise in mercy & good- 
nes to know & guide the soules of his in this remote 
willdernes, & in this materiall desart, to discover gra- 
ciously the misticall where 1200 & 3 score dayes his saints 
are hid. Revel. 12. I rest 

Your Worships, sorry that I am not more yours & 
neither of vs more the Lords. 

E. Williams. 

To Mrs. Wintrop all respectiue remembrance. 

I shall beg (this winter in some leasure) your helpe 
with my bad debtours, James & Tho : Haukins, from 
whome as yet I get nought but words. 

10th of 9th.* 

* November, 1637. — Eds. 



20th of the 9th.* 

Sir, — I rest thanckfully satisfied in your propounding 
of my motion to the Court, & the answere. (The earth 
is Jehovahs, & the plenitude of it.) I am not a little 
glad that the lot is fallen vpon a branch of that roote, 
in whose good (present & seternall both of roote & 
branches) I reioice. For his sake I wish it ground, 
& grasse, & trees, yet what vse so euer he please to 
make of it, I desire he would not spare to make vse of 
me in any service toward the natiues on it or about it. 

Miantunnomu in his relations of passages in the Bay 
with you, thanckfully acknowledges to my selfe & others 
your loving cariage to him j" & promiseth to send forth 
word to all natiues to cease from Prudence, trees &c. 
Since your letter I travelled vp to Nayantaquit by land 
where I heard Repriue was : there the Sachim (to 
whome he adheres, Wepiteammock) & the people related 
that he was gone to his wife to Monhiggin : also that he, 
Wepiteammock, had sent to Onkas advising & vrging their 
returne, but he could not prevaile, & that if Eepriue come 
within his reach he will send him (though alone without 
his wife) howeuer. 

I travelled to Monhiggin & vnderstood that they were 
all at Pequt Nayantaquit, but Onkas not being at home 
(but at Newhaven) I could not doe ought. 

Sir, I haue often called vpon your debtour, Joshua, but 
his ill advisednes of refusing my service & spending of his 
time vpon a howse & ground hath disabled him. Vpon 
this occasion of your louing proffer of the halfe of the 
debt (8^*) to my selfe, I shall be vrgent with him to seeke 

* November, 1637. — Eds. 

f See Winthrop's Hist, of N. E., i. 243. — Eds. 

1637-8.] THE WINTHROP PAPERS. 221 

some course of payment of the whole to your selfe, from 
whome in recompence of any paines &c, I desire no 
other satisfaction but your louing & wonted acceptation, 
yea, although the busines had bene effected. Sir, I had 
almost bene bold to say my thoughts what I would doe 
in this case, were the runnawayes mine, but I will not 
more at present. If you shall please to require account 
of what my observacion hath taught me, I shall readily 
yeald it in my next, euer begging mercy & truth to you 
& yours, & my loving friends with you. The Lord Jesus 
returne vs all (poore runnawayes) with weeping & suppli- 
cations to seeke him that was nailed to the gallowes ; in 
him I desire to be (& mourne I am not) more 
Your Worships vnfaigned 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, I receaued 6 fathom of beades from Mr. Throc- 
morton, which though I will not returne , yet I account 
them yours in my keeping. 

Sir, I pray my respectiue remembrance to Mrs. Win- 


Providence 10th of the 11th month.* 
Much honoured Sir, — It having pleased the Most 
High to besiege vs all with his white legions, I reioice at J°b 38. % 
this occasion from Qunnihticut (these letters sent to me 
by Mr. Hooker) that I may here of your wellfare & health, 
which I wish & beg vnfaignedly of the Lord. 

Mr. Hooker intimates a report to me that they heare 
from the Monahiganeucks that Miantunnomu intends Tho : 

* Probably January, 1637-8. — Eds. 

222 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1637-8. 

Stantons death. I haue taken some paines in it, & other 
passages sent me, finding them slanders : & since (for many 
good ends &) for keeping a passage open betweene your- 
selues & Qunnihticnt by natiues, summer & winter, a peace 
is much to be desired betweene the Monahig : & Nanhig- 
gon. I haue proffered my paines in procuring a meeting 
of the averse Sachims, if it please the Magistrates of 
Qunnihticut to order Owokace (the Monahig : Sachim) to 
touch in at the Nanhiggonset mouth, where I hope to get 
the Nanhiggonset Sachims aboord, & it may please the 
God of Peace to saue much blood & evill, &c. 

Only it behooues our friends of Qunnihticut, as I haue 
writ to them, to looke to the 2 or 300 Pequts harboured 
by Wo case the Monahiggen, as allso William Baker of 
Plymmouth, (of who me formerly I wrote) who is there 
hid, is turned Indian in nakednes & cutting of haire, & 
after many whoredomes, is there maried : this fire brand 
with those Pequts may fire whole townes: I haue inti- 
mated how they may with ease take him. 

Sir, let me [be] humbly bold to request a favour of you : 
I am at present destitute of a man servant, & much desire, 
if you light on one that desires to feare the Lord, remem- 
ber me. I haue a lustie canow & shall haue occasion to 
runn downe often to your Hand (neere 20 miles from vs) 
both with mine owne & (I desire allso freely) your wor- 
ships swine, so that my want is greatt. I would spare no 
charge, either out of those beads & coate in your owne 
hand : the tobacco from Mr. Ludlow, & 8 or 10U in James 
& Tho : Hawkins hand of which I heare not yet. 

Sir, If any letters from yourselfe or other friends are 
for Qunnihticut, I entreate you make hast & speede by 
this messenger, for I cause 4 natiues who came from Qun- 
nihticut to stay his comming : I haue allready paid him, so 
that his expectation is not great. Thus longing to heare 
of your healths, & with earnest & dayly wishes for that 
peace which this world cannot giue nor take from you, & 

1637-8.] THE WINTHROP PAPERS. 223 

my poore wiues & mine owne best salutes to your dearest 
companion, I rest 

Your Worships to my power faythfull 

Eoger Williams. 

My due respects to Mr. Deputie, Mr. Bellingham, theirs, 
& other loving friends &c. 


For his much honoured & beloved Mr. Governour these. 

Providence 28th of the 12th.* 

Sir, — Some few dayes since I receaved letters from 
Mr. Hooker, who had safely receaved your packet with 
thancks &c. 

He intimated that according to Miantunnomues infor- 
macion by my selfe, William Baker was hid at Monahi- 
ganick, but they had made Okace & Wequash to bring 
him in. Since which time (Seargeant Homes baling him) 
he is againe escaped. 

He allso signified the desire of the Magistrates at Qunn- 
ticut that there the meeting should be : as allso that in the 
meane season they had charged the Monahiganeucks not 
to molest any natiues in their passage & travell &c. requir- 
ing the same of the Nanhiggonsicks towards the Monahi- 

Accordingly I haue bene since at Nanhigonsick & find 
Miantunnomu willing to goe to Qunnticut by the time 
limited, the end of the next month ; only first he desired 
to know Mr. Governour's mind : 2ndly in case his father 
in law Caunounicus his brother, (whome I saw neere death 
with aboue a thoughsand men mourning & praying about 

* Probably February, 1637-8. — Eds. 

224 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1637-8. 

him) in case he recover, otherwise it is vnlawfull for them 
(as they conceaue,) to goe farr from home till toward mid 
sommer. 3rdly, he desires earnestly my companie, as 
being not so confident of the English at Qunnticut, who 
haue bene (I feare) to full of threatnings : 2ndly he can 
not be confident of Tho : Stanton's faythfullnes in point 
of interpretation. These things make me much desire 
(as I haue written back) that you would both please by 
some deputed to make my poore howse the center where 
seemes to be the fairest offer of convenience, & I hope no 
question of wellcome. 

Visiting Caunounicus lately recovered from the pits 
brinck this winter, he asked how Mr. Governour & the 
English did, requesting me to send him 2 words : 1st that 
he would be thanckfull to Mr. Governour for some sugar 
(for I had sent him mine owne in the depth of the winter 
& his sicknes). 2ndly he called for his sword, which said 
he Mr. Governour did send me by you & others of the 
English, saying Mr. Governour protested he would not 
put vp his sword, nor would he haue vs put vp ours, till 
the Pequt were subdued, & yet sayth he at Monahiganick 
there are neere 300, who haue bound & robd our men 
(euen of the very covering of their secret parts) as they 
haue past from Qunnticut hether : after much more to 
this purpose, I told him that Mr. Governour had promised 
him to sett all in order this spring. 

Sir, I vnderstand that Okace the Monahigon hath Sasa- 
cous his sister to wife, & one of the wiues of Sasacous his 
father Tattaopaine, & thats one reason, beside his ambition 
& neerenes, that he hath drawne all the scattered Pequts to 
himselfe & drawn much wealth from them : more I could 
trouble you with &c. 

Caunounicus & Miantunnomu both desired that there 
might be a division made of these surviving Pequots 
(except the Sachims & murtherers) & let their share be at 
your owne wisedome. 

1637-8.] THE WINTHROP PAPERS. 225 

I shall be humbly bold to present mine owne thoughts 
concerning a division & disposall of them : since the Most 
High delights in mercy, & great revenge hath bene all- 
ready taken, what if (the murtherers being executed) the 
rest be divided & dispersed, (according as their numbers 
shall arise, & division be thought fit) to become subiect 
to your selues in the Bay & at Qunnticut, which they will 
more easily doe in case they may be suffred to incorporate 
with the natiues in either places : as allso that as once 
Edgar the Peaceable did with the Welsh in North Wales, 
a tribute of wolues heads be imposed on them &c. which 
(with submission) I conceaue an incomparable way to saue 
much cattell aliue in the land. 

Sir, I hope shortly to send you good newes of great 
hopes the Lord hath sprung vp in mine eye, of many a 
poore Indian soule enquiring after God. I haue convinced 
hundreths at home & abroad that in point of religion 
they are all wandring, &c. I find what I could never 
heare before, that they haue plenty of Gods or divine 
powers : the Sunn, Moone, Fire, Water, Snow, Earth, the 
Deere, the Beare, &c, are divine powers. I brought home 
lately from the Nanhiggonsicks the names of 38 of their 
Gods, all they could remember, & had I not with feare & 
caution withdrew, they would haue fallen to worship, O 
God, (as they speake) one day in 7, but I hope the time is 
not long that some shall truely blesse the God of Heaven 
that euer they saw the face of English men. So waiting 
for your pleasure & advice to our neighbours concerning 
this intended meeting for the establishing of peace 
through all the bowells of the countrey, & beseeching 
the Most High to vouchsafe his peace & truth through 
all your quarters, with my due respects to Mrs. Wintrop, 
Mr. Deputie, Mr. Bellingham, &c, I rest 

Your Worships in all true respect & affection 

Roger Williams. 



Sir, I heard no more as yet from Charlstowne men com- 
ming this way. Mr. Coxall & Mr. Aspinwall haue sent to 
me about some of these parts, & in case for shelter for 
their wiues & children. 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, " Provisions to be sent by the Salem 
Bark to Mr. Williams & Mr. Throckmorton, Mr. Harlackenden knowes 


For his much honoured & beloved Mr. Governour at Boston, these. 

Providence 16th of this 2nd.* 

Much honoured Sir, — I kindly thanck you for your 
loving inclination to receaue my late protestation concern- 
ing my selfe, ignorant of Mr. Greenes letter &c. I desire 
vnfeignedly to rest in my appeale to the Most High in 
what we differ, as I dare not but hope you doe : it is no 
small griefe that I am otherwise perswaded, & that some 
times you say (& I can say no lesse) that we differ : the 
fire will try your workes & mine : the Lord Jesus helpe vs 
to make sure of our persons that we seeke Jesus that was 
crucifyed : howeuer, it is & euer shall be (the Lord assist- 
ing) my endeavour to pacifie & allay, where I meete with 
rigid & censorious spirits, who not only blame your actions 
butt doome your persons : & indeede it was one of the 
first grounds of my dislike of John Smith the miller, & 
especially of his wife, viz. their iudging of your persons as 
[divellsf] &c 

I allso humbly thanck you for that sad relation of the 
monster J &c. The Lord speakes once & twice: he be 
pleased to open all our eares to his discipline. 

* April, 1638. — Eds. 

f The word included in brackets is expunged in the original. — Eds. 
I Winthrop's account of the "monster" is recorded in his Hist, of N. E., under date of 
March 27, 1638. — Eds. 


Mrs. Hutchinson (with who me & others of them I haue 
had much discourse) makes her apologie for her conceale- 
ment of the monster, that she did nothing in it without 
Mr. Cottons advice, though I can not belieue that he sub- 
scribes to her applications of the parts of it. The Lord 
mercifully redeeme them, & all of vs from all our delu- 
sions, & pitie the desolations of Zion & the stones 

I find their longings great after Mr. Vane, allthough 
they thinck he can not returne this yeare : the eyes of 
some are so earnestly fixt vpon him that Mrs. Hutchinson 
professeth if he come not to New, she must to Old Eng- 

I haue endeavoured by many arguments to beate of 
their desires of Mr. Vane as G : G : & the chiefe are 
satisfied vnles he come so for his life, but I haue endea- 
voured to discover the snare in that allso. 

Sir, concerning your intended meeting for reconciling of 
these natiues our friends,. & dividing of the Pequts our 
enemies, I haue ingaged your name, & mine owne ; & if 
no course be taken, the name of that God of Truth whome 
we all profess to honour will suffer not a litle, it being an 
ordinary & common thing with our neighbours, if they 
apprehend any shew of breach of promise in my selfe, 
thus to obiect : doe you know God, & will you lye I &c. 

The Pequts are gathered into one, & plant their old 
fields, Wequash & Okace carying away the people & their 
treasure, which belong to your selues : I should be bold 
to presse my former motion, or else that with the next 
convenience they might be sent for other parts, &c. 

I hope it will never be interpreted that I press this out 
of feare of any revenge vpon my selfe by any of them. I 
euer yet (in point of reason to say no more) conceaved 
this place the safest of the land, & can make it appeare 
&c, but out of desire to clearc your names & the name of 
the most High, which will be ill reported of in case 


(according to so many promises) an honourable & peacea- 
ble issue of the Pequt warr be not established. 

Sir, the bearer hereof (not daring either to bring my 
letter or attend for an answere) I must request you to send 
your letter to Eichard Collicut's, that so a natiue may con- 
vey it, or els to Nicholas Vpshall's : & I should be bold 
humbly to propound to the countrey whether in case there 
be a necessitie of keeping leauge with the natiues, & so 
consequently many occasions incident, (& some which I 
will not write of) as allso a conveniencie of informacion 
this way, how matters may stand with you on the sea 
shoare, as I say, whither it be not requisite so farr to dis- 
pence with the late order of restraint as to permit a mes- 
senger freely. 

Tis true I may hire an Indian : yet not alwayes, nor 
sure, for these 2 things I haue found in them : sometimes 
long keeping of a letter : 2ndly if a feare take them that 
the letter concernes themselues they suppresse it, as they 
did with one of special informacion which I sent to Mr. 

Sir, there will be new Heavens & a new Earth shortly 
but no more Sea. (Revel. 21. 2.) the most holy God be 
pleased to make vs willing now to beare the tossings, dan- 
gers & calamities of this sea, & to seale vp to vse vpon 
his owne grounds, a great lot in the glorious state aproach- 
ing. So craving pardon for prolixitie, with mine & wiues 
due respect to Mrs. Wintrop, Mr. Deputie,Mr. Belingham, 
&c. I rest 

Your worships desirous to be ever yours vnfeigned 

Roger Williams. 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, " 2. 16. 1638." 




Sir, — I sometimes feare that my lines are as thick & 
over busie as the muskeetoes &c, but your wisedome will 
conniue, & your loue will cover, &c. 

2 things at present for informacion. 

First, in the affaires of the Most High ; his late dreadfull 
voice & hand : that audible & sensible voice, the Earth- 
quake, f 

All these parts felt it, (whether beyond the Nanhiggon- 
sick I yet learne not), for my selfe I scarce perceaued 
ought but a kind of thunder & a gentle mooving &c, & it 
was no more this way to many of our owne & the natiues 
apprehensions, & but one sudden short motion. 

The younger natiues are ignorant of the like : but the 
ellder informe me that this is the 5th within these 4 score 
yeare in the land : the first about 3 score & 10 yeare since : 
the second some 3 score & 4 yeare since, the third some 
54 yeare since, the 4th some 46 since : & they allwayes 
observed either plauge or pox or some other epidemicall 
disease followed ; 3, 4 or 5 yeare after the Earthquake, (or 
Naunaumemoauke, as they speake). 

He be mercifully pleased himselfe to interprete & open 
his owne ridles, & graunt (if it be pleasing in his eyes) it 
may not be for destruction, & but (as the Earthquake be- 
fore the Gaolors conversion) a meanes of shaking & turn- 
ing of all hearts, (which are his,) English or Indian, to 
him. To further this (if the Lord please) the earthquake 
sensibly tooke about a thoughsand of the natiues in a most 
sollemne meeting for play, &c. 

* Probably June, 1638. — Eds. 

| The first earthquake named by Winth/op, Johnson, Hull, and Bradford, was June 1, 
as recorded by the three former, and " about the 2d," according to Bradford, 1638. —Eds. 


2ndly, a word in mine owne particular, only for informa- 
cion. I owe betweene 50 & 60^' to Mr. Cradock for 
commodities receaved from Mr. Mayhew. Mr. Mayhew 
will testifie that (being Mr. Cradocks agent) he was con- 
tent to take payment, what (& when) my howse at Salem 
yealded : accordingly I long since put it into his hand, & he 
into Mr. Jollies, who beside my voluntarie act & his attach- 
ment since, sues as I heare for dammages, which I ques- 
tion : since I haue not failed against contract & content of 
the first agent, but the holy pleasure of the Lord be done : 
vnto whose mercifull armes (with all due respects) I leaue 
you, wishing heartily that mercie & goodnes may euer 
follow you & yours. 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, to your deare companion, Mr. Deputie, Mr. Beling- 
ham, & theirs, all respectiue salutes &c. 


For his much honoured & [belo]ved Mr. Governour of Massachu- 
sets, these, in hast. 

Providence this 5th of present weeke.* 

Much honoured Sir, — Blessed be the Father of mer- 
cies that once againe I receaued your hand the last night 
by the messengers by whome I sent. 

By them I vnderstand that according as you please to in- 
timate your expectation, Mr. Heynes is come : with Okace, 
34 Monahiggins, & 6 Pequts. 

One of the 6 Pequts is Pametesick, which was one of 
the murtherers who cut of the 3 English, going in a boate 

* About June, 1638. — See Wlnlhrop's Hist, of N. K, i. 265. — Eds. 


for clay vpon Qunnihticut river, after the Fort was cut of. 
They not only spilt their bloud, but exercised inhumane & 
tormenting revenge vpon 2 of them, which cries for ven- 
geance to heaven. 

So that I refer it humbly to your wisedome whether 
(although I desire not the destruction of the surviving 
Pequts, but a safe dispersion of them, yet) the actual! mur- 
therers be not to be surrendred vp, & this Pametesick 
(I am partly confident this is he) at present apprehended : 
Our loving friends of Quinnihticut reported that some 
Monahigganie women were wronged (as their hair cut of 
&c.) by the Nanhiggonsicks : but Okace knowes it was 
done by Wequashcuck of Nayantuquit, to whom Okace 
sent for a Pequt queene. They 2 haue got in the Pequts 
(though Okace haue the harvest.) Against Wequash- 
cuck Caunounicus or Miantunnomu had long since pro- 
ceeded, but our loving friends of Qunnihticut interposed : 
I hope for the best to saue bloud. So beseeching the great 
Councellour & Prince of Peace to guide your councills, I 
rest your Worships most vnworthy yet vnfaigned 

Roger Williams. 

All respectiue salutes, &c. 


For his much honoured & beloued Mr. John Wintrop at his howse 

in Boston, these. 

Prouidence 23, 5th.* 
2 dayes since I was bold to present you with a line, & 

still (so it pleaseth the most High,) I am occasioned againe 

to be a constant trouble &c. 

These your Worships servants visiting me in their tra- 

* Probably 1638. — Eds. 

232 THE WINTHR0P PAPERS. [1638. 

veil, I enquire after your runnawayes. The man sayth he 
hath much to relate to your selfe, & wanting vtterance 
desires me to write. He sayth he hath enquired much 
after the runnawayes, & vnderstands for certaine that they 
are all at Monhiggin. 

That the flight was long since plotted, for he hath now 
heard by a Pequot that came from Monhiggin, that the 10 
Monhiggins which came to your Worship in the spring to 
buy one of the maidens, & offered 10 fathom of beades, 
came from Onkas, who intended that maide for his wife. 

That he gaue order to those 10 men, that (in case they 
could not buy her) they should leaue one man there at 
your howse, to perswade & worck their escape. 

That man was the Pequt Robin* who hath effected his 
busines, for which (as he heares) Onkas promised him & 
hath giuen him the 10 fathom of Wompam. 

Onkas hath taken the 2 daughters Marie & Jane both to 
wife, & sayth that now he hath done sending of presents 
to Massachuset. 

Repriue was promised Joane by the Old Squaw for the 
furtherance of the busines & hath her. He advised their 
escape by Neepmuck, because once before, escaping 
through the Narigansett countrey, himselfe was sent back 
by the Nariganset Sachims. 

This man thincks allso that no Indian meanes will be 
able to effect their returne, but that the English must fetch 
them. It will be your worships wisedome to forecast so 
much, & to prepare (Captaine Patrick & many more may 
be occasioned to fetch theirs allso.) Yet I request your 
Worships patience a few dayes. 

Sir, this young man who comes along, is this woman's 
nephew, an ingenuous sober fellow, one of my long ac- 
quaintance, whome I called Oldway, as his Indian name 
(Necawnimeyat) signifies ; he tells me he hath a good mind 

* Causa Senamut. — [Note by Williams.] 


to abide one yeare with these his friends in your worships 
service. I incourage him & present him to your wisedome 
& pity, not knowing but that the purpose of the Only Wise 
& most pitifull God may be toward him for good. Vnto 
the euerflowing streames of the most holy Fountaine of 
living waters, (whose drops are able to refresh & saue 
worlds of wandring soules), I heartily recommend your 
worship, your dearest companion, & all yours, grieuing that 
I dare be no more your worships 

R : Williams. 


Providence the 24th of the 8th.* 

Sir, worthy & well beloved, — I was abroad about 
the Pequt busines when your letter arived, & since mes- 
sengers haue not fitted, &c. 

I therefore now thanckfully acknowledge your wisedome 
& ,gentlenes in receaving so lovingly my late rude & 
foolish lines : you beare with fooles gladly because you 
are w T ise. 

I still waite vpon your loue & faythfullnes for those 
poore papers, & can not but belieue that your heart, 
tounge, & pen should be one, if I were Turke or Jew, 

Your 6 Queries I wellcome, my loue forbidding me to 
surmise that a Pharisee, a Sadduce, an Herodian, &c. wrote 
them ; but rather that your loue & pitie framed them as a 
phycitian to the sick, &c. 

He that made vs these soules & searcheth them, that 
made the eare & eye, & therefore sees & heares I lie not, 
but in his presence haue sadly sequestred my selfe to 

* The date of this and the three following letters is a little uncertain; and they pro- 
bably are not precisely in order in this place. — Eds. 



his holy tribunall, & your intergatories, begging from his 
throne those 7 fiery lampes & eyes, his holy Spirit, to 
helpe the scmtinie, desirous to suspect my selfe aboue the 
old serpent himselfe, & remembring that he that trusteth 
in his owne heart is a foole. Prov. 28. 

While I answere let me ymportune from your loving 
breast that good opinion that you deale with one (how 
euer so & so, in your judgment yet) serious, & desirous in 
the matters of God's Sanctuarie to vse (as the double 
waights of the Sanctuarie teach vs) double diligence. 

Your first Quserie then is this. 

What haue you gayned by your new-found prac- 
tices? &c. 

I confess my games cast vp in mans exchange are losse 
of friends, esteeme, maintenance, &c, but what was gaine 
in that respect I desire to count losse for the excellencie 
of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord : &c. To His 
all glorious Name I know I haue gained the honour of 
one of his poore witnesses, though in sackcloth. 

To your beloved selues & others of Gods people yet 
asleepe, this witnes in the Lords season at your waking 
shall be prosprous, & the seede sowne shall arise to the 
greater puritie of the kingdome & ordinances of the Prince 
of the kings of the earth. 

To my selfe (through his rich grace) my tribulacion hath 
brought some consolacion & more evidence of His loue, 
singing Moses his song & the Lambes, in that weake vic- 
torie which (through His helpe) I haue gotten ouer the 
beast, his picture, his marke, & number of his name, Eevel. 
15. 2. 3. 

If you aske for numbers, the witnesses are but 2 : Re- 
vel. 11., & how many millions of Christians in name, & 
thoughsands of Christians in heart, doe call the truths 
(wherein your selfe & I agree in witnessing) newfound 
practices I 

Gideons armie was 32 thoughsand; but cowardize re- 


turned 22 thoughsand back, & 9 thoughsand seaven hun- 
dretli worldlings sent but 3 hundreth to the battell. 

I will not by prophecye exasperate, but wish (in the 
black & stormie day) your companie be not less then Gi- 
deons, to fight (I meane with the Blood of the Lambe & Reve112 - 
Word of Witnes) for what you professe to see. 

To your 2nd, viz. Is your spirit as euen as it was 7 
yeares since ? 

I will not follow the fashion either in commending or 
condemning of my selfe. You & I stand at one dreadfull, 
dreadful! tribunall : yet what is past I desire to forget, & 
to press forward towards the marke for the price of the 
high calling of God in Christ. 

And for the euennes of my spirit. 

Toward the Lord, I hope I more long to know & doe 
His holy pleasure only, & to be ready not only to be ba- 
nished, but to die in New England for the name of the Lord 

Towards your selues, I haue hietherto begd of the Lord 
an euen spirit, & I hope euer shall, as 

First, reverently to esteeme of, & tenderly to respect the 
persons of many hundreths of you, &c. 

2ndly, To reioice to spend & be spent in any service, 
(according to my conscience) for your wellfares. 

3rdly, To reioice to find out the least swarving in judg- 
ment or practice from the helpe of any, euen the least of 

Lastly, to mourne dayly, heavily, vncessantly, till the 
Lord looke down from Heaven, & bring all his precious 
living stones into one New Jerusalem. 

To your third, viz. Are you not grieved that you haue 
grieved so many'? 

I say with Paul, I vehemently sorrow for the sorrow of 
any of Zions daughters, who should euer reioice in her 
King &c, yet I must (& O that I had not cause) grieue, 
because so many of Zions daughters see not & grieue not 


Revei. 5. for their soules defilements, & that so few beare John com- 
panie in weeping after the vnfoulding of the seales, which 
only weepers are acquainted with. 

You therevpon propound a 4th, Doe you thinck the 
Lord hath vtterly forsaken vs? 

I answere Jehovah will not forsake His people for His 
great names sake 1. Sam. 12. That is, the fire of His loue 
towards those whome once he loues is seternall, like him- 
selfe : & thus farr be it from me to question His aeternall 
loue towards you &c. Yet if you graunt that euer you 
were as Abraham among the Chaldees, Lot among the 
Sodomites, the Kenites among the Amalekites, as Israeli 
in Egipt or Babell, & that vnder paine of their plauges & 
judgments yow were bound to leaue them, depart, the out, 
(not from the places as in the type) but from the filthines 
of their sinns, &c, & if it proue, as I know assuredly it 
shall, that though you haue come farr, yet you never came 
out of the wildernes to this day : then, I beeseech you, 
remember that your selues, & so allso many thoughsands 
of Gods people must yet mournfully reade the 74, 79, 80, 
& 89 Psalmes, the Lamentations, Daniells 11th, & Revel. 
11, 12th, 13th,* & this, Sir, I beseech you doe more seriously 
then euer, & abstract your selfe with a holy violence from 
the dung heape of this earth, the credit & comfort of it, 
& cry to Heaven to remooue the stumbling blocks, such 
idolls, after which sometimes the Lord will giue His owne 
Israeli an answere. 

Sir, You request me to be free with you, & therefore 
blame me not if I answere your request, desiring the like 
payment from your owne deare hand, at any time, in any 

And let me add, that amongst all the people of God, 
wheresoeuer scattered about Babells bancks, either in 
Rome or England &c, your case is the worst by farr, be- 

* All these places & abundant more argue God's forsaking His people in respect of the 
visible kingdome of the Lord Jesus. — [Note by Williams.] 


cause while others of Gods Israeli tenderly respect such 
as desire to feare the Lord, your very judgment & con- 
science leads you to smite & beate your fellow servants, 
expell them your coasts &c, & therefore, though I know 
the elect shall never finally be forsaken, yet Sodomes, 
Egypts, Amaleks, Babells judgments ought to driue vs 
out, to make our calling out of this world to Christ, & our 
election sure in him. 

Sir, Your 5th is, From what spirit, & to what end doe you 
driue % 

Concerning my spirit, as I said before, I could declaime 
against it, but whether the spirit of Christ Jesus, for whose 
visible kingdome & ordinances I witnes, &c, or the spirit of 
Antichrist (1 John 4) against who me only I contest, doe 
driue me, let the Father of Spirits be pleased to search, & 
(worthy Sir) be you allso pleased by the word to search : 
& I hope you will find that as you say you doe, I allso 
seeke Jesus who was nayled to the gallowes, I aske the 
way to lost Zion, I witnes what I belieue I see patiently 
(the Lord assisting) in sackcloth, I long for the bright ap- 
pearance of the Lord Jesus to consume the man of sinn : 
I long for the appearance of the Lambes wife allso, New 
Jerusalem : I wish heartily prosperitie to you all, Gouer- 
nour & people, in your civill way, & mourne that you see 
riot your pouertie, nakednes, &c., in spiritualls, & yet I 
reioice in the hopes that as the way of the Lord to Apollo, 
so within a few yeares, (through, I feare though, many tri- 
bulacions) the way of the Lord Jesus, the first & most 
ancient path, shall be more plainely discovered to you 
& me. 

Lastly, You aske whether my former condicion would 
not haue stood with a gracious heart, &c. % 

At this Quserie, Sir, I wonder much, because you know 
what sinnes, yea all manner of sinnes, (the sinn vnto death 
excepted) a child of God may lye in, instance I neede 


2ndly, When it comes to matter of conscience that the 
stroke lyes vpon the very judgment, that the thing prac- 
ticed is lawfull, &c. as the polygamic of the Saints, the 
building of the Temple (if David had gone on) the many 
false ministries & ministracions (like the arke vpon the 
new cart) which, from Luthers times to this day, God's chil- 
dren haue conscientiously practiced. Who then can won- 
der, (& yet indeede who can not but wonder) how a gracious 
heart, before the Lords awakening, & calling, & drawing 
out, may lie in many abominations ? 

2 Instances I shall be bold to present you with. First, 
doe you not hope Bishop Vsher hath a gracious heart? 
& 2ndly, Doe you not iudge that your owne heart was gra- 
cious euen when (with the poysoned shirt on your back) 
you, &c. 1 

But while another iudgeth the condicion faire, the soule 
that feares, doubts, & feeles a guilt hath broken bones &c. 
Now, worthy Sir, I must call vp your wisedome, your loue, 
your patience, your promise & faythfullnes, candid inge- 
nuitie, &c. My hearts desire is abundant, & exceedes my 
pen. My head & actions willing to Hue (as the Apostle 
Paul) KaiQQ h ttuoc. Where I err, Christ be pleased to restore 
me, where I stand, to stablish. If you please I haue allso 
a few Quceries to your selfe, without your leaue I will not : 
but will euer mourne, (the Lord assisting,) that I am no 
more (though I hope euer) yours E : Will : 

Sir, Concerning natiues : the Pequts & Nayantaquits 
resolue to liue & die togeather, & not to yeald vp one. 
Last night tidings came that the Mauquauogs, (the cani- 
balls) haue slaine some of our countrimen at Qunnihticut. 
I hope it is not true. 

163-.] THE WINTHROr PAPERS. 239 


New Providence 2ndo 7manse, instantis.* 

Sir, — I haue nothing certaine to acquaint you with at 
present : there haue bene reports these 10 dayes, that the 
Pequts are entred leauge by the hire of 3 or 4 bush ells of 
beades (black & white,) with the Mauquawogs or Mo- 
no wawogs which signifies men eaters in their language ; 
These caniballs haue bene all the talke these 10 dayes, & 
the Nanhiggansicks are much troubled at them. 

2 dayes since came tidings that these Mauquawogs & 
Pequts haue slaine many, both English & natiues at Qun- 
nihticut Plantations. As yet I beleeue it not, & hope in 
the Lords mercy it is false, yet since you please to make 
such good vse of (poyson) bad & lying newes, (which for 
that end to awaken people I confesse) I sent the last : I 
would not conceale this : I hope to send better in like 
manner after this ; yet I sadly feare if the Lord please to 
let loose these mad dogs, their practice will render the 
Pequts canibals too, & 2ndly (at the least) cut of all 
hopes of safe residence at Qunnihticut, & yet they are 
an 100 mile to the westward of Qunnihticut Plantations. 
I hope it will please the Most High to put his hooke into 
their nose &c. as allso to giue wisedome in the managing 
of the warr, that if it be possible a leauge may rather be 
firmely strooke with them : they are most savage, their 
weapons more dangerous & their crueltie dreadfull, rosting 
aliue «fec. 

Sir, I heare of the danger of the innovation of your 
Government. The God of heaven be pleased to giue you 
faythfullnes & courage in his feare : I feare not so much 
iron & Steele as the cutting of our throats with golden 

* Secundo srptimance, &c. (i.e., " the second day of the present week "). — See note on 
233. — Eds. 


kniues. I meane that vncler the pleasing baits of execu- 
tion of justice to the eastward, & enlargment of autho- 
rise, beyond all question, lies hid the hooke to catch your 
vnvaluable liberties. Better an honorable death then a 
slaves life. 

Sir, I may not forget due thanckes for your intended 
requitalls of my poore endeavours toward the barbarous : 
if it please the Lord to vse (with any good success) so dull 
a toole, satis super que, &c. 

One kindnes (yet according to true justice) let me be 
bold to request. I haue not yet got a peny of those 2 
vnfaythfull ones James & Tho. Haukins of Boston, con- 
cerning whome my selfe & wife haue formerly troubled 
you. Mr. Coxall hath long had their bills : agreement of 
mitigation hath bene made since by arbitrators but to no 
purpose. Their great earnings (if I had not lovingly 
released them) were mine owne : my owne debts lye vn- 
paid, dayly calld for, & I heare for certaine (though they 
can natter & lye) they haue spent lavishly & fared daintily 
of my purse, while my selfe would haue bene glad of a 
crust of their leavings, though yet I haue not wanted, 
through his loue that feedes the ravens &c. John Throck- 
morton hath often demaunded but in vaine, he will now 
attend your loving helpefullnes, & He who is most holy & 
blessed, all mercy & all pitie, helpe you mercifully to steere 
(by his holy compasse & allso with his owne most holy 
hand) in the ocean of troubles & trialls wherein we saile. 
It is no small favour that once againe (though the occa- 
sions are sad) we may sale & speake togeather, but the 
Harbour (safe & large) will pay for all. Thus praying 
for our meeting, with best salutes to Mrs. Wintrop & all 
yours, & my true respects to Mr. Deputie, Mr. Bellingham, 
& other loving friends, I rest . . 

Your worships vnfaigned Roger Williams. 



New Providence this last of the weeke.* 

Sir, — I am much desired by Yotaash (the bearer here- 
of, Miantunriomues brother) to interprete his message to 
you, viz : that Miantunnomu requests you to bestow a Pe- 
qut squaw upon him. 

I object, he had his share sent him, he answeres that 
Caunounicus receaved but a few women & keepes them : 
& yet he sayth his brother hath more right : for, him- 
selfe & his brothers men first laid hold vpon that company. 

I obiect that all are disposed of, he answeres, if so, he 
desires to buy one or 2 of some English man. 

I obiect that here are many runn away, which I haue 
desired himselfe might convey home to you: he replies, 
they haue bene this fortnight busie (that is keeping of a 
kind of Christmas): & 2ndly, at present Miantunnomues 
father in law lyes a dying : as allso that some of the run- 
nawayes perished in the woods ; 3 are at the Nanhighon- 
sick, & 3 within 10 mile of this place ; which I thinck 
may best be fetcht by 2 or 3 Massachuset Indians who 
may here get some one or 2 more to accompany & helpe. 

Sir, you were pleased some while since to intimate some 
breach of leauge in Miantunnomu. I would not disharten 
this man from comming by my speech any way : but I 
could wish you would please to intimate your mind fully 
to him, as allso that if there be any iust exception which 
they can not well answere, that vse be made of it, (if it may 
be with the safetie of the common peace,) to get the bits 
into their mouthes,f especially if there be good assurance 
from the Mowhauges. So with my best salutes & earnest 
sighes to heaven I rest 

Your worships vn worthy Roger Williams. 

* Sec note on p. 233. — Eds. 

t I meane the bit of awful! respect, that new they fall not into mutinies at home, &c. — 
[Kote nr Williams.] 




For his much honoured Mr. Governour of the Massachusets, these.*' 

Much honoured Sir, — I was bould to present you 
with 2 letters by Thomas Holyway, some weekes since. 
I am occasioned againe at present to write a word by this 
bearer Wequash : whome (being a Pequt himselfe) I com- 
mended for a guide in the Pequt expedition. 

I presume he may say something to your selfe, or to such 
other of my loving friends as may report vrito your wor- 
ship, what befell him at Cowesett.f 

He hath bene 5 or 6 dayes now at my howse, in which 
time I haue had much opportunitie to search into particu- 
lars, & am able to present you with naked truth. 

He came from Monahiganick to Coweeset within night 
& lodged with his friend called Pananawokshin. At Cow- 
weesit an old man (Weeokamin) hath made great lamenta- 
tion for the death of 2 sons in the Pequt warrs. This 
Weeokamun with divers of his consorts in the night time 
layd hold vpon Wequash, intending to bind him, charging 
him with the death of his 2 sonns. Much bickring there 
was betweene them, but no hurt done, only Weeokamun 
strugling with one of Wequash his company was sore 
bitten on his hand, & also bit the young mans fingers, 
which are well againe. So that their host kept peace in 
Caunounicus his name, & brought them safe to me the 
next day : yet in the fray they lost a coate & other small 
things, which (comming forth before day) they left behind 

I sent vp a messenger to the Sachims to demaund a rea- 
son of such vsage & their goods. Caunounicus sent his 
sonn, & Miantunnomu his brother (Yotaash) who went to 

* See note on p. 233. 

t The territory now forming the eastern part of Kent County, R.I., was called Cowe- 
set. — Eds. 


Cowweeset & demaimded the reason of such vsage, & the 
goods, & so came to my howse, causing the goods to be 
restored, professing the Sachims ignorance, & sorrow for 
such passages, & giving charge to all natiues for their safe 

Having those messengers & Wequash at my howse, I 
caused them sollemnly to parley of what I knew was 
grievance betwixt them, & what els I could any way pick 
out from either of them, concerning our selues the Eng- 
lish, or the Pequts, or themselues. All which I carefully 
writt downe the particulars, & shall readily, at your wor- 
ships pleasure, acquaint you with them : either concerning 
some squaws which Wequash acknowledgeth he parted 
with (& iustly) to Caunounicus & Miantunnomu, or other 
brablings which I thought not fit to trouble your wor- 
ship with, without commission. 

Deare sir, (notwithstanding our differences concerning 
the worship of God & the ordinances ministred by Anti- 
christs power) you haue bene alwayes pleased lovingly to 
answer my boldnes in civill things : let me once more find 
favour in your eyes to gratifie my selfe, Mr. James, & many 
or most of the townesmen combined, in advising what to 
say or doe to one vnruly person who openly in towne 
meeting more then once, professeth to hope for & long for 
a better government then the countrey hath yet, & lets not 
to particularize, by a generall Governour, &c. The white* 
which such a speech or person levells at can be no other 
then the rasing of the fundamentall liberties of the coun- 
trey, which ought to be dearer to vs then our right eyes. 
But I am allwayes too bold in prolixitie, &c, therefore at 
present with humble respect remembred & cries to Heaven 
for mercy to you & yours, roote & branches, & the whole 
countrey by your blessing, I rest 

Your Worships most vnworthy Roger Williams. 

* See note on p. 205. — Eds. 


Sir, Mr. James & his, my wife & selfe respectiuely salute 
your honoured selfe & Mrs. Wintrop. 

Wequash intends to beg of you, & requested me to spe- 
cify his desire of a coate, wastcote & shirt &c. which I 
could not deny, though your wisedome may doe as seemes 


Providence the 22 of 3rd mon.* 

Sir, — Blessed be the Father of Spirits, in whose hand 
our breath & wayes are, that once more I may be bold to 
salute you & congratulate your returne from the brinck of 
the pit of rottennes ! f 

What is man that thou shouldest visit him & trie him 1 
&c. Job 7th. You are put of to this tempestuous sea 
againe, more stormes await you, the good Lord repaire our 
leakes, fresh vp the gales of his blessed Spirit, steadie 
our course by the compasse of his owne truth, reskue vs 
from all our spirituall adversaries, not only men, but feinds 
of warr, & assure vs of an harbour at last, euen the bo- 
zome of the Lord Jesus. 

Sir, you have many an eye (I presume) lift vp to the 
hills of mercy for you : mine might seeme superfluous : 
yet privately & publikely you haue not bene forgotten, & 
I hope shall not while these eyes haue sight. 

Sir, this last night Mr. Allen of Hartford & Lieftenant 
Holmes lodgd with me, & relate that Mr. Heynes or some 
chiefe resolved to be with you this weeke. So that you 
may please a litle to stop till their comming. Lieftenant 

* May, 1638. This and the following letter should, in the order of dates, have pre- 
ceded that printed on p. 229. — Eds. 

| Alluding to the illness of Winthrop, "which brought him near death." — See his 
Hist, of N.E., i. 265. — Eds. 


Holmes relates that William Baker, who lay hid so long 
among the Monahiggens & Pequts, for whome he gave 
bale &c. was hid againe the second time among the same 
by Okace, but the Lieftenant, by a Providence, heard of 
him & returnd him to Hartford, where he hath suffred 
for his much vncleanenes 2 sever all whippings. This fel- 
low, notorious in villany, & strongly affected by those 
wretches, both studying revenge, is worthy to be watcht 
euen by the whole countrey, & to be dispersed from the 
Pequts, & they each from other, according as I haue bene 
bold to motion formerly. 

Sir, we haue bene long aflicted by a young man, boyste- 
rous & desperate, Philip Verins sonn of Salem, who, as 
he hath refused to heare the word with vs (which we mo- 
lested him not for) this twelue month, so because he could 
not draw his wife, a gracious & modest woman, to the 
same vngodlines with him, he hath troden her vnder foote 
tyranically & brutishly : which she & we long bearing, 
though with his furious blows she went in danger of life, 
at the last the maior vote of vs discard him from our civill 
freedome, or disfranchize, &c : he will haue justice (as he 
clamours) at other Courts : I wish he might, for a fowle & 
slanderous & brutish cariage, which God hath delivered 
him vp vnto ; he will hale his wife with ropes to Salem, 
where she must needes be troubled & troublesome as dif- 
ferences yet stand. She is willing to stay & live with him 
or else where, where she may not offend &c. I shall 
humbly request that this item be accepted, & he no way 
countenanced, vntill (if need be) I further trouble you : 
So with due respects to Mrs. Wintrop, Mr. Deputie, Mr. 
Belingham &c. I rest, 

Your worships vnfaigned 

Poger Williams. 



Providence, 27 of 3rd.* 

Much honoured Sir, — I haue presumed to send this 
Nahigonsick man, to attend your pleasure concerning the 
Pequts, & Caunounicus & Miantunnomues complaint 
against them & their protectours. 

The summe of their desire I lately acquainted you with, 
viz. that you would please (euen all the English) to sit still 
& let themselues alone with them according to consent, 
when Miantunnomu was last with you, who comming 
home, fell vpon Nayantaquit men who sheltred the Pequts, 
but was stopt by our friends of Qunnihticut. 

Or, 2ndly, that some other course (in consultation) might 
be taken for dispersion of them : euen as farr as Old Eng- 
land or elswhere, as they speake. 

Sir, I doe conceaue either course will be difficult, be- 
cause our friends at Qunnihticut are strangely bewitched 
with the subiection of these Pequots to themselues, & are 
allso as strangely resolued vpon fighting & violent courses, 
(as I vnderstand by letters, & otherwise by speech) vnles 
Miantunnomu come over personally to them to answer for 
proud speeches which they heare of. 

Miantunnomu hath long since promised, & still waites 
to goe any whither you shall please to make answer, to 
meete &c. 

Some from Qunnihticut write me word, that Indians 
will testifie such speeches to Miantunnomues teeth : & it 
may be so whether true or false. 

I allso, in case I should listen to Indian reports, shall 
bring many who will affirme that Tho : Stanton hath re- 
ceaved mighty bribes (whence origo malt) that Okace the 

* May, 1038. — Eds. 


Monahiggon hath receaved litle less then a thoughsand 
fathom of beades, whence he caries out some present to 
our friends at Qunnihticut, but I say I will not be- 
lieue it. 

But this I know, that according to leauge in 2 articles, 
that the Pequts shall not be sheltred nor disposed of with- 
out mutuall consent of the English & the 2 Nahiggonsick 

2ndly, that if the Pequts be suffred in the land to con- 
gregate & vnite into 4 or 500 togeather (as Lieftenant 
Howe confest to me) it will cost more bloud on all sides 
then yet hath bene spilt ; for one the one part, the Nan- 
higgonsicks can no more forbeare them then a wolfe his 
pray, & on the other side for the Pequts vpon all advan- 
tage the English shall find, that Vindicta levis vita incan~ 
dior ipsa est. 

3rdly, that our friends at Qunnihticut are marveilously 
deluded by the Monahiggons, as to be so confident of them, 
that Mr. Hooker writes no proofe can be brought against 
them for word or deede : when it is cleare they were Pe- 
quts, & lately hid, (once & the second time) hid William 
Baker from the English, & that vpon paine of death to any 
that should reveale him, as Lieftenant Homes tould me. 
Sir, my desire is that it would therefore please the Lord to 
guide you all to make a prudent disposall & dispersion of 
the Pequts, which the Nanhiggonsick will further by 
peace or warr. So with all due salutacions I humbly rest, 
vnfaigned in all desire of your present & eternall peace. 

Roger Williams. 

Mr. Allen tould me that there were numbers of the Pe- 
quts at Narrigonset, but I satisfied him that they were at 
Nayantaquit, whence (if themselues had not stopt) they 
had long since bene remooved. 



For his much honoured & beloved Mr. Governour of Massachusets. 

Providence, 14th of the 6th.* 

Sir, — Since my last (vnto which you were pleased to giuc 
answere with kind advice concerning the murther of the 
natiue) I haue receaued divers letters from Qunnihticut: 
the summ of all is this ; that it hath pleased the Lord to 
encline all hearts to peace. Juanemo was perswaded 
to goe over in person & to giue that satisfaction which 
was demaunded: only concerning a mare killd by some 
Nayanticks, (others say by Pequts,) but as yet no proofe ; 
our friends haue taken his promise to enquire & informc, 
& so they dismist him. 

It hath pleased the Magistrates at Qunticut to envite 
Miantunnomu over to them to discover some Pequt pas- 
sages & murtherers, which are denied, & to enter vpon 
some Articles with themselues : f denying themselues to 
be obliged in the Articles of the Bay. 

I haue conceaved that all the English in the land were 
wrapt vp in that Agreement (a copie of which you were 
pleased Sir, to send me,) : nevertheles I perswade him to 
goe over. His desire was (which Agowaun Sachim Mas- 
quanominity had in charge to expresse to you) that Mr. 
Governour would please to spare 4 English from himselfe 
as witnesses of passages ; as allso my selfe with Cutsha- 
mo queue & Masquanominit. 

I haue formerly engaged my promise to Miantunnomu: 
& resolue to take 2 or 3 English from hence, & hope 
(through the Lords mercy) that the iourney may be for 

* August, 1638. — Eds. 

t The visit to Connecticut, here intended, probably resulted in the Covenant at Hart- 
ford, Sept. 21, 1638. — See R.I. Hint. Coll., iii. 177. — Eds. 


Sir, vnles any passe by accident to Qnnnihticut (if so 
yon shall see good) that desire of 3 or 4 English may be 
denied, & yet graunted in effect by the going of some 
freely with my selfe. 

Only sir, be pleased to giue an hint of your pleasure in 
any matter considerable, which we shall endeavour to 

The natiues, friends of the slaine had consultacion to 
kill an English man in revenge : Miantunnomu heard of it, 
& desired that the English would be carefull on the high 
wayes, & sent himselfe expresse threatnings to them &c. 
& informed them that Mr. Governour would see justice 
done. Ousamequin comming from Plymmouth told me 
that the 4 men were all guiltie ; I answered but one ; he 
replied true, one wounded him, but all lay in wait 2 
dayes, & assisted. In conclusion: he tould me that the 
principall must not dye, for he was Mr. Winslowes man : 
& allso that the man * was by birth a Neepmuck man ; so 
not worthy an other man should die for him : I answered 
what I thought fit, but conceaue there will be neede of 
wisedome & zeale in some, & remembrance of that Vox 
Cceli : He that doth violence to the blood of any person, 
let him flee to the pit : let none deliver him. The Lord 
mercifully cleanse the land from bloud, & make the bloud 
of his sonn Jesus more precious in all our eyes. So 
prayes Your Worships most vnworthy 

Roger Williams. 

To Mrs. Wintrop, Mr. Deputie & his, all yours, best 
respects &c. 

* That is, the native slain by the Englishmen. For a full account of this homicide, see 
another letter of Williams to Winthrop, in 3 Mass. Hist. Coll., i. 171, 172; Bradford, 362-364; 
Wintlirop's Hist, of N. E., i. 267. — Eds. 




For the right Worshipfull dt his much honoured friend Mr. Go- 
vernour of the Massachusetts, these. 

At Namgansett the 10th of the 7th,* early. 

Much honoured Sir, — These Sachims with myself 
consulting the last Lords day as soon as I here arrived ; I 
dispatched a letter to meete our Qunnihticut friends at 
Monahiggin : desiring a speedie word from Capt. Mason 
(according as he found the busines easie or difficult) to 
giue direction for the course of the Narigansetts, either 
to Monahiggin or Pequt. With all, the Messenger had 
charge to deale with Onkas, from vs all, Can. Mian. &c. 
to be wise & faythfull to vs in what we should propose to 

The messenger returned the last night (& being a dis- 
creete man to obserue passages) he related that comming 
neere the towne, viz. to wit, Monahiggin, he heard 6 guns, 
which pers waded him that English were come, but draw- 
ing neerer, he found they were the guns which formerly 
the Pequts had got from the English : Entring the court, 
he found the house mingled full of Monahiggins & Pequts, 
who desired his newes, but he silent ! They told him that 
they heard that the English were comming against them, 
& they had sent vp 2 chiefe men who fovnd the English 
trayning. They were examined of 2 things viz : why they 
had lately let goe 2 of the murtherers at Nayantaquit, 
whom they had bound, & why they had seazed vpon all 
the corne at Pequt, belonging to hiether Nayantaquit Pe- 
quts : so they were ymprisoned & bound : word whereof 
comming to Onkace, 40 men were sent vp with their bead 
girdles to redeeme them. The messenger got Onkase pri- 

* September, 1638. — Ens. 


vate, who would not be drawne to yeald vp any of his 
Pequts, but alleadging that he had bought them with 
his money of the English (as the Nayantaquit Sachims 
said, for which purpose I am bold to inclose Mr. Ilcynes 
his answere) he said they found the English so false, that 
the last night in a generall meeting they were resolued to 
fight it out, & for himselfe although the English bound him 
& killd him he would not yeald. He related that Mr. 
Heynes had given him a letter of securitie to lye by him, 
in case that any English should iniure him, but in this 
pursuing his Pequts & binding his men, he had throwen 
away his letter, &c. Sir, your wisedome (I know) catch- 
eth at my request before I make it, viz : that in case I am 
directed from our friends of Qunnihticut to send for aide, 
you would please to cause a readines at litle warning. I 
could make true relacion of the brags of the chiefe of 
these wretches, viz. that the Massachusett English did but 
gleane after the Qunnihticut men, &c. in the wars : but I 
am confident you desire their good, with the safetie of your 
owne state : therefore I rest with a description briefe of 
the Pequt townes, now againe vnder Okace & the Nayan- 
taquit Sachims established: At Pequt Nayantaquit are 
vpward of 20 howses, vp the river at Mangunckakuck 8, 
vp still at Sauquonckackock 10, vp still at Paupattokshick 
15, vp still at Tatuppequauog 20, 3 or [] mile further with 
Onkace at his towne Monahiggin, a great number mingled, 
which are all vnder Onkas, beside those at Qunnipiuck, & 
others of Long Hand, & Sasacous his confederates. At 
Nayantaquit the hither, vpwards of 20 howses, all vnder 
the Nayantaquit Sachims, except 6 or 7 men vnto whome 
your worship was pleased to giue life, vpon Miantunno- 
mues motion, by my letter, vpon their submission. These 
are still Miantunnomu's subiects, yet refusing to Hue with 
him at Narigansett, he disclaimes them, in case according 
to promise, they assist not in this busines. The most High 
graciously sanctifie all his holy pleasure to vs, prosper these 


our present enterprises to his prayse, but especially against 
those enemies (1. Pet. 2. 11.) lusts which fight against our 
soules : in him I desire to be 

Your worships more & to eternitie 

Roger Williams. 


Much honoured Sir, — Some while since I wrote to 
you a short narration* of the issue of my voyage to Qun- 
nihticut & Plymmouth. I desire only to know whether it 
came to hand. I haue bene carefully searching into that 
rumour of the Plymmouth man slaine 4 yeares since. The 
persons to whome I was directed by our Plymouth friends 
for informacion are yet absent on hunting : & Miantun- 
nomu is but new returned from Qunticut, yet with what 
instruction I haue already gotten I am this morning taking 
a journey to the Sachims about it. 

I heare of 3 Cowweset men in hold about Mr. Hathornes 
cow. The Sachims affirme they can not discover the 
partie. These 3 were 3 of six then there hunting, yet they 
say 2 things ; 1st, that many Northern e & Saugust Indians 
hunt there ; allso & 2ndly, it may be that some adverse 
person might out of subtle envy shoot the beast, to render 
them odious to the English, & to cause their deserting of 
the place, which they would haue done but that the Eng- 
lish were very desirous (especially Mr. Endicot) that they 
should kill & sell venison, &c. 

For my selfe I shall faythfully enquire & disclose : al- 
though divers vnderstanding persons of Salem haue affirmed 
that the cow dying about 3 monthes after, when so many 

* The communication here referred to may be seen in 3 Mass. Hist. Coll., i. 173, of 
date about September, 1638. — Eds. 


head of cattle dyed, it is very questionable whether the 
arrow occasioned the death, &c. 

Sir, this is the occasion of this enclosed : I vnderstand 

that a servant of yours, Joshua is some trouble to 

your selfe, as allso to others, & consequently can not (if he 
desire to feare the Lord) but himself e be troubled & 
grieued in his condicion, though otherwise I know not 
where vnder Heauen he could be better. 

If it may seem good in your eyes (wanting a servant) I 
shall desire him (not simply from you) but for your peace 
& his. I shall desire your best & full satisfaction in pay- 
ment, & what summe you pitch on, to accept it either 
from this bill, or if you better like from that debt of Mr. 
Ludlow, for which he promised your worship to pay me 
800 waight of tobacco but did not, & I presume your wor- 
ship may with ease procure it ; but I subscribe ex animo 
to your choice, & with respectiue salutacions & continued 
sighes to Heauen for you & yours, rest desirous to [be] 
Your Worships vnfained though vnworthy 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, I am loath, but I presume once more to trouble you 
with that deceitfull man James Hawkings, craning that 
you would please to lend an hand that by your selfe or the 
Court at Boston I may find mercy against such inius- 

Sir, my wife (togeather with her best respects) to Mrs. 
Wintrop, requests her acceptance of an handfull of ches- 
nuts, intending her (if Mrs. Wintrop loue them) a bigger 
basket of them at the returne of Gigles. 



For the rigid Worshipfull & his much honoured friend Mr. Go- 
uernour of the Massachusetts, these. 

Sir, — Vpon the receipt of your last (answering my 
quseries) I haue acquainted the Sachims with the busines : 
I am not yet furnished with answere sufficient : what I 
haue at present I shall humbly & faythfully submit to con- 
sideracion: 1 from them, 2 from my selfe. 

From them : vpon sollemne consultation with them 
about the 100U demaunded of themselues, they say — 

First, that they remember not that either in the first 
Agreement & . League (in the beginning of the Pequt 
warrs) or since, in any expression, that euer they vnder- 
tooke to answer in their owne persons or purses what their 
subiects should faile in. 

2. Nor doe they belieue that the English Magistrates doe 
so practice, & therefore they hope that what is righteous 
amongst ourselues we will accept of from them. 

3. Therefore they professe that what euill soeuer shall 
appeare to be done by any (subiect to them) against the 
bodies or goods of the English, satisfaction shall readily 
be made out of the bodies or goods of the delinquents. 

For the 100U demaunded, they say concerning the Sa- 
lem cow * they haue to this day enquired, & can discouer no 
guilt either in the persons ymprisoned or the rest, but 
doe belieue that it was falsly laid vpon them by such 
northern natiues whose traps they were, who themselues 
were guiltie. 

For the horses, they haue sent for Wuttattauquegin 
who hath not bene with them these 3 yeares,* but keepes at 
Massachusett : they intend allso to call a generall meeting 

* Mr. Hathorne's cow.— See the preceding letter. — Eds. 


of the Countrey at his comming, within few dayes, when 

1 shall haue further answere from them. 

Sir, a word more from my selfe : I haue long since 
beleeued that as it is with the Most High (Prov. 21. 3.) 
so with your selues. To doe judgment & justice is more 
acceptable then sacrifice. And therefore that it shall not 
be vngratefull in your eyes, that I humbly request leaue 
to say that I see the busines is ravelld, & needes a 
patient & gentle hand to rectifie misvnderstanding of 
each other & misprisions. The Sachims to prevent the 
feares of their men in hunting or travelling &c, ear- 
nestly desired me to satisfle the English that if the bearers 
of a writing from me should offend any wayes, that they, 
the Sachims, would upon informacion from my selfe, cause 
the delinquents to make satisfaction out of then goods or 
bodies ; to the end that the English might not ymprison 
or transport away their persons, (which the natiues suspect) 

2 of their men hauing bene not long since caried away 
in an English ship from the Bay, & 2 of their women 
the last summer from Qunnunagut* in this bay. 

In 2 particulars (as I conceaue) neither the natiues 
nor my selfe were rightly vnderstowd. First, in the scope 
of the writing, which was not to aske leaue to hunt as 
before. 2ndly, in the promise, which was not to pay of 
themselues (I mean the Sachims) but to cause their men 
to deale iustly & to giue satisfaction for offences committed 
out of their goods or bodies. 

I hope it will please the Lord to perswade your hearts 
to belieue what I afnrme, & againe to review the writ- 
ing. Howeuer, rather then any labour or paines of mine 
(well meant to preserue peace) shall cause or occasion 
dissention, I resolue to be yet poorer, & out of my po- 
uertie to endeauour & further satisfaction. (The earth 
is the Lords & the fullnes of it.) To the Euerlasting 

* Conanicut. — Eds. 


Armes of his mercy I dayly recommend you & yours, & 
rest Your Worships most vnworthy 

Roger Williams. 

My respectiue salutes to Mr. Deputie, Mr. Beling- 
ham, &c. 

Sir, I haue heretofore bene bold to request your helpe 
in recouering an old debt from Mr. George Ludlow : & 
you were pleased after dealing with him, to signifie that 
he had promised to deliuer ashoare for me 8Q0lbs. waight 
of tobacco : I shall now humbly request that if Mr. 
Stratton desire it, or if he be againe bound for Virginia, 
that you would please to testifie so much as you remem- 
ber in a line or 2, which may be of great vse for my 
recouering of the debt, & I shall desire to be thanck- 



For his much honoured & beloved Mr. John Wintrop at his howse 

at Boston. 

Providence 10th 30.* 

Sir, — Hoping of your health this dead season, with re- 
spective salutacions : I am bold to request a little helpe, & 
I hope the last, concerning mine old & bad debtour about 
whome I haue formerly troubled your worship, Mr. George 

I heare of a pinnace to put in to Newport, bound for 
Virginia, & I vnderstand that if you please to testifie what 
you remember in the case, I may haue some hope at last 
to get something. 

You were pleased after dealing with him at Boston to 

* December, 1G38. — Eds. 

1639.] THE WINTHR0P PAPERS. 257 

certifie me that he had promised to discharge vnto me 
800U of tobacco, which you afterwards thought to hauc 
bene discharged : but he fayling, although my due came 
to much more, I request if you can remember in a line or 
2 to testifie : & I shall desire to blesse the Lord for you, & 
to beg of him a mercifull requitall into your bozome, euen 
from his holy left & right hand especially : my writings 
are (from hand to hand about the busines) lost ; so that all 
my euidence will be from your hand, of his acknowledg- 
ment & promise. Sir, I rest vncessantly mourning that I 
am no more Your worships vnfaigned 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, I may not omit my thanckfull acknowledgment of 
that councell of peace you were pleased to giue to a 
young man who (when I was at Block Hand) repaired to 
your worship for advice in some jar betweene him & his 
neighbours : your councell was prosperous, & I desire you 
may haue the joy of it. For so sayth the Lord, to the coun- 
cellours of peace is joy. 

Sir, I purpose within 20 dayes (if God will) to travell 
vp to Monhiggin : at my returne I shall trouble you with 
a line from Onkas, if I can speake with him about your 

Sir, I pray let your servant direct the natiue with this 
letter to Mr. David Yale, Mrs. Eaton's sonn. 


For his muc7i honoured & beloued Mr. Govcrnour of the Massa- 

chusets, these. 

Sir, — In my last I gaue intimacion of another answere, 
which from the Sachims is this. 

First, that although they remember not any agreements 



that haue passed about the natiues yealding vp their hunt- 
ing places, advantages, &c. with in prescribed limits &c, 
yet, because satisfactorie agreements may haue bene vn- 
knowne to them, betweene yourselues & the natiues about 
you, they haue sent for this man, Wuttattaaguegin, (who 
keepes most at Massachuset with Cutshamoquene,* & hath 
not bene this 3 yeares with them.) 

This man Wuttattaaguegin hath promised to satisfie in 
wampam, beauer & venison what it comes to. 

But he belieues not the dammage can be so great, for 
thus he relates : hauing laid his traps, intending dayly to 
tend them, Cutshamoquin sent for him to be a guide to 
him in a hunting match about the Bay, where other natiues 
were ignorant. He went, yet sent a youth to view his 
traps, who saith that he saw the English men loose 3 
horses out of the traps, & rode away vpon 2 of them, the 
third only was lamed. 

Vpon this he desired libertie to returne to the Bay, to 
enquire more perfectly the dammage : & being not come 
back as yet, they haue this present sent againe for 

Yet because they see not that Wuttattaaguegin broke 
any knowne couenant in laying his traps in that place, 
nor willingly wrought evill against the English, they con- 
ceaue it would be very faire & honourable in all natiues 
eyes, that it would please the English to make knowne as 
well their moderation as their justice in the case. 

And for themselues they resolue if this man should not 
be faythfull or able to satisfie your demaunds, they pro- 
mise (vpon perswasions & some offers of mine to them) 
to contribute themselues out of their owne, & to draw in 
helpe, that may in wampam, beauer, & venison make vp 
the whole summe before the next hunting be ouer. 

So crauing humbly your loving acceptation of my poore 

• Sagamore of Massachusetts. — Eds. 


service herein, or whateuer els you shall please to vse me 

in. I rest Your Worships most vn worthy 

IIoger Williams. 
Providence 2d 3.* 

My due respect to my honoured friends Mr. Deputie & 
the rest of the Councell. 


[For] his much honoured & beloved Mr. John Wintrop, Govemour 
of the Massachusets, these. 

Sir. — I a[m req]uested by Caunounicus & Miantunnomu 
to present you with their loue & respect (which they allso 
desire may be remembred to all the English Sachims) as 
allso with this expression of the continuance of their loue 
vnto you, viz. 30 fathom of Beades (10 from Caunounicus, 
& 20 from Miantunnomu -\) & the basket a present from 
Miantunnomu' s wife to your deare companion Mrs. Win- 
trop : 3 things they request me to desire of you. 

First, the continuance of your ancient & constant 
friendship toward them, & good opinion of their sincere 
affection to the English. 

I obiected against this that I lately heard that 2 boates 
of English were cut of by Pequts & that Miantunnomu 
knew of the act, &c. 

To this they answered that they haue not so much as 
heard of any miscarriage of the English this way of late, 
& that 2 dayes since a Xariganset man came from Long 
Hand & brought no such tidings. 

That they haue alwayes (& shall still) succoured the 
English in any such distresses : & that if but a single Eng- 

* May, 1639.— Eds. 

t See Winthrop'5 Hist, of N.E., i. 295. —Eds. 


lish man, woman, or childe be found in the woods by any 
of theirs, they should pnnish severely that man that should 
not safely conduct them & succour them, &c. 

2ndly, That you would please to ratine that promise 
made to them after the warrs, viz. the free vse of the Pequt 
countrey for their hunting, &c. 

3rdly, That since there are many Pequt Sachims & Cap- 
taines surviving, many of whome haue bene actuall mur- 
therers of the English, & (3 of them) which haue slaine 
some of their Sachims : 

And that since the Agreement the last yeare at Qunnih- 
ticut with Mr. Heynes & the Magistrates, you haue not 
yet pleased to come to action : 

And that the Pequts being many hundreths of them may 
with these their Sachim[s torn ] doe more mischiefe to vs 
and them : 

They therefore request that you would please to write 
by them at present to Mr. Heynes that so vpon your joynt 
Agreement they may themselues freely pursue those Pequt 
Princes & Captaines whom Mr. Heynes (who had the list 
of them from me the last yeare) shall name vnto them. 

I obiected the report of great numbers of Pequts among 
themselues, &c. 

They answere as formerly, that to cleare themselues 
from that, & to make it appeare how both the Monahig- 
gins & the Nayantaquit men haue receaved the Pequts & 
their presents (when they refused them) & so haue made 
presents to the English with the Pequt beades, which 
themselues neuer did nor could : they will now fall vpon 
this service, & if the Monahiggins & Nayantaquit men 
will not ioyne with them in it, they will themselues pursue 
the persons that shall be named to them wheresoeuer they 
find them, although at Monahiggannick or Nayantaquit, 
without touching a Monahigganie or Nayantick man 
further then you shall please to advise them. 

More they say, but I should be taedious, & therefore with 


all due respect to your loving selfe, Mrs. Wintrop, Mr. 
Deputie, &c. I rest 

Your worships faythfull & vnfayned 

Roger Williams. 

Caunounicus begs of you a litle sugar. 

Provtdexce this 9th of the 3rd.* 


Much honoured Sir, — You were pleased some while 
since to refer me to Mr. Heynes for a lyst of such Pequt 
as were authors & chiefe actors in the late murthers 
ypon the English. 

Accordingly I haue sent vp once & againe to Mr. 
Heynes & we are come to a period : the child is come 
to the birth : a little strength from your loving hand 
(the Lord so pleasing, & blessing) will bring it forth. 

This lyst here inclosed (which I request may be re- 
turned) was drawne by my best enquirie & Tho : Stan- 
tons in the presence of the Magistrates at Qunnihticut 
the last yeare. 

This list he was pleased to send me with the addition 
of 7 more vnder his owne hand. 

Some qu aeries I made vpon some of the 7 : as allso 
[fern] Sasacous his brother Puppompogs (now vpon Long 
Hand) whome Mr. Heynes desired might be spared, & I 
applauded the desire in many respects, only I desired 
for many other respects that he might be sent to some 
other part of the world. 

Allso since that the Nayantaquit Sachims who harbour 

* May, 1639. — Eds. 


many of these, & Okace, Caunounicus & Miantunnomu 
requested that a pinnace might lye some few dayes at 
Pequt, to promote & countenance the worck while Mian- 
tunnomu pursued them. 

Vnto all which Mr. Heynes in this last is pleased to 
answer, so that we are come to a period. This weeke I 
went vp to the Nanhiggonsick about other busines : there 

1 found a barr, which I thought good to request your 
Worship to remooue by a word or 2. 

Your captiue (which was Maumanadtucks wife) now at 
Pequt, presuming vpon your experimented kindnes toward 
her, informes all Pequts & Nayantaquits that Mr. Gover- 
nours mind is, that no Pequt man should die, that her 

2 sons shall ere long be Sachims there &c. Your wise- 
dome (now by a fresh line or 2) declaring that none but 
these (who by the best of intelligence appeare to be 
deeply guiltie,) shall die, may facilitate the execution, to 
the honour of your mercy & justice, & the clearing of 
the land from bloud, either that of our countrimen all- 
ready spilt, or that may be hazarded by these wretches. 
I might but will not trouble your worship with some 
presumptions that way : the Lord be pleased to further 
& blesse : & helpe your precious soule & mine to remem- 
ber that vengeance, & to long & expect for it vpon the 
enemies of Jesus, when blood shall flow out of the wine 
press to the horse-bridles by the space of 1600 furlongs. 

Your worships vnfayned hietherto 

Roger Williams. 

Mine humble & true respects to Mrs. Wintrop, Mr. 
Dudley, Mr. Belingham &c. 

The messenger is ignorant of the matter, & is satis- 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, " Mr. Williams about the Peqnods to be 
killed, (6) 1639." 

1640.] THE WINTHROr TAPERS. 263 


Prouidence. 21. 5.* 

Much honoured Sir, — Your (as I before 
surmised) are at Monhiggin, & the Squa Sachims daughter 
is married to the Sachim Onkas. I know the match hath 
bene long desired (although the Sachim hath 5 or 6 wiues 
allready) which makes me feare that all Indian meanes 
will not reach your iust desires. May you please to rest a 
litle, for Miantunnomu (as he pretends out of loue & 
respect to your person) is very diligent about a peaceable 
returne of them, that he may bring them with him, & as 
many more of the runnawayes as he can gett. Onkas was 
gone to Qunnihticut, so that a litle patience is requisite. 

Sir, this you may please to signifie to your much ho- 
noured brother, Mr. Gouernour,-)- that this busines only 
hinders Miantunnomues comming. He is (not satisfied 
but) perswaded to trust to interpreters whom he feares to 
trust, & to come without my selfe. 

As allso may you please to vnderstand that the Nayan- 
taquite Sachims still refusing to yeald vp any of those 
Pequts to death to whome they had promised life ; our 
friends of Qunticut (as I haue heard by 2 letters from 
Tho : Stanton) intend present revenge vpon them. Caunou- 
nicus & Miantunnomu still perswade (to mine owne 
knowledge) the Sachims at last to be wise, & yeald vp their 
Pequts, but in vaine, for the N ayantaquit Sachims resolue 
that for so many Hues as are taken away by the English, 
or the Monhiggins & Pequts with them, they will take 
revenge vpon Mr. Throckmorton at Prudence, or Mr. 
Coddington &c, or Prouidence, or elsewhere. 

* July, 1640. — Eds. 

f Dudley, who was brother to Winthrop by the marriage of their children, was 
Governor in 1640 ; and did not hold the office again till after the death of Miantonomo, who 
13 mentioned in this letter. — Eds. 


I haue dealt with Caunounicus & Miaiituimomu to de- 
sert the Nayantaquits in this busines. They answer they 
would if they had shedd the bloud of the English, but 
as they are their brethren, so they neucr hurt the Eng- 
lish, but ioyned with them against the Pequts &c. only 
they haue bene greedie vpon the prey against the English 
mind : & lastly they say the English partialitie to all the 
Pequts at Monhiggin is so great, & the consequences so 
grieuous vpon the abuse of the English loue, that all 
their arguments returne back (which they vse to the 
Nayantaquit Sachims) as arrowes from a stone wall. 

Tho : Stanton informes me of another cause of warr 
vpon the Nayantaquits, viz : Wequash* affirmes that one of 
the petie Sachims of Nayantaquit was aboord Mr. Oldams 
pinnace, & that some goods & gold are at Nayantaquit. 
Gold I neuer heard of, but the pinnace, skiff & other lug- 
gage & small particulars I had word of at first, which were 
(by reason of distance) let alone : & in case that any one 
of the Sachims or more knew of Mr. Oldams death, & that 
due evidence be found, I yet doubt (now since the com- 
ming of the Lord Jesus & the period of the National! 
Church,) whether any other vse of warr & arms be lawfull 
to the professours of the Lord Jesus, but in execution of 
justice vpon malefactors at home : or preseruing of life 
& Hues in defenciue warr as was vpon the Pequts &c. 
Isay. 2. Mic. 4. 

If the sword rage in Old or New E : I know who giues 
out the commission, & can arme frogs, flies, lice, &c. He 
be pleased to giue vs peace which earth neither giues nor 
takes. In him I euer desire to be more vnfaigned & 
faythfull Your Worships 

Roger Williams. 

* This is the last time the name of this native occurs in these letters of Williams. He 
died in the summer of 1G42. Williams pays a kind tribute to him in his " Key," published 
the next year. In noticing his death, Winthrop, ii. 74, calls him " Wequash Cook." 
Another Indian, frequently mentioned in Williams's letters in this volume and elsewhere, 
was named " Wcquashcuck." He lived many years after the death of Wequash. — Eds. 



Prouidence 7. 6. (so called) 40. 

Sir, — About (from Portsmouth) I receaued yours. As 
I lately advertizd to Mr. Gouernour,* the hurries of the 
natiues thoughts & consultations so continue, about the 3 
Xayantaquits, prisoners with our friends at Qunniticut ; 
that your runnawayes are longer secure in their escape 
then otherwise they should be. 

The Monhiggin Sachem, Onkas, refuseth to part with 
his prey : And whereas Miantunnomu was going vp to 
Monhiggin himselfe with a sufficient company for the 
runnawayes, Onkas sent word that it was your worships 
plot to bring him into the snare at Monhiggin, that there 
the Qunnihticut English might fall vpon him. 

Miantunnomu still promiseth me to come ouer to you, 
& his purpose (to his vtmost) to bring them with him. 
My occasions lead me within these 4 or 5 dayes to Qunni- 
piug, when (the Lord so permitting) I purpose to goe vp 
to Monhiggin & try the vtmost my selfe. The yssue of 
all is in that Euerlasting Hand, in which is our breath & 
our waves, in whome I desire to b[e] still 

Your Worships [vn]faigned Roger Williams. 

I thanck your worship for the Scotch intelligence : The 
issue (I feare) will be generall & grieuous persecution of 
all Saincts. 

Mine & my poore wiues best salutes to Mrs. Winthorp 
& all yours. 

Indorsed by Governor Winthrop, " Mr. Williams, (6) 10 — 40." 

* Dudley — Eds. 



Prouidence 25 of 4th, 1645, (so calld.) 

Much honoured Sir, — Though I should feare that 
all the sparkes of former loue are now extinct, &c, yet I 
am confident that your large talents of wisedome & expe- 
rience of the affaires of men will not lightly condemne 
my endeavour to giue information & satisfaction, as now 
I haue done in this poore apologie, with all due respectes 
presented to your honour, & the hands of my worthy 
friends with you. 

Sir, for tidings concerning the publike, 3 dayes since I 
receaued a letter from the Dutch Gouernour reporting 
some new hopes of peace. For our selues, the flame of 
warr rageth next dore vnto vs. The Narrigansets & Mon- 
higgins, with their respectiue confederates, haue deepely 
implunged themselues in barbarous slaughters. For my 
selfe, I haue (to my vtmost) diswaded our neighbours, high 
& low, from armes &c. but there is a spirit of desperacion 
fallen vpon them, resolued to revenge the death of their 
prince,")* & recover their ransome for his life, &c. or to 
perish with him. Sir, I was requested by both parties, 
your selues & the Narragansets, to keep the subscribed 
leauge betweene your selues & them, & yours & their pos- 
terities. Sir, that, & the common bonds of humanitie moue 
me to pray your selues & our friends of Qunnihtiqut to 
improue all interests & opportunities to quench these 
flames. My humble requests are to the God of Peace 
that no English bloud be further spilt in America : tis 
one way to prevent it by loving mediation or prudent 
newtralitie. Sir, (excepting the matters of my soule & con- 
science to God, the Father of Spirits) you haue not a truer 

* This is the last letter of Willinms, in this collection, addressed to Gov. Winthrop of 
Massachusetts; and the only one preserved written since the return of Williams from Eng- 
land in September of the last year, whither he had gone in the summer of 1643. The fruits 
of this visit were the Charter of Rhode Island, of date 14th March, 1643-4. — Eds. 

t Miantonomo, who was killed by Uncas about September, 1643. — Eds. 


friend & servant to your worthy person & yours, nor to 
the peace & wellfare of the whole countrey, then the most 
despised & most vnworthy Roger Williams. 


For my honourd kind fr[iend] Mr. Jo : Winthrop at Pequt. 

Nar. 15. 2. 49 (so calld.) 

Sir, — Best respects & loue to you both. By this bearer 
(Nath. Waller) I received your booke, & had by the same 
returned it, but that I desire to reade it ouer once more, 
finding it pleasant & profitable, & craue the sight of any 
other of that subiect at your leasure, kindly than eking 
you for this inclosed. As yet no tidings further from 
England. Here the Dutch Governour threatnes some 
trouble about the Dutch prize which Capt. Clarke, Be- 
ned : & others bought, which he desires to be restored, as 
being no prize, as taken contrary to the peace with Spaine 
If not restored he threatnes to take all vessells from hence, 
to which end it may be it is, that Jacob Curlow (whome 
the Indians call Yaupuck) hath lately bought of some of 
the Narriganset Sachims the litle Hand in the mouth 
of this Bay (called Aquedenesick & Dutch Hand), intend- 
ing to build & trade there, contrary to an order of this 
Colonie against foreiners, as allso against the agreement 
betweene the Commissioners & the Sachims, not to sell 
any land without their consent. We are borne to trouble 
as the sparkes fly vpward. Aboue the sun is our rest, in 
the Alpha & Omega of all blessednes, vnto whose armes 
of euerlasting mercy I commend you, desirous to be yours 
euen in him. R : W : 

My loving respect to your loving sister. I hope it will 
please God to send you a mill. 

On the outside, in Williams's hand, " This letter I pray send againe, 
it is but now come to my hand." 



For the Worshipfill his very loving friend Mr. John Winthrop at 
Boston, or elswhere* 

Sir, — - Best salutes &c. I long to heare of your refresh- 
ing after so much sighing &c. Our neighbour Sachims 
(having sent 2 natiues this morning to my house instead of 
Causasenamont, to attend your comming,) are importunate 
with me to write to you, & to pray you (if this messenger 
Sasepunnuit meete you on the way) to write a word to the 
Bay, concerning the late busines of Onkas pretended death 
at Monhiggin. For preface, this Mr. Smiths pinnace (that 
rode here at your being with vs) went forth the same 
morning to Newport, bound for Block Hand, & Long Hand, 
& Nayantaquit for corne : with them went a Narriganset 
man, Cuttaquene, an vsuall trader for Mr. Smith : the 
wind being (after 3 or 4 dayes stay at Newport,) northeast 
& strong, they put in to your riuer & so to Monhiggins. 
Onkas came aboord, on a sudden groaned fy cried out that 
the Narriganset had Jcild him : the Nariganset man denied 
it, fy Onkas shewed a wound on his breast which bled fresh, 
$?c\ Many circumstances passed. In fine Onkas caused 
the mans 2 forefingers to be cut of & sent to Capt. Ma- 
son, who being come, caused the man to be vnbound, & 
took him along with himselfe to Hartford. Our neighbour 
Sachims now pray you & the Magistrates of the Bay, & 
of the whole countrey, that the matter may be throughly 
searched out with all diligence, for 2 causes. First, for 
the clearing of themselues, who all professe most sollemnly 
to be altogeather innocent, &c. & they say it had bene 

* This letter has no date; but the complaint of Uncas against the Narragansett man, 
here related, was considered by the Commissioners of the United Colonies, at their session 
at Boston, in July, 1649. — See Hazard, ii. 130. — Eds. 

f This paragraph is somewhat obscured by an attempted erasure, apparently by another 
hand. — Eds. 


childish, now they are so neere finishing their payment, to 
haue prevented the English iustice against Onkas, which 
they are in great hopes of when matters shall be heard 
&c. They heare that Cuttaquene, the man in hold, being 
threatned death by a hatchett ouer his head, to confesse 
his complotters, anthonrs &c, he named (as they say) 
themselues to sane his owne life. The second canse, that 
Onkas might be discouered, for they suppose he (knowing 
how neere he is to a triall (after the payment finished) ac- 
cording to the English Sachims promise,) proiected this 
villanie &c. to render the Narigansetts still odious to the 
English, & prevent his triall. I was bonld to write your 
dearest for a word of English informacion ; which I thinck 
will come by the English (who went to see your parts.) 
By natiues I heare that your James went to Onkas fy 
charged him with projecting himselfe Sf acting himselfe a 
small stab on his breast in a safe place fyc. Many circum- 
stances look earnestly toward a plot of Onkas, both at this 
time, fy in the manner * of the fact of which you will heare 
more. He that is the Father of Lights, & Iudge of the 
whole world will shortly bring all secret things to light. 
At present 2 things make me (if all things else were 
cleare) to suspend beliefe to Onkas words : First, that the 
going forth of Cuttaquene in Mr. Smith's vessell was on 
an instant, & accidentall, & neuer intended (that I can yet 
heare of) for Monhiggin ; howeuer, if the English had 
thoughts of it (which will be knowne vpon their landing) 
yet they neuer mencioned it to the natiue, who, [it] is like, 
would never haue consented, for this second consideracion. 
This man Cuttaquene (without a miracle) could not at- 
tempt this thing, for I know him, & all men know him, to 
be of a gentle & peaceable spirit, & was neuer forth with 
them in their wars ; & no way like to stop such a man at 
noone day, in the midst of his owne, &c. Sir, I am sorry 

* The words in Italics are imperfectly erased. — Eds. 


I haue no horse, nor boate fit to serae you at this time. 
My canow with a wind faire would quickly set you here 
with ease : I haue writ to my wife that it may attend you : 
& I humbly beg of the God of heaven that his holy 
Angells may attend you in all .his wayes, in whome I 
desire to be your worships respectiue & affectionate 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, if this meete you at Providence, I pray impart it to 
my brother & friends to whome I can not now write. 

This 6t of the weeke. 
Sir, If this come to you in the Bay, I pray present my 
due respects to the Deputie Governour,* & other worthy 
friends as you see fitting, &c. 


Mrs. Winthrop, — Loving respects to your kind selfe 
& deare sister. I am importuned by our neighbour Sa- 
chims to write to your deare husband in the Bay, that 
whereas they heare that Onkas is hurt by a Naraganset 
man, that went in Richard Smith's pinnace, they pray him 
to be assured that what euer is done, more or less, they 
are ignorant of it, & will vse no other means against him 
then the English justice in a legall way. They pray me 
allso to write to you, that by your selfe or some of our 
louing friends with you, this messenger may bring word [of] 
the truth of matters among them : I beleeue nothing of 
any of the barbarians on either side, but what I haue eye 
sight for, or English testimonie. I am the more willing 
to write, because I might hereby heare of your health, & 

* This letter may have been written after the death of Gov. Winthrop of Massachusetts, 
which occurred 2G March, 1G49, and before the election of his successor. — Eds. 


of your children & neighbours, to whome I wish aeternall 
peace in the Son of God, in whome I desire to be 

Your loving friend Roger Williams. 

I pray cause a line to be sent back by this bearer, what 
the matter is. 


To the Worshipfull his kind friend Mr. Jo : Winthrop, Esq. at 


Nar. 26. 6. 49 (so called) 

Sir, — Best respects to you both, with hearty desires of 
your peace & ours, if the God of Peace so mercifully 
please. Vpon this late hubbub, (of an assault vpon the 
Pequts by the Monhiggins, & one of those Monhiggins 
pursued & slaine by the Pequts) the Sachims have sent to 
me for my thoughts, their men being impatient of making 
an assault allso vpon the Monhiggins. I tell them the 
English will not regard their complaints vntill the debt is 
paid. But that (at this time) will not stop them : I tell 
them the Monhiggins haue now kild but an old woman 
(if dead): they haue kild a Captaine, that makes them 
consider. Further, whereas they desire I would write to 
the Bay, I answer, it is better first that I write to you 
to pray you to send to Hartford, to know whether the 
Magistrates & English haue set on Onkas, & what their 
resolution is, then upon receit of their mind shall your- 
selfe & I know better what to write to the Bay for them. 
With this I haue satisfied them, & conceaue it very requi- 
site that (if you haue not already) you would please to 
request a word from our honoured friends of Hartford. 
If God please, this fire may yet be quenched, which 
humbly desires Your worships vnworthy 

E. W. 

Sir, I pray seale & send this to Esq. Mason. 



For his honoured kind friend Mr. John Wintrop at Pequt. 

Nar: 25, 8, 49. (so calld) 

Loving Sir, — To your selfe & your deare companion 
best salutation & desires of your hearts desire, & more 
then your hearts can desire in the knowledge & loue of 
the Son of the living God : This passing hand calls for 
this line only of neighborly salutaceon & information. 
Our neighbours messengers are gone to (not returned 
from) Massachusetts, with about 20/z or upwards of peag. 
I had promised to write for them, but the peag being 
brought me, & so litle, & they quarrelling among them- 
selues, & foolishly charging inferior Sachims of nonpay- 
ment, I was not free. I advised them (according to your 
advice) to compell Wequashcuck to contribute, as allso the 
Block Ilanders & some pettie Sachims about the great 
pond (who follow Wequashcuck to saue their money) but 
they say it is a new thing so to doe &c. & they desire 
rather the English would doe it, which discouerie of their 
weaknes, sir, in my poore thoughts, houlds out a greate 
Prouidence of God for the onenes & securitie of the Eng- 
lish (while the barbarians are in their fractions) & some 
dore of hope to me of some preparations to draw them 
neerer to civilitie, & that according to your owne deare 
father's opinion & desire. Our natiues say the Mauqua- 
wogs haue desired the English to stay from going to warr 
against the Dutch Indians, but a Dutchman tells me he 
heard (at Munnados) of 500 English comming against 
them. If the Father of Mercies mercifully prevent not, 
it may proue a deuouring fire. Blufield is come to New- 
port & is carrying the ship (his prize) to Munnadoes, 
having promised the Governour to answer it to the Spa-, 
niard if demaunded, because she is taken against the 


Treves.* Only the seamen (being of seuerall nations) are 
divided & quarrell, & will hardly be pacified but by the 
weake power of the Hand, where a Generall Court is 
suddenly calld this next (2nd) day at Portsmouth. If you 
haue any printed relations from England, I shall thanck 
you for the sight. I haue receaued a large & pious letter 
from the Ladie Vane (which I will shortly present you 
with). Sir Henry's opinion is, persecution aproaching. 
Tis the portion of Christ Jesus & his to pass through suf- 
fring to Glory : In him desirous to be euer Yours 

Roger Williams. 


[i^or] Mr. Jo. Wintrojp, these,. 

Nak. 9. 10. 49. (so calld) 

Sir, — Praysed be God for your healths & peace, which 
I humbly desire he may please to continue & sanctifie to 
Himselfe. These letters Mr. Arnold importund me 
to send, although by an hired messenger. This bearer 
(although a thiefe & must be looked to) is carefull, & I 
haue promised him, vpon a note receaved from you, a pair 
of breeches. We haue here notice of conclusions for the 
warr from Boston, & preparacions of a set number in each 
towne. Truely Sir, I haue heard litle concerning those 
murthers by English or natiues, but feare that the Lord is 
kindling fires amongst vs. I humbly conceaue the case of 
a man murthered neede not hazard the English in winter 

* Treve, a "truce," or "armistice." It may be conjectured that the writer refers to 
the Treaty of Minister, concluded between Spain and th.3 States-General in 1648. This 
Bluefield is probably the Capt. " Blauvelt," a Dutchman, mentioned in O'Callaghan's 
History of New Netherland, i. 296, as commander of a privateer upon our coast a few years 
before. See also Documents relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York, i. 
397-399. — Eds. 



hostilities, nor the plantations, by the certaine & experi- 
enced revenges of those Dutch Indians, & am confident 
that within a yeares compasse, &c, by silent & watchfull 
courses, the murtherer or murtherers may be taken in 
English townes. Howeuer, David would rather winck at 
murthrous Joab all his dayes, then hazard the losse of 
more bloud for the revenging of some. At Secunck a 
great many haue lately concurd with Mr. Jo : Clarke & 
our Prouidence men about the point of a new Baptisme, 
& the manner by dipping : & Mr. Jo. Clarke hath bene 
there lately (& Mr. Lucar) & hath dipped them. I belieue 
their practice comes neerer the first practice of our great 
Founder Christ [Jesus] then other practices of religion 
doe, & yet I haue not satisfaction neither in the authoritie 
by which it is done, nor in the manner ; nor in the prophe- 
cies concerning the rising of Christs Kingdome after the 
desolations by Rome, &c. It is here said that the Bay 
hath lately decreed to prosecute such, & hath writt to 
Plymmouth to prosecute at Secunk, with overtures that 
if Plymouth doe not, &c. Here hath bene great bickrings 
about Blufleld's ship at Newport, there arrested by some 
of his company, & ordered to be sold & payments made, 
although he stand deepely bound to repay all to the Spa- 
niard vpon demaund, because taken against the Treves. 
This ship & other vessells, & great & small ordinance going 
of, caused high reports (almost to my beliefe as I wrote to 
you) of some Irish pirates, whome we haue cause to feare, 
& (seeking to God) prepare allso for. I haue heard of a 
booke from England importing another high case on foote 
touching a more aequall division of lands among brethren, 
& provision for the younger brethren. I thanckfully 
acknowledge your loue concernning my daughter.* My 
wife (here with me) in formes me of a course of physick 

* Probably his daughter Mary, who is said to have been born at Plymouth in August, 
1633, now sixteen years of age. — Eds. 


she is entred into with Mr. Clark* of Boston, where she 
hath bene lately & is better. We are incompassed with 
motions about her ; but neither I nor she can entertaine 
thoughts of so early a marriage. She, as my wife tells me, 
desires to spend sometime in service, & liked much Mrs. 
Brenton (who wanted) ; but I trouble you with such pas- 
sages, &c. My wife prayes a litle of your powder for Mrs. 
Weekes daughter, of Warrick, who is euery winter greatly 
afflicted by occasion of such obstructions, & breakes forth 
to lamentable effects. The condicion (although the pa- 
rents oifer payment with thanks) I question not but will 
prevaile with your loving breast, wherein God graciously 
dwell, as in a pallace of his delights. In him I desire 
to be Euer Yours vnfaigned 

Roger Williams. 

Your servant Post lay with me 2 nights, earnestly 
importuning me to send his thanckfull remembrance & 

I am troubled about Nenekunats hunting, to whome 
Wequashcuck sends threatning of Capt. Masons visit. 
They haue importund me to write to Capt : Mason, which 
I haue done. 

On the last first day was a great fray betweene Warrick 
men & those Indians, & blood spilt, & many cuts & hurts 
on both sides : who both on the 3rd day sent for me, who 
went, & (by Gods mercy) composed not only the prsesent, 
but haue begun a treatie of full agreement with the na- 
tiues about their land, if the Bay please. 

Sir, my love to Mr. Brewster, to whome I thought now 
to write ; but by the next, if God please. 

* Dr. John Clark, physician of Newbury and Boston, who died in January, 1664-5. 
A good portrait of him is in the cabinet of the Massachusetts Historical Society. — 
Ed 3. 



For the WbrsTiipfull his Jcinde friend Mr. John Winthrop, Esq. at 


Nar. 16. 12. 49. (so calld) 

Sir, — I reioiced exceedingly from your owne loving 
hand (by Robin Causasenamont) to receaue tidings of your 
healths after this sharpe time. Blessed be God, who hath 
provided warme lodging, foode, & clothing, & so seasonable 
& admirable an element of fire for his poore creatures 
against such times ; the same blessed Lord make vs learne 
of his litle ants (Prou. 6.) to provide timely against eter- 
nall bitternes. Hoc momentum vnde pendet (Eternitas. For 
expedition I advised Robin to get ouer to Rode Hand him- 
selfe, which I thinck he did, but I haue not since heard of 
him. I am sorry for this afliction to Mr. Smith in his 
daughters husband, & we feare Rich : Smith his son allso, 
but hope it will please God to giue vs tidings of deliuer- 
ance : howeuer, it is not safe for dust & ashes to tempt the 
Most High in fighting with his winter stormes without 
necessitie. I grieue that my deare countrimen of Conecti- 
cot are so troubled with that filthy devill of whorish prac- 
tices, & more that yet they are pers waded of such courses 
to cast him out. Adulterie is a fire which will root out, 
but the gentiles, the nations of the world, will neuer be 
proued capeable of such lawes & punishments as that holy 
nation, bred up & fed with miraculous dispensations, were 
fit for. Sir, I humbly blesse God that hath vouchsafed you 
light & power to witnes against many evills of your coun- 
trimen, to His Honour & yours. As yet we haue not 
tidings from our mother. God mercifully fit vs for his 
holy pleasure in hearing, doing*, suffring, living, dying: 


He graciously guide you & your dearest by his councell to 
his glory : So prayes 

Yours vnfayned Roger Williams. 

Mr. Throckmorton is preparing & waiting dayly for a 
season to visit you. 


Nar. 24. 12. 49. so calld. 

Kesd Sir, — Best salut, &c. In my last, by Consider, I 
forgot a passage about that letter to the Commissioners 
which you were pleased to take from me. Mr. Browne 
lately told me that he can not call to mind that euer it was 
produced ; he conceaues, if you forgot not, that the Presi- 
dent did, or that it was supprest. I craue one line about 
it. Mr. Browne hath often prof est libertie of conscience, 
but now the way of new baptisme spreads at Secunck as 
well as at Prouidence & the Hand. I haue bene so bold 
as to tell him that he persecutes his son & the people, & 
on the other side Mr. Newman also. Sir, if you haue 
Carpenter's Geographie, or other discourse about the Earths 
diurnall motion, spare it a litle to Yours most vnworthy 

Roger Williams. 

Sir, I pray if the Long Hand man be not gone, aske for 
a booke I lent him. 


For the Worshipfull his kind friend Mr. John Wintrop at 


Nar. 20. 1. 49 (so calld) 

Sir, — Loving respects & best wishes to you both &c. 

By Xenekunat I received your last, relating a sound of 


more bloudie showers about Old, & said trialls at our dores 
in N : Tis mercy that we haue not our personall shares 
in them, 'tis mercy we are not consumed. The Father of 
Lights vouchsafe vs sympatizing hearts & prepared to fol- 
low the Lambe through all tribulacions into Glory. Nene- 
kunat now with me importunes me to write this to you, to 
pray you to take notice of a message that Kausa Senamon 
(your Robin) lately brought to him from Conecticut, viz. 
that he should discharge & send to Long Hand that young 
Sachim Tausaquonawhut, who hath lately maried his eldest 
daughter, because as Cap. Mason & the Magistrates say, 
he is a Pequt. He presents this answere to your selfe, & 
prayes you to present it to the English Sachims as you find 
occasion. He saith that this Tausaquonawhut was sought 
to by Onkas to marie his daughter, but he not affecting her 
(because of her sore eyes) came to his daughter, who fall- 
ing in loue, he, & the mother, & daughter, & himselfe 
(Nenekunat) desire they might Hue neere togeather, which 
they doe a small distance of. He saith some bring him 
word that the English will diuorce them : others that his 
daughter may follow him to Long Hand if she will. 

He saith that the young man was a child when the 
Pequt wars were, & had no hand in opposition, &c. That 
he was not the son of any of those Sachims who fought 
against the English, but of Tattaopame, whom the Dutch 
slewe. That his mother allso is Wequashcucks wife. 
That there is no other coulour of his being hurtfull to the 
English, but by shewing them kindnes as they travell by 
his howse : which to my knowledge he is free to. 

He prayes you not to loose your right, but send for a skin 
of a moose which was killd vpon one of your hummocks by 
Fishers Hand lately, & caried to Wequashcuck, as the lord. 

Sir, I gladly expect your booke, & one of the Parlia- 
ments Declarations which I lent the Long Hand English- 
man who past hereby in winter. 

Sir, I desire to be euer yours vnfaigned 

Roger Williams. 



For his honoured kind fri[end] Mr. Wintrop at Pequt* 

Sir, — Yours received & sent. I pray in your next a 
word about Earles paper ; a word of the warr against the 
natiues. I cannot yet get particulars touching Cromwell 
in Ireland, yet hope still that God will honour him, whome 
I hope he truely desires to honour. I grieue to vnderstand 
from your former that Moses is not vnderstood in N. E. 
touching what he did to that one nonesuch typicall & 
miraculous people of Israeli ; yet surely licentiousnes of 
all sorts needs a sharpe [te] though too sharpe, & more 
then God requires or euer did in all nations equall to Isra- 
eli, is destructiue, &c. Sir in hast 

Yours euer unfaigned Roger W. 

Sir, if you haue occasion to deale with Tho : Stant : or 
any vp to Qunnihticut for corne of any sort, I pray remem- 
ber me if it were 5006Z2 : I purpose to write to my old 
friend [Py]nc[h]on, & pray you if you haue occasio[n, 
in]timate a word to him. 


For the worshipfull hind friend Mr. Wintrop at Pequt.f 

Sir, — Loving respects &c. These inclosed Mr. Throck- 
morton yesterday delivered to Mr. He : & Tho : Doxey, 2 

* This letter has no date; but the writer, although he had not yet got the "particu- 
lars touching Cromwell in Ireland," possibly had heard rumors of his doings at Drogheda 
and Wexford in September and October of 1649. — Eds. 

f The following note from John Elderkin is written upon the same page, and preceding 
this letter of Williams, in the original. — Eds. 

Mr. Williams, — After my loue remembred to you, fceinge thankfull to you for your 
kindnes to me, when I was with you, this is to intreat you to send me this letter to Pequit 
as spedly as you can, & if you be att charges aoout the sendinge of it, I willingly will pay 
you. Your servant to my power. John Elderkin. 

Pro. 12th May, 1650. 


dayes since put forth from Newport, but Mr. Throck : 
being a leage the formost, met vpon Point Judith with a 
gust from the sou west, which brought him on backstaues, 
laid his vessell on one side, in much danger, his canow fell 
ouer from him, & was lost, his oars &c. but God brought 
him mercifully safe in hither, & Tho : Doxy back to New- 
port, whither he hath now sent for his wife & Mrs. Arnold : 
Benedict having now bought howse & land at Newport, 
purposing thither to remoue. Sir, Tho : Doxy told me of 
your thoughts for England : this bearer, Mr. Thatcher, tells 
me he spake with some of the Bristoll ship, which say that 
20 to one are for the Prince throughout the land, & wait 
for a change of wind, which (if God please to alter) is 
doubtles like to be very dreadfull, yet would I not disco w- 
rage you from listning to any evident call of that God who 
is able to cary whome he sends, through men & devills. 
Our Colonies Generall Court is now at Newport, where 
(vpon a fresh report of wars with France) our English is 
in demur of suffring the Frenchmen (who came in Blue- 
neld[s] prise, flesht with bloud, & have bought a Frigat 
of Capt. Clarke,) to goe out vpon their voyage to West 
Indies, least they practice their trade vpon their own 
coast. Yet one of them, having lay en with Mr. Amies 
daughter, (of Portsmouth), is like now to marry her. The 
parents of the English are troubled greatly. God merci- 
fully bring good out of these evills. 

Sir, it hath pleased God to quicken (by a Dutchman 
skipper, Lorence, now following fishing here about vs) 
some English that way, & Bened : desires to buy my shal- 
lop & further that worck, which I heartily desire (if God 
so please to fauour vs) may prosper with you & vs. The 
Natiues haue taken aboundance of sturgeon, & cod, & bass 
this yeare. Nawset English (where Mr. Prince is) putting 
forth 7 or 8 boats to fish this Spring, by the ouersetting of 
one boat, & losse of 2 men in the going out of the har- 
bours mouth, were for the present disco wraged. The Lord 


vseth to temper great desires & hopes with such sharpes, 
I hope they will on againe. Sir, I want paper, rest yours 

R. W. 

There is a sound of the Narrig : warring vpon Rode 
Hand (which therevpon keepe watch,) but it is founded on 
a lye, as I shall informe you. 


[Address obliterated.] 

Sir, — Deare respects to your deare selues & loving 
sister, reioicing in your peace, which may well with vs (after 
the Hebrew idiom) comprize the rest, &c. The messen- 
ger tells me you haue that tidings about P. Rupert, whose 
name in these parts sounds as a north east storme of snow. 
The Father of Mercies graciously avert, or (if he sees 
good for vs to bring it) shelter vs vnder the wings of his 
mercies, & gather vs vnder them by true humiliation. 
Our peace here this last night sounds very vncertaine. 
Indian newes hath doubtles something in it, of a 100 Eng- 
lish from the Bay comming to Warrick & the Narriganset : 
to Warrick about controversies between Warrick men & 
Mr. Arnold : to Narrogans : for peag. They tell of their 
instant aproach. Mr. Throckmorton last night from Pro- 
vidence writes that Plimouth men were lately in great & 
hot debates about yielding their claime of these parts to 
the Bay, which, after much heat in voting, was by a com- 
mittee cast to the Bay, whence I coniecture they now act.* 
God graciously turne it to his prayse howeuer, whateuer 
becomes of our peace. Sir, we haue great cause to sigh at 
the nlthines in this land, & allso at the vnchristian wayes 

* See Proceedings of the General Court of Plymouth, under date of 10 June, 1650, in 
Plym. Col. Records, ii. 158-60. — Eds. 



of punishments. You may please to remember that I 
haue bene large (in the Bloodie Tenent), in the difference 
betweene that land of Israeli & all others. It is in discuss- 
ing of the modell. Mr. Cotton refers the answere to the 
rest of the elders, whose answer or reply I yet here not of, 
& pray you if you doe, to intimate. Tis a controuersie 
wherein I am deepely engaged, of which you will (if God 
please) see more. For your selfe, deare sir, you doe I 
presume (as in conscience to God & man, you can no lesse) 
propose your queries to your friends, of note for authoritie 
& abilitie : whose answers I should thanck you to see. 
Newton's case is eminent ; poore man. God graciously 
arme him against the last great triall aproaching, where 
millions of men & devills numberles would ioy eternally 
to swone without returning. God graciously fit him & vs 
for that battell by these slight visitations, &c. For Say- 
broke, sir, you know I reioice & mourne : reioice that the 
Lord Jesus his name is more sounded, & mourne that not 
after the first patterne, in which I find no Churches extant 
framed, but all (by a dreadfull fate) opposing, dissolving, 
&c. & Perez Vzzah, the breaches & divisions wonderfull. 
The Portraicture,* I guesse is Bp. Halls, the stile is pious 
& acute, very like his, & J. H. subscribes the Epitaph: 
probably he presented these passages to the K. in the 
times of his restraint, for he was truely the Bps. K. & 
breathed from first to last absolute Monarchy & Episcopa- 
cie. Doubtles (viis & modis) he was guiltie of much blood. 
All that seemes waigty in my eye are the popular tumoults 
alleadged as the artifice of the Pari : Tis true it is a dan- 
gerous remedie, yet that which God vsed against Baals 
priests. The people as well as K. were stirrd vp for their 
death. The people for Johnathan against K. Saul. The 
people held the Pharises in aw, thirsting after Christ's & 

* "'EIKfiN BA2IAIKH. The Portraicture of his Sacred Majesty in his solitudes & 
sufferings," published just after the king's (Charles I.) death, and supposed by many to 
have been written by Bishop Gauden. — Eds. 


the Apostles blood. Sir, pardon my paper in all its de- 
fects, & let me truely mourne that I am not more 

Yours vnfaigned in Christ Jesus. R. W. 

Sir, I am bold to add my mite &c, these inclosed. 

Sir, hearing want of pins, I craue Mrs. Wintrops accept- 
ance of 2 small papers, that if she want not herselfe, yet 
she may pleasure a neighbour. 


For his honoured hind friend Mr. John Wintrop at Pequt. 

Nae. 17. 8. 50. (so calld) 

Kind Sir, — Loving respects &c. The Captains de- 
maund was 308 ffath : for the debt, & 200 for this expedi- 
tion. They paid 140, & said it was the whole, & that the 
difference was made by the measure. They allso brought 
240 for this Expedition : & upon the Captaines motion I 
prevailed with them to send 2 natiues, with a petition writ 
by myselfe to haue all cancelled. The Capt. promised to 
second the petition, which they said your loving selfe & 
Capt. Gibbons & Mr. Stanton had formerly presented in 
their behalf e. 

I was (if not too) warme, insisting on the partialitie 
against the Nariganset & toward Onkas, & affirmed that 
Onkas might better steale many horses then Wenekunat 
looke ouer the hedge. I vrged Onkas his villanous dealing 
against your poore towne, your selfe, &c. There is a 
misterie in it, of which formerly, Sir, your selfe & I had 
some hints, & may, if it please the Lord to bring vs togea- 
ther before winter. The Capt : told me the busines was 
designed by the Commissioners, & that (as he perceaved) 
they were resolved to hazard a war vpon it &c. But 


praised be the most holy, gracious, & only wise, who not 
only watcht ouer you & vs ; but if I mistake not ouer the 
whole countrie, while the watchmen slept : for to me it is 
certaine, a war betweene the English & the Mauquawos, 
or betweene the English & the Narigansets, will, if not dis- 
possesse many a planter & displant plantations ; yet hazard 
much blood, & slaughter, & ruin to both English & Indian ; 
.& when soever this sor plauge of God comes, though vpon 
neuer so just a cause in the last way of remedie & extrea- 
mitie, yet it is one of his 3 most dreadfull earthly & tempo- 
rall judgments vpon the children of men. 

Sir, Tho : Doxie came in almost 3 weeks since, he had 
no mind for Prouidence, but stood away for Martins Vin- 
yard, left a letter for his wife here to meete him, who 
came in this day, some few howres since from Providence, 
but we heare not of Tho : so that the poore woman is 
much disconsolate, for to get from Prouidence she was 
forced to promise to come back, if Tho : would not come 
vp : yet Benedict writes to me & to hir here exceeding 
lovingly. I feare he is gone to Munnadoes to finish this 
voyage with the 2 Dutchmen with him. Kathrine pre- 
sents service & prayes advice. The Father of mercies 
graciously blesse these trialls to her, that it may be for her 
good in the latter end, which I shall (through his grace) 
endeauour to further. 

Sir, I am your vnworthy R. W. 


For his honoured hind friend Mr. Winthrop, at Pequt, These. 

Sir, — Best salut &c. Yours by Elderkin (who predi- 
cates your iust praise in many respects &c.) common, phi- 
losophical!, morall virtue, laudata crescit, — how much 


more should true, heavenly, & eternalH I wrote you 
largely the issue of things, & hope you haue received &c. 
In sum, that the Capt : had 140 fath. for the debt (which 
was all say the Indians, but 308 say the English) allso 240 
for this charge. A petition I wrote to the Court for the 
Natiues touching the difference, & this bearer, Mr. Caukin, 
tells me it was accepted in the Court of Deputies (of which 
he was one). He tells me of a booke lately come ouer in 
Mr. Pynchon's name,* wherein is some derogation to the 
blood of Christ. The booke was therefore burnt in the 
Market place at Boston, & Mr. Pynchon to be cited to 
the Court. If it come to your hand, I may hope to see it ; 
howeuer the Most High & only Wise will by this case 
discouer what libertie conscience hath in this land. Sir, as 
I wrote, Katherine came in hiether the day I wrote, to 
seeke Tho : Doxey, & he came in the next day after, & the 
next day to Prouidence togeather. She tells me (to giue 
Benedict content) she let Bened : write to her vnckle : but 
she her selfe writ priuately that if any thing were sent, it 
might be in howsehold stuff. I hope (yet feare) these 
trialls may take of Tho : from company, spending &c, vnto 
which your helpe will not be wanting. . I thinck he will 
bring her to Pequt or Long Hand. Your tidings of God's 
renewed mercy again to Cromwell is confirmed : Sir, in 
his mercy rest you & yours, & in him I desire to be euer 
Yours P. W. 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, jun., " Mr. Williams, Octo : 23 : " f 

* Pynchon's book, "The Meritorious Price of Man's Redemption," &c, was published 
in 1650, and arrived here during the session of the General Court in October; and that body- 
ordered it to be burnt the next day "after the Lecture." See Mass. Col. Records, vol. iv. 
part i. pp. 29, 30. — Eds. 

t 1650. The letters from p. 267 to this place, which have a date, were written, it will 
be seen, from Narragansett ; and those not dated were doubtless written from the same 
place. Williams had purchased an estate, and built a trading-house, at " Caucaumsquissic," 
in the Narragansett country, embraced in what is now North Kingston, near the house of 
Richard Smith, who had preceded him there ; and quite a number of his letters, dated 
from this place, will be found published in a former volume of " Collections " of this So- 
ciety. Not long before his departure for England, in the autumn of 1651, Williams sold 
this place to Smith. See Knowles's Memoir of Roger Williams, p. 206 et seq.; 3 Mass. 
Hist. Coll., ix. 294. — Eds. 



For ray Jwnourd kind friend Mr. John Wintrop at his house at 
Pequt in New England. 

From Sir Henry Vane's at Whitehall,* 
20, 2, 52. (So calld.) 

Kind Sir, — Tis neere 2 in the morning, yet a line of 
my dearest remembrance to your loving selfe & yours, from 
whom I haue receaved so many loving lines continually. 
Our old friend Col. Humphries is gone, & lately allso Col. 
Cooke : yet blessed be God we Hue, & through the jawes 
of death are landed safe, & behould the wonders, the 
Magnolia & Mir acuta Dei in England. I haue sent a 
large narration, both concerning Old England affaires & 
New, to Prouidence. I hope & desire you may see it. 
Mr. Peters is well at Whitehall. I haue often bene with 
him, he tells me he hath b[ut] that 200^' per yeare which 
the Parliament gaue him, where of he allowes 4 score per 
annum to his wife. Your bro : Stephen is a great man 
for soule libertie. I haue mentioned you to Sir Henry 
Vane., who wisheth you were in our colonie ; touching 
which you will see Vestigia Dei in my narration. At 
present I pray your acceptance of my poore papers, & tell 
you that I more & more desire to be euer 

Yours in Christ Jesus Roger Williams. 

My kind loue to Mr. Stanton & other louing friends. 


Sir, — It hath not bene this sharpe & bitter season which 
could haue frozen my pen from saluting you both (having 

* Mr. Williams was now in England; having sailed from Boston in November, 1651. He 
returned early in the summer of 1654. See 3 Mass. Hist. Coll., x. 1. — Eds. 


received yours some weekes since.) but I could not get a 
meeting with Xenekunat, & messengers effected nothing, 
which I sent to him. Your great triall, losse & hinderance 
I am exceedingly grieved at, & cordially wish it were in 
my hand to contribute to your abundant satisfaction & 
reparacion. I haue taken willingly any paines about it, 
& shall ; & beg of God himselfe to please to make vp these 
gaps & breaches, with the teachings & comfortings of his 
Eternall Spirit. 

I haue had a sollemne debate with Xenekunat & the 
rest of the Xariganset Sachims, in a late great meeting at 
Warwick, whether they came downe w T ith 4 score armed 
men, to demaund satisfaction for the robbing of Pesiccush 
his sisters graue, & mangling of her flesh ; against John 
Garriard, a Dutchman, whose crue, & it is feard, himselfe, 
committed that gastly & stincking vilanie against them. 
In this meeting the Sachims were vnanimous, & (as vnion 
strengthens) they were so bold as to talke often of mens 
Hues, & of fighting with vs, & demaunded an English child 
for hostage vntill satisfaction, because John Garriard had 
liued at Warwick, & had goods & debts there still remain- 
ing. At last it pleased the Lord to pacific all with our 
attaching of the Dutchman's goods & debts, vntill he haue 
made satisfaction (in the Dutch jurisdiction or the Eng- 
lish) to the Sachims charge against him. There was in his 
crue one Samuel, a hatter, & one Jones, a seaman, & an 
Irishman, persons infamous, so that Ave feare John Gar- 
riard was drawne in by them, at least to consent to share 
with them in such a bootie. 

Sir, this troublesome occasion furnished me with full 
agitacions about your wrongs & demaunds allso. And be- 
sids this I haue had both former & later discoursings & 
searchings with diuers Indians, & some that were present, 
& some that were disaffected to Xenekunat, and all an- 
sweres & agitations &c. amount to, first, an absolute deny- 
all that either the Sachims or people know of any catle of 


yours slaine by themselues or the Inlanders, excepting 3 or 
4 goats, which the Paucomtuck Indians kild in their break- 
ing vp in displeasure, & departure from Nenekunat, & in 
their march toward the Easterne end of your iland home- 

2. They affirme that such slaughters could not possibly 
be made by any of themselues or the strangers, but they 
should know of it, being intermingled with them in all 
their quarters: & whereas I said they were long there, & 
had spent provisions ; they say they had 3 canowes conti- 
nually going from your iland to Pequt for provision ; which 
though sometime the winds hinderd some howres, yet by 
day or by night they alwayes came, & brought supply. 

3. They say that some English whome you trusted there, 
not only gaue Nenekunat one goat, but they haue known 
diuers giuen or sold to English or Dutch pinnaces. I con- 
fesse, sir, this last came not within my thoughts to sauour 
of truth, vntill conferring with some English further, I 
find it vndeniable from many English witnesses, that many 
goats haue bene sold (& some at cheape prises,) by some 
whome you haue trusted, to many vessells. Some of the 
vessells belong to our townes, & they name your kinsman 
Mr. Symons. The particulars are many : one I shall hint, 
that you may review whether you had account of it or no : 
Mr. Smiths vessell gaue him an ell of holland for one goat, 
which in our parts would yeald about 14s : so that I heare 
some vessells brought (more then for present spending) 
some Hue goats along with them. 

Sir, this English worck I belieue is true, although I 
dare not absolue the barbarians from your charge, & 
therefore shall still continue my vtmost care & search. 

Sir, the tidings stirring amongst vs is (as is said) from a 
ship (about 4 months since arriued from England,) report- 
ing slaughters of Scotch & English in diuers battailes 
fought in Scotland ; but (as is said) the Lord was pleased 
to turne the scales to the English. It is said allso that the 


Parliament (which was to begin the 3rd of 7ber) was broke 
yp in discontent. It is said that a fleete was designed 
against Hispaniola, & that Mr. Winslow goes in chiefe com- 
mand, or to be Govemour* Sir, I yet belieue not this first 
sound of things, & yet I belieue them to be very like to be 
true, & greater & greater Revolutions aproaching. The 
invisible & eternall Jehovah will make his justice & mercy 
more & more visibly glorious, in seternall successiue disco- 
ueries of himselfe to his, & to the worcks & creatures of 
his mighty hand. 

It hath pleased God, sir, to take away (some few dayes 
since) the wife of our Joshua Windsor (once a servant to 
your deare father). She had made a passionate wish that 
God would part them, & take away him or her. It pleased 
his Jealousie to heare her, & to take away a child in her 
wombe allso, of which she could not be deliuered. 

We haue had some gusts amongst vs as to our whole Co- 
lonic & civill order. At my comming ouer our neighbours 
were run into divisions. By the good hand of the Lord 
they were perswaded to choose 24 Commissioners (6 out 
of a towne) to reconcile. They vnited & haled me out 
(sore against my spirit) to publike service : yet the spirits 
of some haue not bene so reconcileable : Tho : Olney & 
my brother in our towne, (vpon private grudges), Mr. 
Easton & Mr. Dyer at Newport, fearing Sabaudies pinnace 
must be paid for, which case the Court at Massachusets 
lately would not determine, but left it to be tried in our 
owne Colonie, which was the late answer of the Court at 
Ipswich to Mr. Ames, who sued Mr. Dyer in the Bay. 
What plots & diggings haue bene vsed to overturne all 
Courts, that so there might be an escape, & therefore 
Newport is made to stand of (except some few) from the 
rest of the Colonie. 

* Edward Winslow was appointed by Cromwell commissioner to attend the expedition 
against Hispaniola in 1655 ; and died on the passage, between that island and Jamaica, May 8 
of that year. — Eds. 



Sir, we haue a sound of a Gen : Governour, & that 
Baron Rigby his son is the man : but jt is time to excuse 
this prolixitie, & to end with humble desires to the most 
Holy & Eternal King to protect, to direct, & comfort your 
spirit in all present & future trialls. So prays, Sir, 

Yours most vnworthy R. W. 

Sir, these inclosed were sent to me from Mr. White, 
now wintring at Warwick, It is said he hath skill in 
most worcks : many of ours haue thoughts of trying his 
skill about a new bridge at Prouidence, & he hath pro- 
mised to come ouer to vs to consult, but the weather hath 

Mr. Foote hath once & againe mooved for Iron Workes 
at Prouidence. He tould me that you had speech with 
him about his getting of jron men to Pequt, but he 
thought your selfe would be willing to promote the worck 
as well here as there, & therefore promised me to write to 
you. If I had power in my hand I would venture to such 
a publike good, & howeuer would gladly contribute all 
assistance, especially if your loving spirit & experience be 
pleased to giue encowragement. 

Sir, I haue not at present by me a copie (fair or foule) 
of my Consideracions presented to the Gen : Court at 
Boston : something there is in them of passages betweene 
the Lord Protector & my selfe ; otherwayes they are but 
knowne things (especially to your selfe) : howeuer, if pos- 
sible I can, I will present your desire with the sight of 

Post S. — Sir, this letter hath long lain by expecting 
conveyance. Indeede Nenekunat promised to send a 
messenger for them, but (whether the winter or other 
occasions hindred, sicknes, death, &c.) yet jt hath stuck 
by me as an arrow in my side, least I should seeme to 
neglect such a friend & such a case. 

For the fleete of which you please a line (in this your 


welcome tidings of your healths) we heare of 60 or an 
100 saile. I know the Protector had strong thoughts of 
Hispaniola & Cuba. Mr. Cotton's interpreting of Euphra- 
tes to be the West Indies: the supply of gold, (to take 
of taxes), & the provision of a warmer Diuerticulum & 
Ueceptaculum then N. England is, will make a footing into 
those parts very precious, & if it shall please God to 
vouchsafe successe to this fleete, I looke to heare of an 
invitation at least to these parts for re moo vail, from his 
Highnes, who lookes on N. E. only with an eye of pitie, as 
poore, cold & vseles. 

And surely this nonesuch winter is like to set any 
wheele a going for remoovalls of uery many. 

Capt. Gibbons at beginning of this winter (as I presume 
you haue long since heard) made this winter his last, & is 

Mr. Dunster (as is said) expecting to be outed about his 
judgment of childrens baptisme, withdrew himselfe, & Mr. 
Chancie, who was shipt for England, is now master of the 

We allso here that 2 of Mr. Dells f bookes were lately 
burnt at the Massachusetts, (possibly) containing some 
sharpe things against the Presbyterians & Academians, of 
which I brought ouer one cald the Triall of Spirits. 

I pray you to read & returne this Jew. I haue allso an 
answere to him by a good plaine man, expounding all 
which the Jew takes literally, in a spirituall way : & I 
haue (in a discourse of a Knight (L'Estrange) proving 
Americans no Jewes) another touch against him : howeuer, 
I rejoiced to see such industrious spirits breathing in that 
people toward the Messiah or Christ of God. 

Mr. Foot is said (at present) to resolue for the Dutch : 

* See Quincy's Hist, of Harvard University, vol. i. pp. 17, 18 5 and Appendix, p. 466. 
— Eds. 

f William Dell, master of Gonvill and Caius College, Cambridge, published, in 1653, 
"The Tryall of Spirits, both in Teachers and Hearers;" and "The Stumbling Stone." — 


vpon occasion of my declaring against his man, Mr. Fow- 
lers disorderly marriage in Mr. Foots howse, without any 
publication, & vpon that occasion my refusing to promote 
the Iron Worcks as yet ; he is displeased, & speaks of 
departure. I truely loue & pitie the man, yet surely from 
him haue the Indians bene furnished with store of liquors ; 
from his howse haue the incivilities of our towne bene 
much encouraged, & much evill reports he hath incur'd 
about this mariage. He saith he knew not of it till ouer 
night. But (although the pretended mariage was not,) jt 
may be, resolued on before ouer night, yet I am sorry to 
heare such talke in the towne of what he knew before. 
Sir, the truth is (as one said to Queen Elizabeth) Profecto 
omnes sumus licentid deter lores. We enioy liberties of soule 
& body, but it is licence we desire, except the Most Holy 
helpe vs : in whome Sir, I desire to be euer 

Yours E: W: 

15. 12. 54. (so calld.) 

Mine & my wiues true respects to Mrs. Wintrop, &c. 


For my honoured hind friend Mr. Wintrop at his howse at Pequt. 
Leaue this with Mr. White of Warwick. 

Prouidence 23. 1. U (so calld.) 

Sir, — Cordiall respects presented. Mr. White com- 
ming to you can not come without salut : I haue this last 
weeke many letters from England : but all dated the first 
weeke of the Parliaments sitting: The howse consisted 
most of Presbiterian fautors. All that are waved are 
rancked into Cavaliers & Levellers : vpon the grand ques- 
tion of the Supreame Legislatiue, the Lord Bradshaw spake 
openly that if a Parliament were not supreame, then was 
he a murtherer of K. Cha[rles]. Sir Arthur Hazelrig 


spake high : but the report is double : some say a vote past 
that they would not dispute that point, some say they did 
dispute, & therefore a -breach followed, & the jmprison- 
ment of Bradshaw & Hazelrig, &c. & jt is said here (by 
Dutch newes) 2 beheaded. The Protectour in his speech 
told them he had setled the 3 Nations, had made peace 
with Holland, Denmarke, Swedeland, Switzerland, & 
entred far into a treatie with France, &c. The sea pre- 
parations of the English renderd others jealous : so that 
(& the troubles of the Dutch among themselues, which 
cause them to keepe a guard of 800 at the Hauge) that 
caused new orders to the Admiraltie, for carefull striking 
to the English : Gen : Blake with his fleete was bound 
for the Southward : Gen : Pen & Mr. Winslow with 
him for the West. It is feard that his poore wife will 
misse him. He writes to N. Plymmouth that (except the 
Parliament prohibited) they were ready to set saile : he 
hath new fitted himselfe & sent ouer his former apparell. 
The Portugall embassadour* hath bene beheaded for a 
murther in the Exchange, & Mrs. Mohun & her maid 
stood in the pillorie before the Exchange, for attempting 
his escape by womens apparell. Mr. Marshall, & Viner, & 
Mr. Tho: Goodwin, minister to the Parliament. Mr. 
Goodwin prest the instance of Pharoah & the l[et]ting of 
Gods people free to worship, least the Lord send new 
plauges & breaches. Sir, your messenger calls : I end. 

Yours vnworthy R. W. 

I shall be thanckfull for the Jesuits Maximes, of which 
I haue heard, but saw them not. 

We heare from the Bay that Capt. Leveret tooke a 
Dutch ship lately vpon the Act for Trade : whether jt be 
for that or words, he js bound to appeare at the Gen : 

* Dom Pantaleon Sa, brother of the Portuguese ambassador, was executed, July 10, 
1654, for the murder of Mr. Greenway at the Exchange. — Eds. 



For my honoured hind friend, Mr. John Wintrop, at Pequt, these. 

Prouidence, 1. 1. 55 (so calld.)* 

Sir, — Loving respects & best wishes &c. I lately pre- 
sented you with a line by Mr White : since I received 
more letters from England, confirming the tidings of 2 
great fleetes ready to set saile from England the beginning 
of September. The one with Gen : Blake for the South- 
ward ; the other with Gen r Pen for the West Indies. To 
him was joined Mr. Winslow, as Councellour, designed 
Governour of what part should be conquerd. The Par- 
liament sat, & after 3 dayes debate about the last change 
of Government, the Lord Protectour sent for the Parlia- 
ment into the Painted Chamber, & tould them that there 
was a reciprocation, & that the same power which made 
him Protectour had calld the Parliament, & therefore be- 
fore they should sit againe, he must require a test, or 
recognition by subscription to his negatiue voice, as to the 
present government by a Protectour & a Parliament, as to 
the not sitting of the Parliament aboue 5 months, as to the 
malitia, & as to persecution for religion. To this purpose 
a table was set neere the Parliament dore, whereon the 
recognition was presented in parchment, vnto which Mr. 
Lenthall, the Speaker, & 140 subscribed presently & 
entred : some dissented, among whom were Bradshaw 
& Hazelrig, who, (it is said) are in the Tower. The Por- 
tugall Embassadours brother was beheaded for a murther, 
& one Coll : whose name I yet know not. One Mrs. Mo- 
hun stood on the pillorie, for attempting the Portugalls 
escape in womans apparell. 

The 3rd of 7ber, the day of the Parliaments first sitting, 
was seene in the heauens ouer Hull, 2 armies fighting ; 

* This letter was evidently written after that which next precedes it; and it may be 
supposed that the date should be " 1. 2. 55," instead of 1. 1. as in the original. — Eds. 


the one from the norwest which worsted the other from the 
east, both red : then a black armie from the norwest which 
worsted the red from the east, & remained victour. Some 
that saw jt said they saw the like at the beginning of the 
late Long Parliament. 

Holland had great trouble with Zeland, & the Orengian 
faction, so that the Hague & Amsterdam were strongly 
guarded. New orders were sent to their Admiraltie for 
carefull striking to the English * Sir, with prayers for your 
health & eternall peace, I rest yours in all services of 
loue. R. W. 


To my honoured kind frjend Mr. Wintrojp, Governour, at Hart- 
ford, present. 

Providence 28. 3, 64. (so calld.) 
Sir, — Meeting (this instant before sun rise, as I went to 
my field &c) an Indjan running back for a glasse, bound 
for your parts, I thought (since nihil sine Providentja) 
that an Higher Spirit then his owne, might purposely (like 
Jonathans boy) send him back for this hastie salutatjon to 
your kind selfe & your deare companjon. 

Sir, I wajted for a gale to returne you many cordjall 
thancks for your many cordjall expressions of ancient 
kindnes to my selfe, & the publike peace & wellfare : I 
haue since bene occasioned & drawne (being nominated 
in the Charter to appeare againe vpon the deck,) from my 
beloved privacie : my humble desires are to contribute 
my poore mite (as I haue euer, & I hope euer shall) to 

* In the treaty between Great Britain and the States-General, concluded at West- 
minster, April 5, 1654, it was agreed that the ships of the United Provinces, meeting any 
English ship-of-war in the British seas, should strike the flag and lower the topsail. — 


preserue plantation & publiks interest of the whole 
N. E. & not interest of this or that towne, colony, opi- 
nion, &c. 

Sir, when we that haue bene the eldest, & are rotting, 
(to morrow or next day) a generatjon will act, I feare, far 
vnlike the first Wintrops & thejr Modells of Loue : # I 
feare that the common Trinitie of the world, (Profit, Pre- 
ferment, Pleasure) will here be the Trja omnia, as in all 
the world beside : that Praelacie & Papacie too will in this 
willdernes predominate, that God Land will be (as now jt 
js) as great a God with vs English as God Gould was with 
the Spaniards &c. While we are here, noble sir, let vs 
Viriliter hoc agere, rem agere humanam, divinam, Christ] anam, 
which I belieue is all of a most publike genius. 

Sir, those words in our Charter concerning the Nari- 
ganset (notwithstanding a late graunt to the Colony of 
Conectjcut) &c, are so taking with my neighbours, that 
Resolutions were vp (this last Court) of fetching old Mr. 
Smith presently, because of his new engagement to Conec- 
ticut : jt pleased God to helpe me to stop that councell, & to 
prsevajle that only a boate was sent, with a loving letter 
to invite him, & he came not, but said well, viz. that when 
the Colonies were agreed, he would submit. Sir, 3 dayes 
hence Major Denison & Mr. Damport meete from the Bay 
with Mr. Greene of Warwick, & Mr. Torey of Newport, 
at Secunck, to compose the strife betweene vs : I hope your 
honoured selfe & Major Mason, & some of the graue Elders 
&c., will helpe on such worck betweene your selues & vs, 
allso, vnto which I hope the Father of mercies will helpe 
me to be your & the countries servant in all respect & 
faythfullnesf R. W. 


* This may be a reference to Gov. Winthrop's Model of Christian Charity, a sermon 
written on board the '' Arbella." See 3 Mass. Hist. Coll., vii. 33. — Eds. 

t See further, in relation to the subject of the concluding paragraph of this letter, in 
R. I. Col. Records, ii. 47, &c; Arnold's Hist, of R. I., i. 307. — Eds. 


On the outside, in Williams's handwriting. 
Just now I find this bearer to be Miantunomues son. 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop of Connecticut, " Mr. Rog : Williams 
rec: Saturday Jun : 25 1664." 


To my honoured kind frjend Mr. John Winthorp, Governour of 
his Majesties Colony of Conecticut, present. 

From Mr. Richard Smiths, June 13, 1675 (vt vulgo)* 

Sir, — Mr. Smith being at Newport, I am occasioned to 
present my old & constant loue & respects, as also Mrs. 
Smiths great thancks & service to you. Sir, Mr. Smith 
deliuered me 2 letters, the one from Mr. Fitch, the other 
from Mr. John Mason, praying me (according to the contents 
of the letters) to enquire of Mawsup, (now calld Canouni- 
cus),f whether Oncas had stird him vp against the Wunnas- 
howatuckowogs, to kill them, &c. Sir, a fortnight since I 
went to Cawnownicus his howse, but he was gone 12 mile 
of : I sought him againe yesterday, & found him 5 mile 
from his howse : I shewd him the letters : I vsed allso 
your honoured name, & the names of your honoured As- 
sistants, both concerning the killing of the English cattell 
in these parts ; as allso concerning thejr cariage toward 
the Wunnashowattuckoogs who are respected by your 

Sir, Caunounicus & other Sachims & his Councell pro- 
fess they will be carefull of the English & their cattell 
among them : allso that they will shew respect to those 

* Smith's residence was at Wickford, in the present town of North Kingston. It is 
supposed that he had established himself there as early as 1640. See Updike's Hist, of the 
Episcopal Church in Narragansett, R.I., Intro, xv. et seq. — Eds. 

t This Indian is better known by the name of Pessacus. He was born about the 
year 1623, and was about twenty years of age when his brother Miantonomo, whom he suc- 
ceeded, was put to death. Canonicus, the "great 3achem," died in 1647. See Winthrop's 
Hist, of N. E., ii. 308 ; R. I. Hist. Coll., iii. 173. - Eds. 



Showatuks for your sake, & in particular (which answers 
Mr. Fitch & Mr. Mason's letters) Caunounicus vtterly 
denies that Onkas euer sollicited him to kill or molest 
those Showatuks. Withall he added 2 reasons. First, that 
jt js not credible that since Onkas killd his brother Mian- 
tunnomu, he (Canounicus) should be sollicited by Onkas 
in such a busines, or that he should gratine Onkas desires, 
&c. 2, Both himselfe, & Nananawtunu* (Miantunnomus 
yongest, very hopefull sparke) desire earnestly that Tatup- 
hosuwut, Onkas his son, who hath killd a Wiyow (or 
Sachim) one of thejr cousins, may suffer impartially, as 
now the English haue dealt with the 3 Indians which 
killd John Sossiman. Allso they praid me to add, that 
your selfe are not ignorant of Onkas his many fowle prac- 
tices, & how he treacherously sent an head (or heads) of 
the Qunnihticut Indians to the Mauquawogs, & would 
send your heads allso as presents if he could come at 
them. Sir, Nananawtinu added this argument for impar- 
tiallitie toward Tatuphosuit : I am (said he) my father 
Miantunnomues son, as Tatuphosuit is to Onkas : if there 
should partialitie be shewd to him, & that money should 
buy out mens Hues, or that one of his men should die for 
him, then all we young Sachims shall haue a temptation 
laid before vs to kill & murther, &c, in the hope of the 
like impunitie. 

Sir, jt js true that Phillip (fearing apprehension) stood 
vpon his guard with his armed barbarjans. Taunton, 
Swansie, Rehoboth, & Providence stood vpon ours, but 
praised be God, the storme js ouer, Phillip is strongly 
suspected, but the honoured Court at Plymmouth (as we 
heare) not having evidence sufficient, let matters sleepe, 
& the countrey be in quiet, &c. 

Sir, I constantly thinck of you, & send vp one remem- 

* Alias " Canonchet" (by which name he is better known), at this time the acknow- 
ledged sachem of the Narragansetts. , See Hubbard's Present State of New England, 
&c, p. 67. — Eds. 


brance to heauen for you, & a groan from my selfe for 
my selfe, when I pass *Elizabeths Spring. Here is the 
spring say I (with a sigh) but where js Elizabeth ] My 
charity answers, she is gone to the Eternal Spring & 
Eountaine of Living Waters : f Oh, Sir, I beseech the Fa- 
ther of Mercies & Spirits to preserue your precious soule in 

life (long & long [a portion of the letter and the signature destroyed.! 

Sir, about a fortnight since your old acquaintance Mr. 
Blackstone J departed this life in the fowrscore year of his 
age : 4 days before his death he had a great pain in his 
breast, & back, & bowells : afterward he sajd he was well, 
had no paines, & should liue, but he grew fainter, & ye aided 
vp his breath without a groane. The Lord make vs wait 
(with Job) for that great change. 


To my much honoured kind frjend Mr. John Winthorp, Governour 
of Co/iecticut, present. 

From Mr. Smiths at Nahigonsik, June 25, 75 (vt vulgo) 

Sir, — This inclosed of a former date comes to my hand 
again at Mr. Smiths. Mr. Smith is now absent at Long 
Hand : Mrs. Smith, though too much favouring the Fox- 
ians (calld Quakers) yet she js a notable spirit for courtesie 
toward strangers, & prays me to present her great thanks 
for your constant remembrance of her, & of late by Capt. 

* The spring so called from Governour Winthrop's Lady, named Elizabeth, drinking at 
it as she passd to Boston. — Note by a later hand; probably by John Winthrop, F.R.S. 

t Mrs. Elizabeth Winthrop, the wife of John Winthrop, Jr., died 24th November, 
1672.— Eds. 

X William Blackstone, the first English inhabitant of Boston, died at his house, near 
Study Hill, in Cumberland, R.I., May 26, 1675. See 2 Mass. Hist. Coll., x. 170-173.— 


Sir, this morning are departed from this howse Capt : 
Huchinson & 2 more of Boston Commissioners from the 
Governour & Councill at Boston to the Nahigonsik & 
Cowwesit Indjans. They came (3 days since) to my howse 
at Providence, with a letter to my selfe from the Gover- 
nour & Council at Boston, praying my advice to their 
Commissioners & my assistance &c. in thejr negociatjons 
with the Nahiggonsik Indjans. I (within halfe an howres 
warning) departed with them toward the Nahigonset. 
We had one meeting that night with Quaunoncku, Mian- 
tunnomu's youngest son, & vpon the opening of the 
Governours letters, he readily & gladly assented to all 
the Governours desires, & sent post to Mausup (now calld 
Caunounicus), to the Old Queen,* Ninicraft & Quawni- 
pund,f to giue vs a meeting at Mr. Smiths. They being 
vncivill & barbarous, & the Old Queen (especially) time- 
rous, we condiscended to meete them all neere the great 
pond, at least 10 mile from Mr. Smiths howse. We lajd 
open the Governours letter : & accordingly they professed 
to hould no agreement with Phillip, in this his rising against 
the English. They professed (though Vnkas had sent 20 
to Philip, yet) they had not sent one, nor would : that they 
had prohibited all thejr people from going on that side, 
that those of their people who had made manages with 
them, should returne or perish there : that if Phillip or 
his men fled to them, yet they would not receaue them, 
but deliuer them vp vnto the English. 

They questioned vs why Plymmouth pursued Phillip. 
We answered : he broke all laws, & was in armes of re- 
bellion against that Colony, his ancient frjends & protectours, 
though it js believed that he was the author of murthering 
John Sossiman, for revealing his plots to the Governour 

* Quaiapen. She had been the wife of " Meika," alias "Maxanno" (eldest son of 
Canonicus, the great sachem); and, after his death, was called the " Suncke Squaw," or 
" Old Queen of the Narragansetts." See R. I. Hist. Coll., iii. 172. — Eds. 

t Probably the same as Quanopen, a Narragansett chief. Ibid., 173. — Eds. 


of Plymmouth, & for which the 3 actours were 2 weeks 
sine executed at Plymmouth, (though one brake the rope, 
& is kept in prison vntill their Court in 8ber). 

2. They demaunded vs why the Massachusets & Rode 
Hand rose, & joynd with Plymmouth against Phillip, & left 
not Phillip & Plymmouth to fight jt out. We answered that 
all the Colonies were subject to one K. Charls, & jt was his 
pleasure, & our dutie & engagement, for one English man to 
stand to the death by each other, in all parts of the world. 

Sir, 2 particulars the Most Holy & Only Wise made vse 
of to ingage (I hope & so doe the Commissioners) in earnest 
to enter into those aforesaid engagements. 

First, the sence of their owne danger if they seperate 
not from Plymmouth Indjans, & Phillip their desperate 
head. This argument we set home vpon them, & the 
Bays resolucion to pursue Phillip (if neede be) & his 
partakers with thouhsands of horse & foote, besjde the 
other Colonies, &c. 

2. Their great & vehement desire of justice vpon 
Tatuphosuit, for the late killing of a Nahiggonset young 
men [sic] of account with them, which point while we 
were discoursing of, & thejr instance with, me to write to 
the Governour & Councill of Massachusets about jt (which 
I haue this morning done by thejr Commissioners) in comes 
(as from Heauen) your dear son Major Wintrop to our 
assistance, who affirmed that he saw Tatuphosujt sent 
bound to Hartford jaole, & his father Onkas taking boat 
with him. The Sachims sajd they knew it, & had written 
about it (by my letter inclosed) to your selfe : but they 
were informed that he was set free, & was keeping his 
Nicommo, or dance in trjumph, &c. Your son replied 
that either jt was not so, or if it were, it was according to 
your law of leaving Indians to Indjan justice, which if 
neglected you would then act, &c. In fine, their earnest 
request was that ejther Tatuphosuit might haue impartiall 
justice, (for many reasons) or els they might be permitted 


to right themselus, which the Commissioners thought 
might be great prudence (in this juncture of affajrs) that 
these 2 nations, the Nahiggonsik & Monhiggons might be 
taken of from assisting Phillip (which passionately he 
endeavors), & the English may more securely & effectually 
prosecute the quenching of this Philippian fire in the 
beginning of jt. The last night they haue (as is this morn- 
ing sajd) slaine 5 English of Swansie, & brought their 
heads to Phillip, & mortally wounded 2 more, with the 
death of one Indjan. By letters from the Governour of 
Plymmouth to Mr. Coddington, Governour of Eode Hand, 
we heare that the Plymmouth forces (about 200) with 
Swansie & Rehoboth men, were this day to giue battell to 
Phillip. Sir, my old bones & eys are weary with travel, & 
writing to the Governours of Massachusets & Eode Hand, 
& now to your selues. I end with humble cryes to the 
Father of Mercies to extend his ancient & wonted mercies 
to N". England, & am, Sir, 

Your most vnworthy Servant Roger Williams. 

Mrs. Smith earnestly desjres your loving advice to her 
husband, to lay by his voyage to England : partly by reason 
of his inward grief e, & allso that his busines may be trans- 
acted by delegation. She prays you also to consider your 
owne age & weaknes, & not to lay your precious bones in 

Sir, my humble respects to your honoured Councell. 


From Mr. Smiths, 27 June 75 (so calld) 

Sir, — Since my last (inclosed) the next day after the 
departure of Capt. Huchinson & the messengers from 
Boston, a partie of 100 Nahiggonsik Indjans, armed, 

1675.] THE WINTHR0P PAPERS. 303 

marched to Warwick, which as jt frighted Warwjck, so 
did it allso the inhabitants here ; though since we heare 
that the partie departed from Warwick without blood 
shedding : howeuer jt occasioned the English here (& my 
selfe) to suspect that all the fine words from the Indjan 
Sachims to vs were but words of policie, falshood & 
treacherje : especially since now the English testifie, that 
for diverse weekes (if not months) canoes passed to and 
again (day & night betweene Phillip & the Nahigonsiks) 
& the Nahiggonsik Indjans haue committed many robberjes 
on the English howses. Allso it is thought that Phillip 
durst not haue proceeded so far, had he not been assured 
to haue bene seconded & assisted by the Monhiggins & 

Two days since, the Governour & Councill of Rode 
Hand sent letters & messengers to Mausup (Caunounicus) 
inviting him to come to them to Newport, & assuring him 
of safe conduct to come & depart in safetje. His answere 
was that he could not depart from his child which lay sick : 
but (as he had assured the Boston messengers) so he pro- 
fessed to these from Newport, that his heart affected & 
sorrowed for the English, that he could not rule the youth 
& common people, nor perswade others, chiefe amongst 
them, except his brother Miantunnomu's son Nananautunu. 
He advised the English at Nahiggonsik to stand vpon thejr 
guard, to keepe strict watch, &, if they could, to fortifie 
one or more howses strongly, which if they could not doe, 
then to flie. Yesterday Mrs. Smith (after more, yea most 
of the women & children gone) departed in a great showre, 
by land, for Newport, to take boat in a vessel 4 mile from 
her howse. Sir, just now comes in Sam : Djer in a catch 
from Newport, to fetch ouer Jireh Bulls wife & chil- 
dren, & others of Puttaquomscut* He brings word that 

* In the present town of South Kingston, on " Tower Hill," where Bull had a garrison- 
house, which, in December following, was attacked by the Indians, and ten men and 
five women and children were killed, but two escaping. See Hubbard's Present State, 
&c, p. 50. — Eds. 


last night Caleb Cars boat (sent on purpose to Swansie for 
tidings) brought word that Phillip had killd 12 English at 
Swansie, (the same Canounicus told vs,) & that Phillip 
sent 3 heads to them, but he advised a refusall of them, 
which some say was done, only the old Queene rewarded 
the bringers for thejr travell. Caleb Carr sajth allso that 
one English sentinel was shot in the face & slain by an 
Indjan that crept neer vnto him : that they haue burnt 
about 12 howses, one new great one (Anthony Loes): that 
Phillip hath left his place, being a neck, & 300 of Plym- 
mouth English, Swansie & others know not where he js, 
& therefore Capt. Oliuer (being at Mr. Brown's) rode post 
to Boston for some hundreths of horse : that some hurt 
they did about Providence, & some say John Scot, at Paw- 
tucket ferry, is slaine. Indeede Canounicus advised the 
English to take heed of remajning in lone out places, & 
of travelling in the common roade. 

Sir, many wish that Plymmouth had left the Indjans 
alone, at least not to put to death the 3 Indjans vpon one 
Indjan's testimony, a thing which Phillip fears ; & that 
your selues (at this juncture) could leave the Monhiggins 
& Nahiggonsjcks to themselues as to Tatuphusoit, if there 
could be any just way by your General Court found out for 
the preuenting of their conjunction with Philip, which so 
much concerneth the peace of New England. Vpon re- 
quest of the Government of Plymmouth, Rode Hand hath 
set out some sloops to attend Phillips motjons by water & 
his canoes : jt is thought he bends for an escape to the 
Inlands. Sir, I feare the inclosed & this will be grjevous to 
those wonderfull visiue spirits which looke out at your 
windowes : mine, I am sure complain, &c, yet I presse them 
for your & the publike sake, for why js our candle yet 
burning, but to glorifie our dreadfull Former, & in making 
our owne calling & electjon sure, & serving God in serving 
the publike in our generatjon. 

Your vn worthy servant R. W. 



For my honoured kind frjend Mr. Jo : Winthorp Governour of 
Conecticut Colony , at Boston or elswhere, present. 
Leaue this at my loving friends Dan : Smith at Behoboth. 

Providence 18. 10. 75. (vt vulgo.) 
Sir, — If you are stjl in Boston (which owes you more 
& your precious name, then jt js like to pay you) please 
you to pass by, that I haue not troubled you with a late 
salutation. The present revolutions of the wonderfull & 
all sighted wheels (Ezek. 1.) rowse vp my sleepie spirits to 
muse & write, & to present your selfe & others with what 
I believe to be the mind & voyce of the Most High amongst 
vs. Others thinck otherwise (& some clean contrary) ; vnto 
whom I say at present, let them take the pains which 
God mercifully hath helpd me to take, to find out where's 
the difference : let them suffer what (& so long) God hath 
helpd me to beare for thejr beliefe & conscience : let them 
debate freely, calmly, &c. as I hope God hath helped me 
& will help me to doe, (without the Pope's sword, which 
Christ commanded Peter to put vp in his matters.) 

Sir, I haue heard that you haue bene in late consulta- 
cions, semper jdem, semper pacificus, & I hope therein 
oeatus. You haue always bene noted for tendernes 
toward mens soules, especially for conscience sake to 
God. You haue bene noted for tendernes toward the 
bodjes & infirmities of poor mortalls. You haue bene 
tender to, toward the estates of men in your civill steerage 
of government, & toward the peace of the land, yea of 
these wjld savages. I presume you are satisfied in the 
necessitie of these present hostilitjes, & that it is not possi- 
ble at present to keepe peace with these barbarous men of 
bloud, who are as justly to be repelld & subdued as wolues 



that assault the sheepe. It was . . . in . . . est . . . 
rjum : * God hath helpt yourselfe & other [tom~^ with won- 
derfull selfe deny all & patience to keep of this necessitie. 
But God (against whom only is no fighting) is pleased to 
put this jron yoake vpon our necks, & (as he did with the 
Canaanits) to harden them against Joshua to their de- 
struction. I fear the euent of the justest war : but if jt 
please God to deliuer them into our hands, I know you 
will antiqum obtinere, & still endeavour that our sword 
may make a difference, & par cere subjectjs, though we 
debellare superbos. God killeth, destroyeth, plaugeth, 
damneth none but those that will perish, & say (as these 
barbarjans now say) Nippittoj ; Thoug I die for jt, &c. 

Sir, I hope the not approach of your deare son with his, 
(your forces of Conecticut) &c, is only through the inter- 
cepting of the posts : for we haue now no passing by 
Elizabeths Spring * without a strong foote. God will haue 
it so. Dear Sir, if we cannot save our patients, nor rela- 
tions, nor Indians, nor English, oh let vs make sure to 
saue the bjrd in our bozome, & to enter in that straight 
dore & narrow way, which the Lord Jesus himselfe tells 
vs, few there be that find jt. Sir, your vnworthy 

R. W. 


Boston. Jan : 6 : 1675 

Honored Sir, — May these few hasty lines salute you 
acceptably though only to certify the receiving of yours of 
the 18 of the former, & to thank you for that kindnesse, 
& that little volume of poetry therewith. Pictoribus atque 
Poetis, quod libet audendi, semper fuit cequa potestas. Some 
present indisposition, & the rigorous season prohibits dis- 
course about those particulars in your letter ; had leisure 

* This sentence has been carefully erased. — Eds. 
t See ante, p. 298. — Eds. 


permitted, your paraphrase about that necessarie mentioned 
in reference to the present juncture, as to those barbarians 
might it not haue inlightened some darke corners, you 
having the advantage of knowing the hidden contrivances, 
confederances, actions & machinations of those brutish 
salvages, well compared in your letter to ravening wolves 
assaulting the sheepe : I shall only at present add my 
loving respects to you both & remaine 

Yours according to ancient friendship 

Semper idem,, J. W.* 


To the much honoured Governour Leveret at Boston present. 

Providence 14 Jan. 15 (so calld) 

Sir, — This night I was requested by Cap : Fenner 
& other officers of our towne to take the examination & 
confession of an English man who hath bene with the 
Indians before & since the fight : his name is Joshua Tift f 
& he was taken by Capt. Fenner this day at an Indian 
howse halfe a mile from where Capt. Fenner's howse (now 
burnd) did stand. Capt. Fenner & others of vs proposed 
seuerall questions to him, which he answered, & I was 
requested to write, which I did, & thought fit having this 
bearer (Mr. Scot) brought by God's gracious hand of Pro- 
vidence to mine, to present you with an extract of the pith 
& substance of all he answered to vs. 

* The above is a rough draught in the hand of John Winthrop, jun., of Connecticut. 
It is indorsed, " Copy to Mr. Roger Williams at Providence ; " and was found enclosed in the 
preceding letter. John Winthrop, jun., died in Boston, April 5, 1676, — about three months 
after it was written. — Eds. 

f He was called a renegade, had married a Wampanoag Indian woman, had adhered 
to the Indians in this war, and was active in the great swamp fight. He was executed 
18th January, four days after the date of this letter. A sorry account of him is given in 
Hutchinson, i. 302, and in Hubbard's Present State, &c, p. 59. — Eds. 


He was askt by Capt. Fenner, how long he had bene 
with the Nahigonsiks. He answered about 27 days, more 
or lesse. 

He was demaunded how he came amongst them. He 
sajd that he was at his farme a mile & halfe from Puttuck- 
quomscut, where he hired an Indian to keepe his cattell, 
himselfe purposing to goe to Rode Hand, but that day 
which he purposed & prepard to depart, there came to his 
how T se Nananawtenu (the young Sachim) his elder brother 
Paupauquivwut, with thejr Captaine Quaquackis & a par- 
tie of men, & told them he must die. He sajd that he beg'd 
for his life, & promised he would be servant to the Sachim 
w r hile he lived. He saith the Sachim then carjed him 
along with him, hauing giuen him his life as his slaue. 
He sajd that he brought him to thejr Fort, where was about 
800 fighting men & about 200 howses. He sajd the In- 
djans brought 5 of his cattell & killd them before his face : 
so he was forct to be silent, but praid the Sachim to spare 
the rest : who answered him what will cattell now doe you 
good ; & the next day they sent for the rest & killd them 
all, whereof 8 were his owne. 

Being askt whether he was in the Fort in the fight,* he 
saith yes, & wayted on his master the Sachim there, vntill 
he was wounded (of which wound he lay 9 days & died.) 
He sajth that all the Sachims were in the Fort & stajd 2 
vollies of shot, & then they fled with his master, & passed 
through a plaine, & rested by the side of a spruce swampe, 
but he sajth himselfe had no arms at all. He saith that if 
the Monhiggins & Pequts had belie true, they might haue 
destroyed most of the Nahiggonsiks : but the Nahigon- 
siks parlied with them in the beginning of the fight, so that 
they promised to shoote high, which they did, & kild not 
one Nahigonsik man, except against thejr wills. 

* This was the "great Narragansett swamp fight," in South Kingston, of 19th Decem- 
ber previous. — Eds- 


He saith that when it was duskish, word was brought to 
the Sachims that the English were retreated. Vpon this 
they sent to the Fort to see what thejr loss was, where they 
found 97 slaine & 48 wounded, beside what slaughter was 
made in the howses & by the burning of the howses, all of 
which he sajth were burnt except 5 or 6 or thereabouts. 
He sajth the Indians neuer came at the Fort more, that he 
knows of. He sajth they found 5 or 6 English bodjes, & 
from one of them a bag of about a lib \ of powder was 
brought to the Sachims : and he sajth that abundance of 
corne, & provisions, & goods were burnt allso. He sajth 
some powder belonging to the young Sachim, which was 
in a box, was blown vp, but how much he can not tell. 

He sajth the Nahigonsiks powder is (generally) gone & 
spent, but Phillip hath sent them word that he will furnish 
them enough from the French. He sajth they haue caried 
N. Engl : money to the French for ammunition, but the 
money he will not take, but beauer or wampam. He sajth 
that the French haue sent Phillip a present, viz. a brass 
gun & bandaljers sutable. He sajd allso that the Nahi- 
gonsiks haue sent 2 baskets of wampam to the Mow- 
hauks (Mauquawogs) where the French are, for their 
favour &. assistance. 

He saith that the Sachims & people were about 10 mile 
norwest from Mr. Smiths, whether the Cowwesets & Pum- 
hom & his men brought to the Sachims all the powder 
they could, but Caunonicus sajd jt was nothing, for they 
had 400 guns (beside bows) and there was but enough for 
euery gun a charge. The young Sachim sajd that had he 
known they were no better furnished, he would haue bene 
elswhere this winter. 

He sajth that while they were in consultatjon, an Indjan 
Squaw came in with a letter from the Generall. Some ad- 
vised to send to Phillip for one of his councellours to read 
it, but at last they agreed to send a councellour to the Gen : 
who brought word that the Gen : said that there had bene 



a small fight betweene them, & asked him how many 
Indjans were slain, & how the Sachims liked jt. That he 
desired the Sachims would show themselus men, & come 
& parley with him : that if they feared they might bring 
what guard they pleased, who might keepe at a distance 
from ours, who should not offer them any affront, while the 
Sachims were at the howse with the Gen : from whom they 
should depart in peace, if they came to no agreement. 

Their Councellours sajd that the English did this only in 
policie to intrap the Sachims, as they had done Phillip 
many times, who when he was in thejr hand made him 
yield to what they pleased. 

Nananawtenu (the young Sachim) sajd he would not 
goe, but thought it best to vse policy, & to send word to 
the Gen : that they would come to him 3 dayes after ; 
but Cawnounicus sajd that he was old, & would not lie to 
the English now, & sajd if you will fight, fight; for tis a 
folly for me to fight any longer. The young prince said 
he might goe to Mr. Smiths then, but there should neuer 
an Indian goe with him. Thejr chief Captaine allso sajd 
that he would not yield to the English so long as an Indjan 
would stand with him. He sajd he had fought with Eng- 
lish, & French, & Dutch, & Mowhauks, & feared none of 
them, & sajd that if they yielded to the English they 
should be dead men or slaues, & so worck for the 
English. He sajth that this Quaquackis bears chiefe 
sway, & is a midling thickset man, of a very stout, fierce 

Being asked whether he was present at this consultatjon, 
he saith no ; but that Quaquackis acquainted the people 
what the sum of the consultatjon was. 

He sajth that Phillip is about Quawpaug, amongst a 
great many rocks, by a swampeside: that the Nahigonsiks 
haue bene these 3 days on thejr march & flight to Phillip : 
that he knows not what number Phillip hath with him, 
& that this day the last & the rear of the company departed : 
that they heard the Gen: was pursuing after them, & there- 


fore seueral parties, to trie number of 400, were ordred 
to lie in ambuscadoes : that seueral parties were left be- 
hind, to get & driue cattell after them: that the young 
prince & chiefe capt : were in a howse 4 mile from Provi- 
dence, where Capt: Fenner (with 15 or 16 of Providence, 
seeking after cattell) tooke this Joshua Tift, who sajth that 
the rest of the partie (about 41) were not far of, & toward 

[Bei]ng asked what was the English child which was 
brought in to the Gen : he sajd that Pumhom's men had 
taken jt at Warwick. Also he sajd that there is an Eng- 
lish youth amongst them (his name he forgot : ) one that 
speaks good Indjan, & was wounded & taken in the fight, 
whom they spake of killing with torture, but he was yet 
with Quawnepund. 

Sir, you may suppose it to be now past midnight, & I am 
to write forth the copie of this, to goe to-morrow to the 
Gen : & therefore I dare not add my foolish comment, but 
humbly beg to the Father of Mercies for his mercy sake to 
guide you by his Councell (Psal. 73.) & afterward receaue 
you vnto Glory. 

Your most vnworthy K. W. 

My humble respects presented to such honoured frjends 
to whom your wisedome may thinck fit to communicate, &c. 

Sir, Josh : Tift added that this company intend to stay 
with Phillip till the snow melt, & then to divide into com- 

Allso that many of Ninicrafts men fough[t] the English 
in the Fort, & 4 of the Monhiggins are now marcht away 
with the Nahigonsiks. 

Sir, since I am oft occasioned to write vpon the publike 
busines, I shall be thanckfull for a litle paper vpon the 
publike account, being now neere destitute. 

Sir, I pray present my humble respects to the Governour 
"Winthrop, & my thancks for his loving letters, to which I 
cannot now make any returne. 




To the Worshipfull and his much respected /rind John Winthrape 
Esqr. at his howse in Boston, dd. 

Worthy & beloued, — I haue recaiued your letter sent 
by my Cozen Burt, in answer wher vnto I would not 
haue yow troubled how to write vnto me, seeing at this 
distance we knowe not how other wayes to confer to 
geather. Many loueing letters haue passed betweene vs, 
at a fare greater distance of place then nowe we bee at. 
Possibely yow mayconceiue of things deeper, or other wayes, 
then ther is cause for. I doe intend to answer for my selfe 
(by neighbors) I doe not knowe howe yow doe meane, 
vnlesse it be the brethren that did remoue with me. It 
may be they are better able to answer for themselues then 
I am. I was sick when the measinger yow mention came 
to the Hand, who said they had onely one Question to put 
to me, which wos whither I did hould my selfe to stand a 
member of the Church of Boston or not. I answered, to 

* William Coddington, of Boston, Co. Lincoln, England, was chosen an Assistant of the 
Massachusetts Company before the sailing of Winthrop's fleet, with which he came to Mas- 
sachusetts. The next year he returned to England with Wilson and Sir Richard Saltonstall, 
where he remained two years. Coming here again in 1633, he became a resident of our 
Boston; was one of the principal merchants of the place; and built here, it is said, the first 
brick house. He also had a large estate at Braintree, now Quincy. He was Treasurer of the 
Colony three years. Siding with the Antinomian party, he left here in April, 1638, and be- 
came one of the principal residents of Rhode Island; of which colony he was for some 
years chief magistrate. In his later years, he embraced the religious views of the Quakers. 
In 1674 was published a tract written by him, entitled " A Demonstration of Love unto 
you the Rulers of the Colony of the Massachusetts," &c. — See Savage's Geneal. Diet.; 
Young's Chron. of Mass. He died 1st November, 1678, aged seventy-seven. — Eds. 


my best rememberance, to this effecte, that the Question 
was very considerable, & needed my best health to answer 
to it, but for these grounds I did scruple it, viz : after 
serous debate at 2 solomon meeting, in which very few of 
the members wos wanting (to my best rememberance, & so 
others afferme allso) which meeting was first accationed by 
the motion of one of the members no we resident with you, 
and as I toucke it in the name of others ; my selfe and Mr. 
John Coggshall, being to geather at my howse, with some 
other brethren, that wee two, & some others he mentioned, 
would remoue, for their peace, & settelement, &c* I did 
inquire how that might be without offence, he said he 
would procuer vs a church meeting, in which it should be 
transacted. At the later, our teacher being out of the 
towne when the former wos, it wos with the generall advice 
& consent of all (as I take it) we were commended to the 
grace of God in Christ Jesus in our remouall, & it wos the 
substance of Mr. Cotton's sermonds the next Lord's Day, 
wher ther wos not Churches to commend their brethren two, 
ther they might commend them two the grace of God in 
Christ Jesus ; f which I have related to some Elders & 
brethren of other Churchs amongest your selus, as else 
wher, some by word, others by writing, & though they 
differ as I haue to show, " 1 Elder savth it wos a dumbe ah 3 a^e 

its a diiini- 

clismishon. 2 : Elder sayth it wos because most of them shou - 
wos departed in their spirits then from the sents here. The 

* The writer evidently is here recurring to events which took place prior to his 
removal from Boston. — Eds. 

t Among the Hutchinson Papers, published in the Massachusetts Historical Collections, 
is a curious letter from John Cotton, in behalf of the Church at Boston, to Francis Hutch- 
inson, " at Acquethnick," in answer to the request of the latter " to be recommended to the 
word of God's grace; " in which the Church decline consenting to his desire, " as wanting 
warrant from Scripture light." We find in the records of the First Church the appoint- 
ment of William Hibbins, Capt. Edward Gibbon, and Mr. John Oliver, as delegates to 
inquire into the state of affairs at the Island, under date of the 16th of the 12th month, 
1639. Capt. Robert Keay ne, in his manuscript volume of notes of sermons by Cotton, &c. 
gives an account of the result of their mission, and of the perils encountered by the 
rm; -oncers on their journey, as related by them to the Church, 1 mo: 16, 1640. See 
2 Mass. Hist Coll., x. 184; Winthrop's Hist, of N. E., i. 328, 329. — Eds. 



3d Elder sayeth directly that it wos a dismishon, & that 
your church had not further to doe," &c. And trewely I 
would seriously moue this question, that if the Church 
Covenant did reche me, being remoued, vpon what grounds 
they did first advise & motion my departuer, which must of 
nessetye cutt of that relation. 

For that place aleged by yow, Mathew 18, it doth 
remayne yet to be proued by scrip tuer that any Church did 
ever clame power over their brethren, remoued by their 
consent, more then over those that wos never in fellowshipe 
with them. It wos tendered by Mr. Hibings, & accepted 
by me, that some thing should be donn in this kind, but 
I haue hard no thing of it as yet, I would therfore wish 
my brethren knewe it, & that I wos not thus charged. 

21y, I may to your selfe answer my dismishon out of 
the Commonwealth, & when I wos departed the feare that 
the cuntrie expressed, which stands vpon recourde in your 
Court booke, that my selfe & others of vs wos gone out of 
the way, (when wee went to seeke out a place for our 
abod, & though I haue it to shew vnder your selfe & the 
Governors hand that nowe is,* that I had a yeares libertye 
for my remoueall) to escape onely the censer of the Courte 
for the present, & therfore it was inacted that vnlesse we 
were departed by such a tyme, we were to appeare at the 
Courte. f For my owne part, I was not willing to Hue in 
the fyer of contention with your selfe (& others whome I 
honered in the Lord), haueing liued 7 yeares in place of 
Goverment with yow ; but chose rayther to Hue in exsile 
& to put my selfe vpon a sudayne remouall, vpon 14 dayes 
tyme, to a place with out howseing, chuseing rather to 
fall in to the hand of God ; which what my selfe & wife 
& famelye did induer in that remoueall, I wish nether you 
nor yours may ever bee put vnto. If after all this vnder 
taken of my part for peace, we must clash, & make it 

* Dudley. — Eds. f See Mass. Colonial Eecords, i. 223. — Eds. 


appeare in the Christan world, we that are as a citty set of 
hill : (the will of our God be dorm) I could wish for the 
good of both plantations that it wos other wayes, & muteall 
loue & helpefullnes continued. 

For the letters you mention, they haueing said before 
that they had onely one thing to propound to me, & not 
profering me any leters, I might not possibely attend, being 
sick, to what passed aboute them, as indeed I do not remem- 
ber now, would they that wos aboute me haue bene willing, 
yf they had profered me them, that I should then haue read 
them, feareing it would doe me hurte. Sence my recovery 
I haue desired a copy of them, & haue bene promised one. 
The other thing you mention, conserning our vncurteous 
entertayment of your Church's measingers, I have enquired 
into it, & cannot vnderstand but that they were^recaiued with 
respect & curteousely entertayned at both plantations. 

For the Indeans I could wish all lenety towards them, 
which vnderstand not possibely the natuer of a promise, they 
saye it was that if any iniueryed the English, they would not 
protecte them, but deliuer them vp to make satisefaction 
ether in their persons or estates. Ther is a lude ffelowe, 
one Tho. Saverye, whom I heare is now in durance with 
yow, who haueing stolne a paire of showes from my howse, 
of the Lords day, & heareing it was discovered, fled from 
the Hand to the 7 myles riuer, & ther being afflicted in 
consence, (as he pretended) for what he had donn, came 
to acknowledge the evill of it, & giue satesefaction. I 
susspected though he seemed to crye, he did but dissemble, 
therfore searched him, & found of him a silver s[^i] 
marked 1639, which he said he had had 6 yeare, which 
wos [a]boue 4 yeare before it wos mayd, allso a* bugle 
puree & a gould ringe, (which he said he found, as theefes 
vse to fynd their goods) but wanting a prison he mayd an 
escape from vs before punishmentt, aboute 5 weekes sence. 
Lately I wos informed that at a place caled Puncataset, 
vpon the mayne land, wher he keept the last sumer, & 


wos much freequent in folowing, &c. he hath had a child 

by an Indean womon, which is a boy, & is not black-haired 

lick the Indean children, but yelow haired as the English, 

& the womon being laitely deliuered, doth say English man 

got it, & some of them name him, & when he ranne away 

from vs, he would at Titecute haue lyne with Knowe Gods 

mother, which doth speake of it in detestation, & that those 

that professe them selus to be Christians should be more 

barberous & wyld then Indeans, to the reproch of our 

nation & the dishoner of God. Seing God hath deliuered 

him into your hands, I thought meet to informe yow, that 

yow might se justice donn of him. Thus with my due 

respect to the Governor, your selfe, the Debty Governor, 

Mr. Endecote, Mr. Humfreyes, Mr. Nowell, & Mr. Brad- 

streete, &c, 1* sease from writeing, but not from remayne- 

ing Your loueing frind till death 

Wm. Coddington. 
Newport this 22th of May 1640. 

Ther is a lude person, one Hugh Durdall, that Mr. 
Pamer brought in to the cuntrie, being bound over to 
answer some misedemenour at the next Courte, hath mayd 
escape awaye about 2 dayes sence, & is feared will git 
passage in the West Indean shipe. He is much indebted 
here also. Vale in Dom : Jesu. 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop., " Mr. Coddington, Resp. (4) 11, — 40." 


To the Worship/ all & his much respected frind John Winthrope 
Esqr. at his howse in Boston, dd. 

Per Mr. Jer. Gould. 

Newport Aug. 25, 1640. 

Worshipfull & Beloued, — Your leter of the 11th 

of the 4 mo. I recaiued. The substance of your whole 

leter to me falles into these 2 heads. 


First will conserne your Churcli Covenant : this I aleged 
in my former leter as that which wos the princepale force 
with me, which yow did not answer vnto, viz. That it doth 
remayne to be proved by the rules of the gosple, that any 
church ever clamed power over their brethren remoued, 
more then over those that was never in fellowshipe with 
them. Mr. Hibings promised, & I accepted, that your church 
covenant should be sent, with grounds to prove this poynte. 
The other that yow answer tow, of the advice I had taken 
with Elders & brethren in the poynt, & of the consent 
of the maior part of the Church, was but subordenate to 

2 head of your leter doth trench vpon the passages, 
concerning Mr. Weelewrights banishment. What I did 
ther in wos in discharge of my conscence in my place. 
And trewley, Sir, to my deserneing, whither yow did well or 
I, depends of the trewth of the cause, the way of soulua- 
tion, & evidenceing therof, which Mr. Cotton & he af- 
fermed, & the rest of the Elders opposed, which remaynes 
yet controvered, for ought I knowe. I well appro ue of a 
speech of one of note amongest yow, that we were in a 
heate & chafed, & were all of vs to blame ; in our strife, 
we had forgoten wee were brethren. Not further at this 

I wos advised by leter first out of the Baye that the 
Governor, & the Deputy, & other of the magistrates had 
adviced & incouraged the towne of Brantree to commence 
a sute aginest me, after I recaiued a note from the Governor 
that it wos for a promise. I knowe no thing of it, in 
regard wher of I desire that the Plantiues may put in their 
Complant in Answer, &; that I may haue tyme giuen to 
put in my defence, seing, for these reasons I haue aleged 
to the Governor, & others, I cannot be free to come & 
plead my cause, & seing it is according to what is practized 
in our natiue land, & the courts of justice ther established. 
I could wish that we, that haue liued 7 yeares in place of 


magistracey to geather, might not multeplye greveances 
one aginest an other ; but I shall not ade further ther in. 
I haue sent over the berer, Mr. Jer. Gould, who is desirous 
to confere with your worship about it. The Naragansets 
& Nantequits keepe constant wach sence Conectecute men 
touck 3 Nantequits. Ther be 12 notorious murder[er]s yet 
liueinge, 4 at Nante quite, & 8 of them at Mohegen, accord- 
ing to my best intelegence, whose names I haue. The 
Nanteqets would deliuer vp their 4, but they would haue 
Ocas first deliuer vp his 8, that they may see its justice 
the English seekes. With my loue & my wifes, presented 
to your selfe & yours, I rest yours 

Wm. Coddington. 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, " Mr. Coddington about the Church, 
R— (6) 25,-40." 


Honnored Sir, — I doe thankefully acknowledge your 
loue vnto mee in your kind profer to my agent, Mr. Jer. 
Clarke, to return to me my runn away servant, Tho. Jonnes, 
in case hee could haue bene found. I shall be ready to 
bee commaunded by yow in the licke or wherin I may 
heare. Now deare Sir, for soe you haue bene to mee, as 
Sollomon sayth, ther is a frind that [erased] nearer then 
a brother ! Oh, that the nearnes of that relation had never 
bene vyolated. But wee are men, & so wee shew our- 
selues. Some tymes deifying of men & ordenances, 
other whyle vylefying of them. The Lord hath let mee 
see the vanetye of my owne spirit, and need of attending 
of him in all his ordenances, but I cannot inlardge, the 
meassinger staying. My desire is, that that anchent loue 
which much watters cannot quench, may bee renewed, 
& in token wherof, that yow would recaiue, at my hands, 


a smale rememberance therof, in a vessell of becfe, for 
your winter provishon, which is not yet redy, but aginest 
that tyme by some pinice that commeth this way, shall be 
sent vnto yow. Though the thing bee not worth the men- 
tioning betweene vs, yet because I remember your loueing 
excusseing of your non-acceptance (of my profer in this 
kind att my departuer) so as it did not, nore doth not take 
any imprestion of vnkindnes with mee, & I hope that 
which wos then a ground to yow is remoued, yet I desire 
yow fully to satisefye mee heare in, if it (or rather I) 
may thus fare fynd acceptance with yow. Not other at 
present, with the rememberance of my lone & my wifes to 
your selfe & yours, with all that remember vs, I rest 

Your assuered lo : freind Wm. Coddington. 

Newport, mo. 4. 12, 1643. 


To the Worshipfull his much honnored /rind John Winthrope 

Jur Esqr at his plantation at Kaninicute, dd. 
Per Tho. Stanton. 

Worthy Sir, — My best respectes from my selfe, as 
allsoe my wifes, salute yow & yours. Sir, I recaiued yours 
of the 17 of the present, to which I answer I intend to 
sell tenn ewes, most of them are as we calle them quine 
ewes, bringes two at a tyme, & few of them ould. Two 
ewes here in exchange ordenariely is giuen for a cowe, & 
the trewth is one ewe is as much profitt to me as a cowe. 
No we, Sir, my price to yow is, and vnder which I will not 
sell them, for I cann haue more for them, 20/£ in siluer, 
English monye, I desire, paid in the Baye the 20 or the 21 
of June next, for then I haue accation to make vse of it, 
and then I shall with in a weeke or tenn dayes after the 
recaite, deliuer tenn to Mr. Smyth of Newhaven, or whome 



yaw appoynte, who is to bringe me two Cottsewell rambes, 

& is to haue black ewes for them (in life tenant Gardners 

shalupe) if yow take order with him accordingly, who is 

abont that tyme to be heare, of the Island, in hope to 

procuer some sheepe for New haven. Now, Sir, my desire 

is in the first place to pleasuer yow, & because I would 

not be disappoynted to answer my accations in the Baye, 

I desire your speedie answer with in 14 dayes or three 

weeks, the souner the better, for I dennye Secounke men 

till I heare from yow, & allsoe Newhaven & others. Ther 

will be no sheepe let of the Island, & those that are let are 

to the fowerths, for they do ordaneriely duble in a yeare, & 

more, for the lambes haue lambes when they are a yeare 

ould; for here is noe woolues of the Hand but one or 2, 

that wos when yow were here. Thus expecting your 

speedie answer, in hast, hast, I seasse from writeing, but 

not from remayneing Yours ever 

Wm. Coddington. 
Newport, Rod Island, Aprill 20, 1647. 


Sir, — I write vnto yow by Mr. Padye of Plimouth, who 
did promise me to convaye it to you in his passage to the 
Duch aboute a mounth sence, wherin I gave v you notice that 
I had recaiued yours of the 25 of August, & with it 6li 
English, accounted at 6li 12s. & yow say 3li. 8s. Spanish, 
but William Lord left with Mr. Balstone but Sli, 5 s. 6d. as 
a note vnder Mr. Balstone hand will testifye. I desired 
yow to send for the sheepe as speedelie as yow cann, & by 
those that yow did send for them, to send me my note, which 
vpon the sight of it I will make good the contents of it, 
yow sending me 3 bills of exchange for 2QU starlin, pay- 
able to me or my assignes within 8 dayes after sight (on- 


Mr. Petters) & with them a letter of advise vnsealled, all 
of your owne hand writeing, & take effectuall order with 
Mr. Petters for the payment : the dammage will fall of yow 
in case it be not payd, & the disappoyntment will be very 
greate to me. Thus fare by Mr. Padye, sence which I re- 
caiued yours to the commishoners, which accordingly wos 
convayed by Mr. Balston to Tanton, sence that Richard Ray- 
ment hath informed me that yow had of him 7 lbs of 
woole, which is 10s. 6d. which he hath payd himselfe for 
on accompt with me. I desire yow to take order for the 
payment. I shall sudenly leaue the Hand, & I much desire 
yow will send for your sheepe. Mr. Throgmorton hath 
sould his pinice, & ther is noe dependance of him. I am 
for England by the next, (if the Lord will) and shall be 
glad & redie to serve yow ther, & soe in hast, with my 
loueing salutations to your selfe & wife, & all yours, I 
seace from writeing, but will ever rest 

Yours Wm. Coddington. 

Newport, this 31 of September 1648. 

Post Scriptum, October 5, 1648. Sir, I purposse yet to 
continue about 20 dayes of the Hand, & would willingly 
deliuer your sheepe before I depart. I desire yow take 
speedie & effectuall order according to the contents aboue 
said. W. C. 


This is my Case against Dyre. 

Before I went for England Dyre and I had severall 
actions one against the other, & were to bee tryed the 
next Court, & I being chosen President, Dyre would not 

* This paper, although signed by Coddingtc n, is written by another hand, and was 
probably drawn up by his attorney. — Eds. 



appeare, thereupon all his actions were non suited, & 
judgement entered thereupon : after this I went for Eng- 
land, & then the next yeare after, when there was a new 
President chosen, then Dyre desires the Court to haue 
proceedings against mee : there being no action now 
depending, the Court grants him a writt of enquiry, upon 
a non suit, where by law no such writt lieth ; this was 
sent to the cheife officer of NeAvport, which was Mr. 
Easton. Now if it had beene a writt legally granted, then 
the cheife officer of the towne should haue sent out a 
distringas, & distraine the Defendants cattle to make him 
appeare, as the law was then, wherein he ought to haue 
walked : but contrarywise he proceeds to enquire of 
damages against mee, directly, besides the rules of justice ; 
so as it was illegally obtained ; so it was as illegally pro- 
ceeded in, & thereupon ten head of my great cattle was 
taken from mee, vi et armis, that is, against the law. For 
these wrongs therefore before specified, I brought my 
action & declared against him, that hee came upon my 
ground at Rocky farme, & tooke away ten head of great 
cattle of mine, & converts them to his owne use : to this, if 
he would haue made his proceedings good by law, he 
should haue pleaded justificacion, & haue given the speciall 
matter in evidence, but hee well knowing hee could not 
Justine his proceedings, pleads the generall issue, that is, 
that hee is not guilty to all : now if I proue him guilty of 
any one point of the issue, the vurdict is for mee. Now 
obserue, there is three points of the issue. The first is, 
that he came upon my ground ; the second is, that he tooke 
away my cattle ; the third is, that hee converted them to 
his owne use. The first point I proved. The 2d. point 
there was some doubt, whether he did driue the cattle or 
no : the witnes could not say, that he did driue them, but 
hee went with them, and the cattle before him: this is 
proved. The third point of the issue was cleerely proved 
that is, that hee converted them to his owne use : for some 


of them hee sold to John Rome, & some to Cowdall to pay 
for the building of his great house. Now some of the 
Councell said, because I did not proue that hee did driue 
the cattle, hee was but an accessary & not a principell. 
Now this being some doubt with the jury, whether hee were 
a principell or an accessary, they deliver in a privy or 
speciall vurdict, & matter of law ariseing out of matter of 
fact, it rests with the Judge to determine. Now the Judge 
determines the vurdict for the plaintife : & shews the 
case thus, that in all offences of the highest nature, & 
of the lowest nature, there is no accessaries but all princi- 
ples : in offences of the highest nature, as treason, it is 
Crimen Lasa Majestatis : in the lowest nature, as trespass- 
es, routs & riots, & the like, it is VI et armis : that this is 
law, you may see the case in the Mirrour of Justices: like- 
wise, if a man command another to doe a trespasse, & 
hee doth it; he that commands the trespasse to bee donne, 
is guilty of the trespasse : see Doctor & Student for this : 
therefore you may see in the eye of the law Dyre is a prin- 
ciple in driueing away my cattle from my ground: but 
whether hee did driue them or not driue them, it matters 
not, for that is not the principell point of the issue : but 
that hee did convert them to his owne use : & that is no- 
toriously knowne ; & if I had taken them by force from 
him, as hee tooke them by force from mee, I might well 
haue donne it, & hee had had no cause to complaine. 
But there they object, & say that I made my Atturney my 
Judge, & that hath an ill savour with it of partiality: to 
which I answer ; that I did so, that is true ; but I was 
necessitated so to doe ; for none of my councell would sitt 
in my cause, but did wholly refuse mee in it. I thinke the 
like practise hath not beene heard, that not all of them 
together, nor any one of them apart, would sit to deter- 
mine the cause : so that either I must sit judge in mine owne 
cause, or else it must fall to ground. Doe not they shew 
more mallice & partiality against mee, in denying mee this 


justice, then T did in making my atturney the judge \ & did 
what lay in them to frustrate mee of my right. But con- 
sider a little, what great matter there is in it, if it bee put 
into the right scale of an impartiall judgement ; weighing 
all things together as they were. In the first place, con- 
sider, that hee was not a judge, as an atturney. While he 
was in the office of an attourney, its like hee would speake 
what hee could in the cause for his fee : but being taken 
from that place, & made a judge, where there is no fee due 
for the execution of his office : why should it bee thought, 
that hee should not bee as upright & impartiall in the 
cause, as any other man 1 I know no reason that can bee 
shewed. But it may be some will object & say, yes, he 
may be more partiall then another, in regared hee pleaded 
the cause : therfore for his credit sake, he might determine 
the vurdict for mee : to which I answer, if he haue donne 
so, then his partiality will appeare in the thing. Now let 
all indifferent minds read the vurdict before specified, & 
then let the wise judge, what partiality is in it, that is so 
much complained of, & made such an odium to all. I 
wish that he that thinkes himselfe the most righteous judge 
amongst you, doe not shew more partiality in other mens 
causes, then hee hath donne in this. This is as it was 
drawne vp for the satisefaction of some, & soe I send it to 


I had a vurdict of 100/&, but his estaite wos so convaied 
& consealed, his cattell sent into the Baye, that I could not 
find 50li worth. 




To the Worshipfidl his much respected freind Jno. Winthropp the 
younger, Esqr, att Boston or elsewhere in the Massechusetts Bay 
in New England, or in his absence to the Worshipfull Jno. Win- 
thropp the elder att Boston aforesaid. 

Per the shipp Batchler whom God preserve. 

London the 16° of August, 1635. 
Mr. Jno. Wintropp. 

Sir, — My best respects premised &c, you may please to 

vnderstand I haue now cleared of from hence the North 

Sea Boatt,j" in whom (God sending her to you in safety,) 

you shall receave these particulars following 

Cwt. qr. lb. 

14 piggs of Lead, weighing . . . . . . . 40 22 

80 barrs of Spanish Iron, weight 20 2 19 

52 barrs English Iron, weight 20 2 19 

20 hoggshedds of Meale, No 11 to 30 

14 barrells of Pease, No 1, 2, 4, 5 to 15. 

A Barrell of Oatemeale, No. 16. 

* Edward Hopkins arrived at Boston, in company with Gov. Eaton and John Davenport, 
in June, 1637. He went to Hartford soon after; was chosen Assistant in 1639, and Governor 
next year, and thereafter in alternate years with John Haynes, till he returned to England 
in 1652 ; and, while there, — probably through hope of his coming back, — he appears to 
have been chosen again in 1654. Arriving in England, " he was soon made a member of 
Oliver's Parliament, and a Commissioner of the Navy; made his will 17th March, 1657; and 
died soon, in his fifty-eighth year." — Savage's Geneal. Did. ; and Winihrop's Hist. ofN. Eng- 
land, i. 228, 229. — Eds. 

t Winthrop, i. 173, in noticing the arrival of this vessel at Boston, under date of 28th 
October, calls it " a small Norsey bark, of twenty-five tons." He probably intended 
" Norsey" (or as the original manuscript, to our eyes, reads, "Norsye") for an abbrevia- 
tion of " North Sea; " but, by his awkward wpv of expressing it, has hitherto puzzled his 
annotators. — Eds. 


A Barrell of Butter, No. B. and 6 firkins of Butter, No. 1 to 6. 

4 hoggsheds and 5 barrells of Iron ware, the particulars I send you 

A Bundle of Sythes, cont. 3 dozen. 

2 Bundles of Shovells and Spades. 

A packe of Linnen Cloth, No. A. cont. 320 ells of Roane Canvas for 
sheetts, being 13 pieces, and one piece of narrower cloth cont. 87 ells. 
8 flocke Beds, 25 Ruggs and 40 Blanketts. 
6 Grindstones. 

3 Barrells of Pitch & 2 Barrells of Tarr. 

4 Sownes and one barrell of Iron things that came from Holland, the 

particulars I haue nott yett receaved, it is marked R. S. 
2 small Cables for shallops,, weighing 3 cwt. 1 qr. 6 lb. & 2 cwt. 0. 11 lb 
of lesser cordage. 

Iron worhe for 2 draw Bridges, as follows. 
62 Staples. 
40 Staple hooks for a portcullis. 

4 Chaines. 
10 Boults. 

4 Plates. 

8 Chaine Claspes. 

4 vnder Hinges. 
23 J yards of redd flagg stufFe for Serieant Gardeners vse, & some small 
lines that came from Holland, & a wheelebarrow. 

I intended to haue laden much more in this vessell, and 
had putt aboard other things, but was forced to take them 
•out againe, by reason she was too much pestered,* butt 
what is wanting now you shall have per the True Loue, 
Mr. Gibbs, who willbe ready I hope to sett sail e within 
14 or 20 dayes, in whom such servants as are provided by 
the gentlemen are to be shipped, butt what their nomber 
willbe I yett know nott. 

I herewith also send you the particulars of the furniture 
of this barque, the Bachler, that you may know what to 
require from the master. There are some small things, as 
dishes and such like, belonging to her, nott here mentioned, 

* Encumbered. — Eds. 


butt the things omitted are of noe great value. I haue 
hired the master and all the men (whose names and wages 
I shall afterwards expresse,) eyther to remayne in the 
cuntrey to saile the barque there, or to be returned home 
in some other shipp, as you shall find most convenient. 
I cannott say much for master nor men, to incourage you 
to keepe them the[re] yf you can provide your selfe of 
others that are fitting for the imployment. It was nott easy 
here to gett any att this tyme, to goe in soe small a vessell, 
and therefore I was forced to take some, that otherwise 
I would nott haue medled withall. The master is able 
enough, but savours nott godlinesse, yett hath a desire, as he 
tells me, to continue in the cuntrey. Yf you keepe them 
there, I have vndertaken they shall haue their wages paid 
them att 6 monthes end from their clearing att Gravesend, 
butt for my owne part I rather incline to haue them 
sent home ; and yf you determine this, the sooner you 
doe itt the better, for they willbe in pay vntill their arivall 
here. Yf the shipps that goe from thence want any men, 
you may happily gett some allowance for them, wherby 
the charge may be somewhat abated. Butt it is left to your 
discretion to doe herein as you shall iudge most advanta- 
geous to the Company. Serieant Gardener and Wm. Job 
his workemaster, with the Serieants wiefe and his mayd, 
come over in this barque. Yf you require it of them 
both Gardener & Job can shew you their covenants with 
the Company, whereby you may in part perceave what to 
require of them, and what to performe to them : they are 
all to be att the Companies charge for matter of diett. 
The Serieant hath receaved of me beforehand, towards his 
first yeares wages, 30/ sterlinge, & Wm. Job hath receaved 
15/, the master also of the barque hath receaved 8/ before- 
hand, towards his wages, all which you are to deduct, when 
you pay them any more. 

The wages to be paid the Master and his company are 
as follows. 


£ s. d. 

To Jno. Webber, Mr. of the Barque . . . 4, 10 per month. 

To Ric. Baker, Master's Mate 2, 00 per moneth. 

To Jno. Brikin, Carpenter 1, 11 per moneth. 

To Jno. Sherlocke 1, 6 per mo. 

To Jno. Harman 1,50 per mo. 

To Jno. Hall 1, 2 per mo. 

To Robt. Sherley 1, per mo. 

To the boy 0, 12 per mo. 

The charge att present for soe small a vessell is very 
great, but I hope (God sending her thither in safety) shee 
may be sayled with fewer men, whereby the charge willbe 
lessned. I haue given to the master of the Barque 51 star- 
ling to pay the men their halfe pay att Gravesend, which 
willbe onely for one weeke, and to disburse other waies 
as the occations of the shipp shall require, he is to giue 
you an account of the disbursing of the same, and what 
shall nott be layd out, to deliver to you. Soe nott having 
elce att present, I take my leave, resting 

Yours in what I may Edward Hopkins. 

Att my comming to Gravesend to cleare of the shipp 
there, 4 of the mariners, vizt. Brikin, Sherlocke, Harman, 
& Hall, came to me and tould me they would nott goe the 
voyage, vnlesse they might be free vppon arivall of the shipp 
there, to dispose of themselves to any other imployment, 
and hau[e] their wages paid them att the discharge of the 
shipp. Whereuppon, being putt to some streights, I was in 
a manner constrayned to yeeld to their desires, and vppon 
second thoughts I conceave to noe disadvantage to us, as 
you may perceave per the inclosed agreement, the originall 
whereof, vnder their hands, I haue given the master, that 
if they putt into the West Cuntrey, and offer to leave the 
shipp, he may haue something to shew to constraine them 
to the contrary, for now you are left free from taking any 
care to send these backe to England, and they are bound 
nottwithstanding, yf you offer them as much wages as 


others doe, to serve you yf you stand in nead of them, 
which yett I hope you will nott ; the master, his mate, one 
mariner & the boy sticking to the former agreement, who 
with small helpe more willbe able, I conceave, to saile the 
barque in the cuntrey. You may perceave per the agree- 
ment, that I haue paid 30.? to these men in part of their 
wages before hand. 

Yours as before Edw. Hopkins. 

18? August, 1635. 


To his worthy freind Mr. Jno. Winthropp the younger Esqr. 

London the 21th of September 1635. 
Mr. Jno. Winthrop. 

Sir, — My best respects premised &c. I herewith send 
you both a copy of my letter sent per the Bachler, wherby 
you may perceave what was laden aboard her, as also a 
particular of whatt I haue laden aboard this shipp, the 
True Loue, together with a bill of lading for the same, soe 
that I shall nott nead to adde much more for advise att 
present, onely you may please to know that the hoggshedds 
of meale now sent, from No. 11 to 30, are somewhat better 
then eyther those 20 in the Bachler, or the other 10 aboard 
this shipp ; also of the 2 rundletts of oile, No. A is the 
best; of the barrells of powder, No. 41 and 42 are fine 
powder for musketts and fowling, the rest is for the ordi- 
nance. All the irons for the cariages are nott all yett fully 
fitted, but whatt is now wanting shall come per the first att 
spring, which I conceave willbe as soone as any vse will be 
made of them: there is besides the bedds that are packt vpp, a 
dozen bedds and a dozen of coverletts, putt aboard for the 
vse of the servants in the shipp. Mr. Gibbs hath also a 
new cable or hawser weighing 4 c. 3 q. 5 lb., which, after it 



hath beene vsed in taking the ordinance ont of the shipp, 
he is to deliver to you. There is also 2 drumms and 4 or 5 
trunks with the servants apparell in them, which are nott 
included in the bills of lading. Butt Edward Bushell cann 
tell you what they are, as also the particulars contayned in 

I likewise herewith send you a list of the servants' names 
that are now shipt. Edward Bushell hath all their cove- 
nants. They are bound, some to Mr. Ny, some to my selfe, 
& some to Edward Bushell, butt wee assigne them all over 
to you. I will write noe more concerning them, butt will 
referr my selfe to their advise, who vndertooke the providing 
of them. I had as great care as I could in the provisions 
now sent. I hope they willbe answerable to expectation. 
The irons for cariages No. 36, 37, & the 2 hoggsheds of 
woodden ware No. 50, 51, are packt vp in malt. I send 
noe cheese, because you seemed to haue noe desire to itt. 
Soe nott having elce att present, I take my leave resting 

Yours to commaund Edw. Hopkins. 

Edward Bushell was imployed by Mr. Ny in buying some 
things for the servants, & att making vp of account with 
him, I find we are indebted to him 3/, which he desires to 
haue in the cuntrey. 

More he saith he hath laid out, in these occations, of 
which he can give noe account at present, about 4Z, besides 
some tooles he bought, the prise whereof he remembers 
nott ; butt he is honest, and will doe noe wronge. 

Indorsed by J. Winthrop, Jr. 
Plaster of tarras. 
Plaster of Pareis. 

3 bills of exchange of 30^' to be payde to Rich : Baker. 
Drummes : silke ancients, trumpets. &c. 



London the 24th of Sept. 1635. 

Sir, — I wrott you per this conveyance of the 21th 
present, and sent you the particulars of what I laded aboard 
this shipp. I haue nott any more to add att present, but 
onely to convey the inclosed, which I hope may meett or 
ouertake the shipp in the Downes. 

I desire you willbe pleased (yf opportunity serve) to give 
notice per the first, of the receipt of these things, and to 
advise whatt supplyes you shall stand in nead of att spring ; 
for I hope by that tyme, the gentlemen's stocke willbe 
increased, and they therby better inabled to aifoard such 
accommodacions as shallbe necessary for the furthering of 
the businesse then now they were, for I know through 
streights of tyme and meanes, many things are now omitted, 
which the state of the Plantacion will soone call for. Soe 
nott having elce att present, with my best respects to you 
and yours, desiring the same may be presented to Mr. 
Peter, I take my leave, resting 

Yours in what I may Edward Hopkins. 


To the Worship/ all his much respected freind John Winthropp the 
younger, att Boston or elcewhere in New England, dd. 

Sir, — My last was per the Peter Bonadventure, wherin 
I gave you -notice what goodes I had laden aboard that 
shipp, consigned to you, to witt, 2 hoggshedds, wherein are 
irons for cariages, 20 hoggshedds of meale, 8 hoggshedds 
of oatmeale, and 8 hoggshedds of pease. Att present 
you may please to vnderstand, I have put aboard this 
shipp, the Phillip, 4 small pieces of ordinance, which 


were bought by Mr. Lawrence and Mr. Fenwicke in 
Holland, and 4 cariages to them, as per the bills of lading 
inclosed you may perceave. I have also laden aboard 
another shipp, which may be ready in 14 dayes, 10 hoggs- 
hedds of oatmeale, which I was incouraged to buy, in 
regard I had it above a shilling in a bushell cheaper then 
the markett. But of this I shall write you more per that 
shipp. In the meane tyme, with my best respects to your 
selfe, I rest 

Yours in what I may Edw. Hopkins. 

London, the 22th June, 1636. 


To the Worshipfull his much respected freind Jno. Winthrop the 
younger Esqr att Boston in New England, dd. 

Per the Wm. & John. 

Sir, — My best respects premised &c. My last was per 
the Peter Bonadventure, in which shipp I laded and con- 
signed to you, 42 hoggshedds of severall commodityes, the 
particulars I then advised, to which I desire to be 
referred. Att present you may please to vnderstand I 
have laden aboard this shipp the Wm. and Jno. 10 hoggs- 
hedds of oatmeale more, (which I gave you some intima- 
cion of then) as per the inclosed bill of lading, you may 
perceave. I mett with this parcell vppon reasonable 
tearmes, otherwise I should not have gone soe farr in dis- 
bursements for that account, being out of cash for it. I 
had thought when I made the former provitions, that a 
farr greater summe of mony would have been sent in, 
according to promise, otherwise I would have disposed of 
that which came to my hands somewhat different from 
what I did, and have disbursed part of it in provitions of 


other kinds, but I lived in a dayly expectacion of more 
supply, which fayled me hitherto, and now the sicknesse * 
comming into the citty, hath scattered the interested 
into severall parts, soe that I much question whether 
any more willbe sent this yeare. Since the former men- 
tioned by the Peter, I wrott you breeny per Mr. Babb, by 
whom I sent you 3 small pieces of ordinance, and cariages 
to them. I am now bringing my owne occations to a head, 
and intend (God willing) the first of the next spring to come 
away : I have not elce att present to inlarge, but will take 
leave & rest Yours in what I can Edw. Hopkins. 

July the 14th 1636. 

Indorsed by J. Winthrop, Jr., " Mr. Hopkins from England, 1636." 


To the Worshipfull his much respected freind Jno. Winthroppe 
Esq : att his house in Boston, dd. 

Hartford the 25° of 7° 1640. 
Sir, — There was about 9 weeks since a suspitious fel- 
low came into these parts, whom wee then examined, and 
tooke order for his forthcoming, when we should heare 
further concerning him. Since which wee haue vnderstood 
from Mr. Hatherley that he is a servant of his, and ran 
away from him. He desires he might be sent backe and 
directed to your selfe, which accordingly I haue now done. 
The mony which he hath earned since his coming into 
these parts, hath beene for the most part layd out by him in 
apparrell, which he hath with him ; the rest I conceaue 
will scarcely suffice to pay for his passage. 

* The plague, of which above ten thousand persons died in London in 1636. — Eds. 


I haue by the same pinnace also sent a small bundle of 
apparell and a white hatt, which belongs to two boyes 
of Mr. Thomas, who were returned backe to him. I pray 
you be pleased either to giue him some notice of it, that 
he may send for it, or to cause it to be sent to Mr. Bradford 
att Plymouth. 

I shall not trouble you further att present, but with 
remembrance of my best respects to your selfe and our 
other freinds there, doe take my leaue, resting 

Yours in what I may Edwa. Hopkins. 


To his much respected freind Jno. Wintlirop Esqr. att JSfameocke, dd. 

Sir, — This Indyan informes mee that We quash Cooks 
brother tooke from him and his aunt severall things, as an 
otter skyn, 2s. 6d. in wampam, powder & bulletts, and a 
home, 1 greatt buckskynn and two doe skynns, two treyes, 
7 bushell Indyan corne, 2 bushell of sweet corne, & 2 bush- 
ell of beanes. He affirmes the onely reason pretended was 
because his aunt left her dwellinge att Pacotucke, and 
went to Mogekin, which was her owne cuntrey. I pray 
you doe what you may that the things be restored. He dwelt 
severall yeares with the English, and I vnderstand not but 
that he carryed himselfe well ; and he hath now ingaged 
himselfe to mee, to Hue with mee 3 yeares, seeming to be 
willing to learne to read, and to be acquainted with the 
things of God, which I would further. I remember 
the barrell of tarre, and leaue order that one be sent 
downe by the first, being this next second day, vppon a 
jorney for Fairefeeld. Some other complaints are con- 
tinued about Sanhopp for some rude carriage of his, and 
resolucion to plant att Neanticutt. I doubt yf he doe soe, 


and yett remayne in his contests with Vncus, peace will 
not be preserned. I shall add noe more bnt my loving 
respects to your selfe & to Mrs. Winthropp, and soe take 
leaue, restinge 

Your assured freind Edwa: Hopkins. 

Hartford, the 20th of March, 1646. 


S [R 1, — I haue receaued yours of the 2d present per this 
bearer, as also that of the 31th past from Thomas Staun- 
ton. In answere wherevnto (the chiefe contents of both 
tending to one and the same purpose) you may please to 
know, thatt the meeting of the Commissioners is concluded 
to be att Boston, for the place, and the 26th of the 5th 
mo., comonly called July, for the tyme, butt how safe itt 
may be for all the Indyans in the cuntrey to be acquainted 
with the direct tyme of our travelling through the cuntrey, 
I leaue to your wisdome to consider. I haue spoken to 
Thomas Staunton to accompany us thither, as an interpret- 
er, and hope to prevayle (as was desired by your father) 
and could heartily wish that Benedict Arnold may also be 
procured, wherby all suspitions of mistake may be removed, 
wherto I doubt wee are very subject in our transactions 
with Indyans. Thomas Staunton informed mee that you 
haue a purpose of a jorney or voyage for the Manhattos. 
Mr. Whiting is bound shortly for Delaware, in order where- 
vnto he hopes to be att Sea Brooke the middle of the next 
weeke, or 10th present. If you please to meett him there 
he willbe very glad of your company. Mr. Whiting 
hopes to returne before the meeting of the Commissioners, 
for he is chosen for one of ours. Yf he be prevented 
other supply must be made. 1 thanke you for the water 


you sent. It hath beene taken one turne already, according 
to your direction, and after the intermission prescribed is 
now to be taken againe. She receaues it willingly as 
is desired. As yett I perceaue nott any alteracion in her, 
butt wayt vppon Him who can onely giue a blessinge.* 
With the returne of my respects to your selfe and Mrs. 
Winthropp, with the like from Mrs. Elyza. Fenwicke, I take 
my leaue, restinge Yours assuredly in that I may 

Edwa: Hopkins. 

Hartford the oth May [?] 1647. 


To his much respected freind Jno. Winthropp Esqr. att Nameocke 


Sir, — I haue beene att Nameocke where I expected to 
haue mett you, but it seemes your occations detayne you 
in the Bay. I perceaue it is not without nead that some 
government be settled in the place, and our Court desires 
your assistance therein, as you will vnderstand per the in- 
closed. I putt of the issueing of some differences there 
vntill your returne, when I shall, yf nead be, and that the 
tyme of yeare will permitt, willingely come over againe 
thither, and then in presence returne you thanks for the 
entertainment I found att your house, where I was bould 
to take vp my harbour. I swore a constable there (Carey 
Latham) who might present (and soe I hope prevent) dis- 
orders. I shall be very glad to see you att Hartford when 
your occations will permitt, where you shallbe truly wel- 
come to him who is 

Your assured freind Edwa: Hopkins. 

Sea Brooke the 11th of Novr. 1647. 

* Hopkins probably alludes here to the mental disorder of his wife (Ann Yale), who 
survived him for many years, and died Dec. 17, 1698, having been insane for more than 
half a century. See an extract from his will in a note to Winthrop's Hist, of N. E., i. 228- 
230. — Eds. 



To the Worshipfidl his much respected freind John Winthropp 
Esqr. att his house att Nameocke dd. 

Sir, — I thought good to acquaint you with the deter- 
minacion of the Commissioners concerning those Pequotts 
that reside neare your Plantacion, which I cannot better 
doe then by transcribing the record of the last meeting, so 
farre as concernes that particular.* 

Whereas by order of the Commissioners the last yeare, 
it was provided that the Pequotts residing neare to the 
English Plantacion setled att Nameocke should returne to 
then* former subiection to Vncus, which was made knowne 
and signifyed to them both by the Commissioners them- 
selues att Boston, and by Mr. Hopkins afterwards att 
Pequott, but noe conformity hath beene hitherto yeelded 
therevnto by them. It was thought fitt and concluded that 
Mr. John Winthropp be informed of the continued resolu- 
cions of the Commissioners for their returne, and desired 
to further the same. But in case a ready attendance be 
not forthwith yeelded herevnto, Vncus shall haue order and 
liberty by constraint to enforce them. And it is desired 
that the Government of Conecticutt will provide that he 
be not therein opposed by any English, nor the Pequotts 
or any of theirs harbored or sheltred in any of their howses, 
whilst noe just offence is given them, by him or any of 
his, in their proper concernments. 

I haue not yet acquainted Vncus herewith, but yf there 
be a refusall in them to attend & obserue the contents of 
the order, I must leaue him to the liberty given him. 

I vnderstand that Ninigrett pretends a graunt from the 
Commissioners to hunt in the Pequott cuntrey, which cer- 

* See Acts of the Commissioners, in Plym. Col. Kecords, ix. 111. — Eds. 



tainly was never yeelded, but yf it were, his non perform- 
ance of Covenants, and treacherous designes, make him 
(att least as yett) vncapable of receaving favours or incour- 
agements from any who loue the peace of the Colonyes. 
I hope therefore you will not intereste your selfe in any 
such wayes of his, which I conceaue canott but be offen- 
siue to all the Comissioners, who haue beene fully ac- 
quainted with his insolencyes. I shall not add further att 
present, but with remembrance of my due respects to your 
selfe and yours, take my leaue and rest 

Your assured loving freind Edwa. Hopkins. 

Hartford the 1° of Novr. 1648. 


Capt : Mason, — The Commissioners for the Colonies, 
at their last meeting at Plimouth, expressed their continued 
resolutions for the returne of the Pequotts, that at present 
reside at Nameag, to their former subiection to Vncus, 
whereof I was, by their order & direction, to acquaint Mr. 
Winthrop, which accordingly I have done, but doe not yet 
vnderstand that any attendance is yet given to the Commis- 
sioners order by the said Pequotts. I must therefore in 
prosecution of the charge committed to me, give Vncus 
leave by violence & constraint to enforce them, but to 
prevent any inconvenience that may happen betwixt the 
English & him, my desire is that you will take care that 
[three] or foure of the planters at Seabrooke may be 
sent to Nameag, when Vncus is about that service, who 
may both direct him in his way, & be witnesses of all the 
proceedings. It was desired by the Commissioners, that 
we would provide that the English there inhabiting doe 
not receive any of the Indians or any of their goods, into 


their houses, nor any way hinder Vncus in the prosecution 
of his order of the Commissioners, which I desire they 
may be fully acquainted with, and required duly to attend. 
And also that charge be given to Vncus that he noe waies 
disturbe the English or preiudice them in any of their con- 
cernements, and that vpon the returne of the Pequotts to 
him he doe not rule over them with rigor, or in a tiranicall 
manner, but so as they may have noe just occasion to com- 
plaine. If your occasions will permitt you to goe thither, 
& se these things effected, it wilbe more satisfactory. 
I shall not adde further but rest, 

Your assured freind Edwa. Hopkins. 

21th of Nov : 1648. 

Indorsed, " Copy of Captaine Mason's Commission about the Nam : 


To his much respected freind Jno. Winthrop, Esqr. att Ms house 
att JSfameocke, dd. 

Hartford, the 3d. of March, 1648. 

Sir, — I desire with thankfulnesse to acknowledge the 
respects and loue I receaved from you att my late being 
with you, and shall heartily rejoyce yf the God of loue 
and peace be pleased to lay such foundacions in your 
beginings there, and soe frame all hearts that he may 
delight to dwell among us, and not despise our day of 
small things. I receaved yours by this Indyan, of the 
27th past. Tantonimo hath not beene with me since my 
returne home, but I heare he lurks about, and sends his 
spies to vnderstand how things are taken, that yf danger 
appeare he may escape it by flight. 1 haue not yett, by 
any expressions to any, abated of the manifestacion of that 


reall distrust I tooke att his vile carriage in your house, 
and though it be true the testimony given in is not soe 
cleare but that possibly it might be accidentall, yett I 
know their pride and insolency is such that I shall 
endeavour to make him stoope, but will lett him know 
your respects to him, and whatt is abated shallbe as on 
your request, that he may ly vnder ingagements to your 
love, which may be of some use. I have looked vppon 
him as one of [the] fairest that I haue had to doe with all, 
but would not be partiall to any, nor suffer such things to 
be past over lightly. I haue acquainted our magistrats 
(who were together when I receaved yours) with the desire 
of your townsmen for the name of that place,* who doe 
conceave the Generall Court, to whom such things apper- 
taine, will readily satisfy your desires therein : all that hath 
any appearance for an objection is onely least it should 
seeme to looke too high, the planters att Quillipiacke 
havinge forborne that name onely in that respect. 

I vnderstand Mr. Tho : Lake is come to New Haven and 
gone to Stamford, where his freind is with her sister ; but 
how he came from the Bay, or how long vppon the voyage, 
I vnderstand not. There is noe newes att all come from 
him, which makes mee conceaue he came out before the 
ship arived out of England. Before my coming to you 
a messinger went hence into the Bay with letters, who 
was presently to returne, but wee heare nothing of him as 
yett, which causeth some feares that he is not safe. I 
haue not more to trouble you with att present ; hoping you 
will lett us inioy your company att the Court of Election 
the third thursday in May, and yf eyther then or any other 
tyme, you will please to bring Mres Winthrop and Mres 
Lake with you, to whom I desire to be remembred, with 

* The writer here refers to the desire of the inhabitants of " Pequit Plantation," ex- 
pi-essed Feb. 22, 1648-9, "that the plantation may be called London." — Caulkins's Hist, 
of N. London, p. 59. — Eds. 


the returne of many thanks for their loue, I shall be 
heartily glad to see them with you att my poore house, 
where you shall be truly welcome after our course man- 
ner, and I shall alwayes desire to subscribe my selfe 

Yours in what I may Edwa : Hopkins. 


To his Honoured freind Jno. Winthrop Esqr att his house att 

Nameocke dd. 

Hartford the 20th of March 1648. 
Sir, — It is not soe strange to meet with reports from 
Indyans of an vncouth nature, as it is difficult to find out 
& vnderstand the depth of their contriuements in their 
vnderhand workings. I am not forward to beleeye what 
they represent, though with some appearance of truth, 
vppon the experience I have had of their falsenese, yet I 
may not be altogether deafe to their complaints, least by 
non attendance to what is presented, the publique welfare 
of the cuntrey be prejudiced, and I incurre a just blame. 
There are att this tyme in my house some Pawkeatucket 
Indyans (as I take it,) who pretend to come vppon a mes- 
sage from Wickwash Cooke, a man with whom I haue noe 
acquaintance att all, onely doe well remember, in your let- 
ters the last yeare to the Commissioners att Plymmouth, 
he was represented as one cordiall to the English, and 
noe waves intrested in that present dangerous designe. 
His complaints are that Ninigrett is endeavoring to settle 
the Pequotts that lately were att Nameocke, vppon his 
owne proper land, and to out hirn of that which was his 
cleare vndoubted inheritance, wherein he makes use of 
your name, as expecting or receaving incouragement from 
you therein. I doe not att present vndertake the defense 


of Wiggwash Cook's title to the mentioned land, but that 
which I cannot but suggest is that I am very confident the 
Commissioners neyther in honour or justice can approue 
of such proceedings in Ninigrett, and thereby he doth but 
lay the foundacion of a further breach with the English. 
I am willing to perswade my selfe you will noe wayes in- 
termeddle in a businesse of this nature, and am very desir- 
ous Ninigrett may know what my apprehensions are of the 
same, yf you haue any opportunity to convey it to him. 
However, I much desire to heare from your selfe what the 
true state of the case is, and how farre there is a reality in 
the informacion now given. He further complaynes of 
some English that are beginning to build vppon part of his 
ground, without his leave or consent. 

I receaved this day letters out of the Massachusetts, 
dated the 5th present. Your father hath beene very sicke, 
but vnder hopes of recovery .* A ship was come in from 
Plymmouth, which conflrmes the newes brought by that 
from Dartmouth. I doe not remember that I heard before 
that Colonell Rainsborough was slaine treacherously, & it 
is added, that Major Shippon hath vndergone the same 
fate. The plot (it seemes) was to cutt of all the cheefe of 
the army in such a way. 

The Earle of Warwicke hath declared for the King, 
Parliament, and treaty ; and that he will oppose all that doe 
oppose the treaty ; and it is doubted the revolted shipps 
and his will ioyne in that businesse. I shall onely add my 
loving respects to your selfe, Mres Winthrop and Mres 
Lake, and soe take leaue resting 

Your assured freind Edw. Hopkins. 

* Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts died 26th March, 1649, six days after the date 
of this letter; the year commencing on the 25th of March. — Eds. 



Sir, — I receaved yours by this bearer, and haue im- 
parted trie contents, soe farre as was necessary, to our 
Generall Court. I conceaue our Governour, Mr. Haynes, 
doth now write you an answere to severall of the particu- 
lars therein mentioned. It was never our purpose to bring 
the Indyan that wounded Vncus to his tryall here, but to 
referre him to the examinacion of the Commissioners, 
whose meting is att Boston, the 16th of July * Thomas 
Mynot spake to mee about corne. It is very scarce with 
vs now, and not probable that any considerable quantity 
may be procured to countervayle the charge of sending 
your boat vp the Riuer, but yf 5 or 6 bushell of ry, and 
about a like quantity of Indyan may doe you any pleasure, 
I shall endeavour to gett it ground here, and sent to Sea 
Brooke, by some vessells that are bound for the Bay ; yf 
I had sacks to putt it in, & may haue intimacion from you 
that you desire it. I should haue beene glad to haue 
seene you and Mres Winthrop here, yf your occations 
would haue permitted it. I am in hast, and can only att 
this tyme present my service to you, and her, & Mres Lake, 
and soe rest 

Your assured loveing freind Edwa : Hopkins. 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, Jr., " Mr. Hopkins, rec. May 23 1649." 
Hartford, the 19th of 3d. m? 1649. 

* The case of Cuttaquin, the Narragansett Indian accused of an attempt to murder 
Uncas, as related by Roger Williams in a letter printed in this volume (pp. 268, 269), was 
considered by the Commissioners at the July Session, 1649; and the offender sentenced to 
be delivered up to Uncas for punishment. See Acts of the Commissioners, in Plym. 
Col. Records, ix. 143-146. — Eds. 




To the Rigid Worship/nil John Wynthrop, Esq : Governour of the 
plantations in the Massachusetts Bay dd. 

Sir, — I can neither write nor indeede thinke of my 
brothers miscariages without much greife & shame.f He 
who searcheth the heart knew what sapp ranne within 
when the fairest leaves appeared outwardly, but his late, 
& I feare present fruite hath bin exceeding bitter, and his 
state the more dangerous, because I feare he is but a litle 
sensible of it, besides much dishonour to the great name of 
God. I heare he hath bin very injurious to sundrie men ; 
the particulers I fully vnderstand not, nor as yett how farr 
my self am interressed in his sinfull projects. Some 
moneys he received for me, some goods he had of mine, 
some goods by my order he sent me, and some without 
order ; how these reconings stand he never sent me any 

* Theophilus Eaton arrived at Boston in June, 1637, in company with his brother 
Samuel, Rev. John Davenport, and Edward Hopkins; and, the next April, went with others 
to found the Colony of New Haven, of which he was chosen first Governor in 1639; and 
was continued in this office till his death, 7th January, 1657-8, at the age of sixty-seven. 
He was a merchant, and brought over to this country a large estate. Mr. Savage says of 
him ( Winthrop's Hist, of N. E.,i. 228), " No character in the annals of New England is of purer 
fame than that of Theophilus Eaton, Governor of the Colony of New Haven, from its settle- 
ment to his death, by twenty annual elections; the only instance of such an honor ever 
conferred." An excellent sketch of him will he found in Hubbard's New England, 329, 
330. — Eds. 

t The writer here refers to the misconduct of his younger brother, Nathaniel Eaton, 
the first master of Harvard College, whose "base carriages" are mentioned in a letter of 
Gov. Endecott printed in this volume, pp. 135, 136. See also Winthrop's Hist, of N. E., i. 
308-313. — Eds. 


account, though I wrote to him for it into the Bay and 
since to Virginea ; other moneys I payd him upon his [torn] 
such security as gave me present satisfaction, supposing him 
faithfull, partly by a bond, partly by a deede of bargaine 
and sale, which I suppose to be good, though the witnesses 
heard them not read, when they saw him seale and deliver 
them as his deeds. I am not privie to any, the least indirect 
ayme on my part in that cariage, nor did I foresee that in- 
convenience which hath since followed. I formerly wrote 
to Mr. Bellingham, desiring a share in the estate he hath 
left, according to my interest, and I desire from your self 
all lawfull furtherance herein, beyond justice I know you 
cannot grant, nor doe I desire. He hath also received 
ffowerscore pownds for Mr. Foxcroft, by Mr. Lings order, 
from goodman Lyne, as I take it of Charlestowne, and 
severall sommes of Mrs. Woolcott for Mr. White. I assure 
my self they also (with others) shall have satisfaction, so 
farr as the estate will goe. I pray you excuse this bold- 
nes. Might I doe you any service in these parts I should 
gladly imbrace the opportunity. With my due respect to 
your self, Mrs. Wynthropp, & other freinds, I rest 

Yours in all service of love Theoph : Eaton. 

I have intreated my cozen Malbons help in my buisnes ; 
what he doth in it I shall allow. 

Quinypiock, this first June, 1640. 


Honored Sir, — I haue received yours of the 19 (4) 
and 3 (5) the later letter almost a month before the former 
came to hand, two dayes since. In both I see your labour 
of love, and that you are sensible of our affliction & exer- 



cise concerning Newhaven shipp, # of which we yet heare 
no certainty, but desire to waite with due submission 
(though the cupp be very bitter) to our wise and good 
Father's providence. When Win. Cooley presented your 
certificate on behalf of brother Jackson, I knew no such 
man as James Tilly, about this towne. By inquirie I since 
heare he lives with a farmor belonging to our Ruling Elder, 
but being very poore, he yet serves (as I take it) to satisfle 
for a miscariage in pointe of theft: he once ranne away, 
and was fetcht back by the ffarmor, his surety. If he stay, 
I shall further your neighbour what I may, but I doubt 
whether any thing wilbe gotten. It wilbe a mercy if a 
safe, and honorable peace may be settled betwixt the Colo- 
ny es and the French, and a great addition to it, if the 
Narrag : and Nyantick Indians bring in their wampum, 
and performe all other covenants, but I yet doubt they 
haue other dessignes. With your first conveniency, I desire 
to heare what issue Gortons complaints are brought to. 
It wilbe an exercise to us all, if he returne with victory. 
A cloud nerely seemes to threaten us from the West. We 
lately built a small house within our owne limits (if at least 
we have any interest in these parts, and that the Duch be 
not lords of the countrye, for they write this plantation in 
New Netherland). I thinke I may safely say we have not 
yet traded 20 skinns of beaver in it, from the first to this 
day, yet the Duch talke of hundreds nay thowsands of 
skins. The copie of the protest, f and the answer I intend 
(if prest to answer, as I conceive I shall before I can heare 
from the Massachusets), I have here inclosed to Mr.- Pel- 
ham , desiring (as the case requireth) advice from your self, 

* The writer here refers to Capt. Lamberton's ship, which sailed from New Haven for 
England in January, 1646, and was never heard of afterwards. The account of the phantom- 
ship, preserved in the traditions of the Colony, which is also mentioned by Winthrop and 
related at length by Mather, is connected with the loss of this ship. See Winthrop's Hist. 
of N. E., ii. 254, 266, 328; Mather's Magnalia, i. 25. — Eds. 

t The protest of Governor Kieft of New Netherland, and the answer by Eaton, may 
be seen in New-Haven Col. Records, i. 265. — Eds. 


Mr. Dudley, Sec. with the Commissioners. With my due re- 
spects to your self, Mr. Dudley, your Reverend Elders, and 
other friends, I rest 

Yours in all service of love Theoph: Eaton. 

Newhaven, Aug: 6, 1646. 



To the Right Worshipfull their much Honoured friend, John Win- 
thropp Esqur, at his house in Boston, dd. 

Much honoured Sir, — Since yours of the 30 (2) came 
to hand, we have advised with our friends at Connecticutt, 
and joyntly conceiving the time we mett at Boston, 2 years 
since, may suite your publique occasions, we purpose (if 
the Lord will) to be there about the 22 or 23th of the 5th 
moneth next, and desire (if you please) the Commissioners 
may meete the 26th following. And though in buisnes of 
such weight we may not over hasten, and hurrey, yet con- 
ceiving we shall all indeavour to husband and improve time, 
to the best advantage, we desire (if you thinke meete) that 
you would send to the Narraganset and Neyantick Sachems 
in the meane time, that themselves (which would be much 
pressed) or at least some deputed, and fully instructed, from 
all the severall bodyes & jurisdictions of Indians, ingaged 
by the treaty at Boston in August, 1645, may meete us, as 
soone as you please, after our first sitting, to satisfie our 
just demands, or that without further messuages, or neede- 
les expence of time, we may know their resolutions. We 
have already spoken, and shall further indeavour, firmely 
to ingage Thomas Stanton, to assist at Boston, as interpret- 
our in these Indian treaties, but his trade and sea imploy- 
ments make him less certaine, if (against his will) they 


may not disappointe us therein. It wilbe therefore safe 
and convenient (though the charge be so much increased) 
that Benedict Arnold be procured, to supplye, or joyne, 
in that service, as the case may require. 

We have hitherto wanted meanes to inquire at Long 
Island after the ffugitives you mention, but shall improve 
the first opportunity. Refferring other thinges to our meet- 
ing, with our due respects, we rest, 

Yours in all service of love, 

Theoph : Eaton. 
Stephen Goodyeare.* 

Newhaven, 27th (3) 1647. 


Sir, — Yours of the 17th present, I have received, by 
which I understand, William Hallet, etc. are come to your 
plantation at Nameag. That grevous miscariage hath 
certainly given great offence to many ; I wish their 
repentance were as cleere, and satisfying. It is possible 
that William Hallet & she that was Mr. Feakes his 
wife, are maryed, though not onely the lawfulnes & 
validitie of such a mariage, but the reallity & truth, is 
by some questioned, because themselves & Toby Feakes 
some times denye it ; but leaving that, I shall acquainte 
you (though possibly they have done it already) with some 
passages about that estate. Mr. Feakes, from Boston, 
October 6, 1647, wrote to Stamford, that he reserved the 
whole propriety of his estate, till he saw how God would 
deale with him in England, and desired he, and the chil- 

* Stephen Goodyear, probably a London merchant, was of New Haven, 1638. He was 
there chosen Assistant, and Deputy-Governor in 1641; continuing in this office, by suc- 
cessive elections, until his departure for England in 1657. He died in London soon after 
his arrival. See Savage's Geneal. Diet., ii. 278. — Eds. 

1648.] THE WINTHROP PAPERS. - 349 

dren, might not be wronged &c: after which, that estate 
being from the Duch in danger of confiscation, they 
brought it to Stamford, and at their request, it was there 
seized, as wholy belonging to Mr. Feakes, though after 
they chalenged part thereof, as the proper estate of Wil- 
liam Hallet, and she besides desired a share in what was 
due to Mr. Feakes. I was not willing they should be 
wronged in the least, and accordingly at their request, I 
wrote to Stamford. Win. Hallet after this brought a 
letter from your honoured father, and told me he mett with 
some opposition at Stamford, whereupon I advised him to 
attend the Court of Magistrates, which the weeke then 
following was to sitt at Newhaven, but I perceived in him 
an unwillingnes thereunto, though I promised him all just 
furtherance. He neither came nor sent to that Court, 
yet with all tendernes I propounded his case, and it was 
ordered that what ever William Hallet could prove to 
be his right & due out of that mixed estate, with Mr. 
Feakes, should be fully & without any condition delivered, 
and further that if she settled at Watertowne, Pequott, or 
within any of the English Colonyes, two of the children, 
with half Mr. Feakes his propper estate, should (if de- 
sired) be put into the power & trust of such English 
Goverment, to be secured & improved for her & the 
children's good, with such respect to Mr. Feakes, as may 
be meete ; and that the other half of the estate, should be 
improved at Stamford, for the use of Mr. Feakes, & 
maintenance of the other two children. I hoped this 
might have satisfied, but the next newes was, that Wm. 
Hallet, etc, in a secret underhand way, had taken the 
children, two cowes, all the houshold goods, with what else 
I know not, & by water were gone away, those intrusted 
at Stamford not knowing whither, the things they caryed 
not being inventoryed, nor vale wed, as I conceive, and 
whether all brought to Nameag I know not, (I am assured 
the Magistrates wilbe offended at this cariage, after they 

350 - THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1648. 

know what was ordered.) What I may doe safely (with 
due respect to the Courts order) I shall doe readily, for 
their sakes, whom I highly esteeme, and if they have any 
corne or meale at Stamford, I would order the delivery, 
but as I have heard, when they had all the estate in their 
hands, the children went (if not naked) very vnsatisfyingly 
apparraled. With my best respects, I rest, 

Yours in all offices of love, Theoph : Eaton. 

Newhaven, July 21th 1648. 


To the Right Worship/toll his much Honoured friend John Win- 
throp Esquire, Governour of the Massachusets Colonye, at his 
house in Boston dd. 

Much honoured Sir, — Yours of the 11th (7) and 2d 
(8), I have received, and with due thankfulnes acknowledg 
your love, both in your advice concerning that uncleane 
person, and your inquirye concerning Mr. Combes case. 
His buisnes was heard, and as I conceive duely considered 
at two severail Courts, called purposely upon his impor- 
tunity. He tooke out the copies of both, and they are 
pennd at large, which probably he would have shewed to 
Mr. Norton, held they made for his purpose, but Mrs. 
Stollyon dyed not intestate, nor was Elizabeth (now Mr. 
Combes wife) her onely child. I shall state, and as I may 
in refference to the administration, abridg the case, and 
crave your advice in it. 

Mrs. Stollyon had 2 sonnes & a daughter ; she lived 
long in England after her husbands death, but medled not 
with any part of his estate, further then her owne joyn- 
ture extended, as her daughter, & others from Mrs. Stoll- 
yons mouth here, testefie. She came over to Newhaven 


about 8 yeeres since, left her eldest sonne Thomas, & her 
daughter Elizabeth in England, her sonne Abraham came 
over with her, & stayd betwixt 4 & 5 yeeres, then by 
her direction or consent (to dispatch some occasions which 
concerned them) he went back into England, and returned 
not till his mother was dead. Mrs. Stollyon upon her 
death bed, A? 1646, published a will here, which at her 
coming from England, she had made, and in the presence 
of 3 witnesses sealed, wherein she disposeth of some lands 
in England, and out of them settles 4li per annum upon 
her daughter, but the first payment to beginne, not onely 
after her owne death, but after the death of her sonne 
Abraham, (a small & inconsiderable respect, of a mother, 
having such an estate, to a child, then, yet she would not 
be perswaded to inlarge it, at her death. The cause 
might be, some miscariage, or offence, the daughter had 
given, not removed before Mrs. Stollyon came out of 
England, and whether healed before her death I cannot 
say.) She gives all her personall estate in old England to 
her sonne Thomas, all her personall estate in New Eng- 
land to her sonne Abraham, whom she makes her sole 
Executor, and till his returne, comitts the trust of the 
estate to Mr. Goodyere & Mr. Robert Newman our Ruling 
Elder, and before sundrie witnesses of creditt, her under- 
standing & memory being cleere & sufficient, she declares 
& confirmes her last will to be as before expressed. In 
September or October 1646, Mr. Abraham Stollyon returned 
out of England to Newhaven, lookd over the estate, but 
would not receive it, scrupling that clause in his mothers 
written will, by which she gives him all her estate in 
N : England, when probably that estate was but shipped 
for N : England, not there, when that first will was made. 
Hereupon he leaves the estate still in trust, with Mr. Good- 
yere & Mr. Newman, and the same winter returnes for 
England to agree .with his brother. Some difficulty he 
probably found in the composition, for Anno 1647, he nei- 


ther came, nor gave direction to make over the estate. 
This yeere Mr. Combe made a voyage for it, brought over 
with him a copie of Mrs. Stollyons will, proved in the 
Prerogative Court by her sonne Abraham, and letters of 
administration of an after date granted to himself and his 
wife, but no copie of any order, overthrowing the will 
proved, or shewing whi after the will was proved, an ad- 
ministration was otherwise granted. Severall reasons he 
alledgeth but proveth-nothing, nor could so much as frame 
any considerable objection against Mrs. Stollyons will as it 
was made, or confirmed here, nor was he able to give either 
the Court for the estate, or Mr. Goodyere & Mr. Newman, 
for the trust they had undertaken, both from the mother, 
and from the sonne, any satisfying security. By the 
premises, I conceive you will see, whi the Court could 
neither admitt the letters of administration out of Eng- 
land, nor grant Mr. Combe administration here, nor doe I 
conceive Mr. Combe needs much trouble himself, that 
certaine parcells of the estate are bona peritura, Mr. 
Abraham (as Mr. Combe was here informed) having now 
bought out his brother Thomas, and joyned two more 
with Mr. Goodyere & Mr. Newman to putt off, and make 
over the estate ; and he further writes, that he hath paid 
Mr. Combe, what he could prove to be due, & taken his 
acquittance, not hearing (it seemes) of the letters of admi- 
nistration. If Mr. Combe in refference to his demands, or 
our proceedings, object any thing further, I desire that 
either your self, or Mr. Norton, wilbe pleased to call for 
his copies, under our secretaries hand, which will more 
largely shew his cariage, & our exercise. With my due 
respects to your self, Mr. Dudley, your Reverend Elders, 
and to Mr. Norton, I rest 

Yours in all service of love Theoph : Eaton. 

Newhaven this 30th of October 1648. 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, Jr., " Mr. Eaton about Mr. Combs, Reed 
20 (9) 48." 



Sir, — Yours of Deer 8th I received this last night. 
Concerning her that was Mr. Feakes his wife, and that 
part of the estate at Stamford, I know not well how to adde 
to what I formerly wrote. By order of a Court of Magis- 
trates, William Hallet was to prove what part of the 
estate belonged to him, and then to receive it without 
further question. Mr. Feakes his estate, and children, 
were to be divided, and half to be delivered to her if she 
setled within any of the 4 Colonyes, where the gover- 
ment would have an eie to the children, & that part of the 
estate, with a due respect to Mr. Feakes ; and the other 
half to be kept at Stamford, with like respect, to Mr. 
Feakes, & the children. I shall pass by her injurious writ- 
ing to my self, desiring God may give her true repentance 
for greater miscariages ; but her departure from Stamford 
with the children (as I am informed) was altogether with- 
out allowance, and in the language which comes from 
thence, she stole away. It is true, that by an order before 
the Court of Magistrates sate, she was to have 2 cowes 
delivred, and some provisions, but had no liberty to take 
away the children. I pitty her, & the children, and upon 
any reasonable security, at Boston or Hartford, that the 
estate shalbe preserved for the use of Mr. Feakes, her self, 
& his children, this jurisdiction being discharged, I shall 
move the Court of Magistrates, that the estate may be 
wholy delivered from Stamford, to such as may be orderly 
appointed to receive it ; but no part of it is at Newhaven. 
I am altogether a stranger to Thomas Lyon and his wife ; 
till now, I have not heard the least intimation, of her weake- 
nes, or his neglect. From your information, I shall now 
enquire, and consider what the case may require. With 
my best respects, I rest Yours in what I may, 

Newhaven, January 4th, 1648. ThEOPH : EATON. 





To his much esteemed freind John Winthropp, Esqr. Govemour 
of Conectecott Biver, lett these bee $d. 

Sir, — Oportunity offeringe it selfe, I gladly salute you 
with my best wishes. I am to solicite you in the behalfe 
of my neighbours & frinds of this towne, beinge vnwill- 
iiige to enterprise any thinge without your aprobation & 
good likinge : the businesse in a word is only this ; wee tak- 
ing into consideracion the hazard of our goods that wee 
haue sent, & shall send to the mouth of the riuer, for want 
of some shelter, would entreat you that a lott may bee 
granted vs, with leave to build a howse in some convenient 
place neare the river & forte, that ther wee may haue one 
resident to take care & chardge of our goods ; as alsoe that 
sixe acres of planting ground may be added therunto, that 
the party ther abidinge may not bee altogether without 
employment : presuminge of your readynesse to condiscend 
to my request, haue sent one to that purpose. Not havinge 
further to trouble you for the present, with mine & my 
wiues kindest remembraunce to you, wishinge all good 
successe to your vndertakings, rest 

Yours in all good offices Jo : Haynes. 

Sir, — Conceauing there can come noe prejudice to you 
by this motion, I do salute you. H : Vane.")* 

* John Haynes, of Essex County, England, arrived at Boston, 4th September, 1633 ; was 
made freeman next year, and was also chosen Assistant ; was Governor in 1635. He removed 
to Hartford, Connecticut, in May, 1637; of which colony he was first Governor in 1639. He 
was frequently re-elected to this office till his death, 1st March, 1654. He was distinguished 
for his abilities, piety, and public spirit. See Winthrop's Hist, of N.E. ; Savage's Geneal. 
Diet.; Allen's Biog. Diet. — Eds. 

f This letter was probably written from Cambridge or Boston in 1636, when Vane was 
Governor. — Eds. 



To the Right Worshipfull his much honoured ffreind John Win- 
thrqpp, Esqr. Governour of the Mattaehosett, these bee dd. 

Worthy Sir, — In my jorney towards Quilipiacke, I 
mett with this Panaquanike Indian, who being bownde for 
the Baye, repayringe to your selfe, requested mee to sig- 
nify to you what hee is & his erraund. The party is knowne 
to vs, & his busynesse in particular to trucke for certeine 
squaes that were taken when wee invaded ther coasts. I 
leave him & what hee hath to saye to your wisdom to con- 
sider of. Wee have lately hadd a great floode, that came 
vpp to some of our howses, & carryed away a good parte 
of our fences in our lowe grounds, otherwise, wee blesse 
the Lord, wee are generally in good health. I should gladly 
crave a word from you, if any newes by the fishinge shipps 
from England. In much hast, my service presented to 
your selfe, Mr. Dudley, with the rest of our good frinds, 
I take leave. 

Your assured fTrind Jo : Haynes. 

AVethersfeild, the 27th of the 1st month, 1639. 


To the Right Worshipfull Jo : Winthropp Esq. Governour at the 
Mattatusetts Bay, these present. 

Honoured Sir, — Since your former, I received lately 
by an Indian messendger your last, wherin you mencion 
the claime that is made to the Mattabesicke Sachims land, 
lately deceased, mediating that they might not be preiudiced 
in ther rights. The truth is, we are most vnwillinge to offer 
them the least iniury in that kind. The case is really this, 




we have, a pretty space since, in the life time of that Sachim 
that is nowe departed, bought his land, & have it vnder 
his hand, with witnes, &c, & are at the time of his death 
to enter vppon the whole, & it being the most considerable 
place of the river for plantation, not yet planted, we can 
by noe meanes tollerate ther residence in that place. I can- 
not advise, as the case stands, for Miantonimo to send his 
sonne hither, for ther will vndoubtedly be greater hasard 
of the safety of his person, then he is aware of. I shall ac- 
quaint you with the reason of my thoughts, when I see you, 
which I hope will be with the rest of the company about 
the begininge of the 3d month next. In the interim I 
recommend you to Him that is able to keepe you, & rest 

Yours affectionatly Jo: Haynes. 

Hartford the 29th of the lrst mo : 1643 : 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, " Mr. Haynes. — Reed. (2) 7. — 43." 


To the Right Worship/all Jno. Winthrop Esq, Governo'ur of the 
MattatusettSy these present. 

"Worthy Sir, — The late & last newes from our native 
country,* comparing thinges together, seemes verry sadd & 
calls for our deepest humiliacion, & serious improvement 
of our best interest in heaven, by lifting vpp our cryes for 
the remnant that is left in these southerne parts ; therfor 
our thoughts are vnanimously to observe a day once every 
month, to seeke the Lord in the behaulfe of His poore 
Churches ther & elsewher. We should be right glad of 
your concurrence, if it may seeme good to you, vntill we 

* Intelligence had probably been received in the Colonies, at the date of this letter, of 
he surrender of the city of Bristol to Prince Kupert, the defeat of Fairfax at Adderton 
Moor, and the submission of many towns in the west of England to the king's authority. — 


have further tidinges. Ther is lettres come, as you well 
know, from severall persons, to invite Mr. Cotton, Mr. 
Hooker, & Mr. Damport. We heare your selves cannot 
thinke it a meete season for the sending Mr. Cotton, & I 
suppose, although we have not yett mett for a full deter- 
minacion, yett in all probability it will fall ther alsoe with 
vs, for times being soe hazardous, dificult enough to dis- 
tinguish frinds from foes, Haven townes daily taken one 
each side, & that which is more the maine busines for 
which they are cheiny called, already sett in such a way, 
that they being trew to ther owne principles, may rather 
become a stumble then otherwis. The newes heere of the 
Indians is, & that for certeine, that both the Naragansetts & 
Sequasson have of late sent a great quantity of wampham 
to the Mowhawkes, to hire them to fight with the English & 
Mohegans, & it is said they have preveiled with them to 
come downe for that purpose, which if it proove soe, they 
deale not fairely with the English, (the Naragansetts I 
meane), having promised to be peaceable & quiett. If it 
please you therfor to acquaint them with what you heare, & 
to tell them what they doe by ther wampham, is as if they 
did it with ther owne hands, & wilbe soe taken. Hapily 
such a messadge in time may prevent a future inconveni- 
ence. Ther is a party whose name is Peter Barnefeild, 
that was lately at Fisher Hand, a carpenter, who, with the 
Bartletts, heertofor built you a barne, one knowen to your 
selfe, hath feloniously carryed away & embeseled the goods 
of Tho : Stanton, to the valew of 20li : & more, who is 
now at the Bay, & purposes to escape away to England. 
It is desired by my selfe & Tho : Stanton that you would 
be pleased to cause him to be aprehended, & forthcominge 
to answear the same. 

Thus not doub tinge of your readines, out of your love 
to justice, I rest 

Yours to serve in the Lord Jo : Haynes : 

Hartford the 1st of the 10th mo : 1643. 



To his much respected ffreind Jno. Winthropp Esq. these bee dd. 

att Pequoit. 

Kind Sir, — I was much refreshed to heare of you & 
yours welfare. For these particulers you hinte & intimate 
concerninge Nincunnett, & his desires of leave for hunt- 
inge in the Pequoit country, you well knowe it is not 
proper for you or my selfe, or any one in particuler to 
intermedle, by giving way to a busines of this nature, 
without the consent & concurrence of all whom it doth 
concerne. Neither indeed doe I thinke it a fitt time & 
season for the party himselfe to make such a request. My 
reason is, hee is att this present, vnder vehement suspi- 
tion of having a hand in that late combustion, by hiringe 
the Southerne Indians & Mawhawkes to fall vppon 
Vnckus, with great sommes of wampham given by him & 
other Narag : Sachims vnto them for that purpose. Hee 
cannot bee ignorant that vppon his & the rest vniust warr 
vppon Onckus, formerly, wherin they breake covenant 
with the English, (therfor cannot plead his inocency 
towards the English as Onkus, in that respect). Neither 
was those many Pequoits given him, which hee still 
deteins, but likewise it is reall & well knowen, the Eng- 
lish, vppon this consideration, have ingadged to defend 
Onkus, in case the Narrigansetts shall by themselves, or 
others by ther instigation or procurement, att any time 
invade him ; & therfor what they have done in this thing 
is soe farr against the English, & cannot but iustly give 
them offence, & I doubt not but it will bee required att his 
hand & the rest &c, either to cleare themselves, or other sa- 
tisfaction, before hee cann in reason exspect much courtesy 
from them. For his other plea, hee is poore, & soe vnable 
to dischardge what hee owes to the English : I answer, hee 


hath vnadvisedly brought this poverty one himselfe, by 
dealing iniuriously towards the English, in sending away his 
wampham to the aforementioned, for such an end as might 
have binne the cause of much trouble, if not of his owne 
mine at last, had it not by the care of the English binne 
timely prevented: besids his answeare to the Bay is, that 
hee has paid his parte already, &c. These thinges con- 
sidered, I may not condiscend to his request, only I must 
needes say his carriadge in the Bay, by what I heare, 
deserves comendation, if his performance bee answear- 
able. I shall add noe more, but kind comendations from 
my selfe & wife, to your selfe, Mrs. Winthrop, & Mrs. Lake, 
if still with you. I am 

Your assured loving ffreind Jo : Haynes. 

Seabrooke this present of the 7th mo : 1648. 

My wife continewes soe weake that I dare not as yet 
cary her vpp. 

For the exchandge of gunnes, it cannot bee, itt beinge 
prohibited by the capitall orders in the Bay & heere. 


To his much honoured ffreind Mr. Jno. Winthrop Sec. att Pequoit 

these bee dd. 

. Sir, — I had not a season befor this present, to returne you 
thankes for your courteous lettre & newes, somme time since 
sent mee, neither had I oportunity to condole with you, 
that sadd losse of yours in particuler, & of all in generall, 
of that worthy servaunt of Christ, & great instrument of 
soe much good in these westerne parts (your deare ffather,) 
who served worthily in his generation, fallen asleepe, & 
now at rest. The memorial of the righteous is blessed, &c. 
The Lord shew vs what Hee calls for in these great 


breaches in Church & State with vs. I well hoped to have 
seene you heere this Court, (but a heavy accident befalling 
your child interveeninge, your purpose obstructed) as I 
heare. It is absolutely necessary ther should bee with 
you that may exercise magistraticall authority, for graunt- 
inge warrants or the like, &c. I am therfor deputed (by our 
Court) by my selfe or somme other magistrate of this Juris- 
diction, to tender the oath that may put you in a capacity 
to that purpose, your selfe condiscendinge. If I comm, in 
regard of my wives weakenes, should bee willinge to meet 
you at Seabrooke, except your selfe please to affoard vs a 
visite in these parts. Ther is cognisaunce taken by our 
Court, of somme partyes resident with you, that are of ill 
fame, as one that was the wife sometimes of Mr. Feake, 
& who it seemes did confesse her selfe an adulteresse, 
(which is vppon record at the Dutch) & now pretends 
marriadge with another man, how trew or legall is not 
well knowen. I am therfor to acquainte you, that she 
with somme others are sent for by warrant to apeare att the 
Court heere, to answeare accordinge to the tenure therof. 
Wee could doe noe other but seeke to doe justice in such 
horrid facts, (if truth,) vnlesse wee should laye ourselves & 
others vnder guilt. What is done by the Court in an- 
sweare to the townes proposicions, you will vnderstand by 
the agents you sent. I hope you will well discerne our 
readines in answearinge desires that may bee for encoradge- 
ment. I shall trouble you noe further at present, only 
with my wives kind saluts to your selfe, Mrs. Winthrop, 
Mrs. Lake, I am 

Your assured ffreind Jo : Haynes : 

Hartford, this 18th of the 3d mo. 1649. 

My wife is yett in the land of the livinge, only weake, 
keepes her bedd constantly, can only rise vp to make it, & 
to bedd againe. If she tryes to sitt vpp, falls presently 
into her violent fitts. 



To his much respected ffreind, Jno. Winthropp Esq. these bee dd. 

att Pequoit. 

Sir, — This Indian, the bearer heerof, makes complaint 
in the behanlfe of diverse others att Mohegan, that a great 
company of hoggs, to the nomber of thirty or therabouts, 
have bine lately with them, & destroyed many parcells of 
ther corne. They suppose they are Jacob Waterhowse his 
swine, but certeine they come from your towne. May you 
please therfor to acquaint Jacob with it, & depute 2 or 3 
English to veiwe the harmes, with what speed may bee, 
that we may bee rightly informed, that a course may bee 
taken accordinge to justice & rightuousnes ; which is the 
way wee ordinarily take in busines of that nature. I 
shall trouble noe further att present, only remembrance 
to your selfe, Mrs. Winthropp, & Mr[s]. Lake, from my 
selfe & wife, I rest 

Your loving ffreind Jo : Haynes : 

Hartford this 25th of the 3d mo : 1649. 


To his much honoured ffreind Jno. Winthropp Esqr. att Pequoit, 

these bee dd. 

Worthy Sir, — It much reioyces mee to heare of the 
good hand of God towards my poore companion & yoake- 
fellowe, in vouchsafmge those intermissions from her 
wonted violent ffitts, together with the hopes of His 
blessing vppon the meanes, for addition of further health, 
helpe, & strength. I am exceedingly engadged & oblidged 



to your selfe for the great paines & care, & coust in admi- 
nistring to her, & visitinge of her. I shalbe studious 
what I may, for manifestacion of my thankfulnes, only 
feare, after endeavours that way, shall fall short of what 
were meete for mee to doe in that kind. Bee pleased att 
present to accept of a fFrinds small gift. I have putt 
aboard Jno. Gallopp (for your vse) a few thinges that I 
hope may bee vsefull, namely sixe bushels of barly mault, 
sixe bushels of Indian mault, & one bushel of oatemeale. 
These wilbe delivered to you, I pray call for them. I 
shalbe glad to see you att the Court of Election, in case 
your busines will permitt ; if soe lett my howse be the 
place of your aboade while heere. I send you by this 
vessell those horse radish roots you mention. Wee have 
lately heard of Mr. Hopkins,* & by his lettre of his 
safe arrivall in England, after many dificulties, & despe- 
rate daundgers, to admiration. Hee seemes to crosse by 
his, what you hinted concerning peace with the Dutch, & 
saies they refuse vtterly soe much as to treate that way 
(except the parliament will revoake & call in ther Act 
concerning matter of trade, which I supose you have 
seene). The kingdom of England for the most parte 
seemes much dissatisfied, &c, & as much hartburninge. 
Other newes much as wee heard, only Cromwell is invited 
by the Prince of Condeo to aide him in France, who 
stands out vppon the same account as England did with 
ther king, for ther liberties. For Scotland, the cheife & 
almost all places of strenght are reduced, & the Commis- 
sioners from the Parliament of England who would have' 
them vnder all one goverment with England, its liked of by 
somme, but oposed by others, which is the greatest party. 
Ther was lately fower of the Duch slaine by the Indians, 
which is like to create troubles ther. It is alsoe rumored 

* Edward Hopkins, Governor of Connecticut, intended a visit to England in 1651 ; and 
appears to have been absent from the sessions of the General Court, after his election in 
May, 1652. — Eds. 

1651.] THE W1NTHR0P PAPERS. 363 

that the ffrigotts who lately reduced Virginia * are likely 
to call in att Hudson's River as they coast alonge, & alsoe 
att De la Ware. Noe more att present, but kind saluts 
to your selfe, Mrs. Winthrop, Mrs. Lake, & Mrs Blinman, 
with thankes for your kind enterteinement, rest 

Yours most assured Jo : Haynes : 

Your miller procured an attachment (when hee was 
heere) against Hobby, & entered into band (& my selfe 
engadged with him) to prosecute an action of slander the 
next Court. The warrant is served vppon him according- 
ly, & himselfe, & vessell he came in, is staied, vntill security 
is given to answeare the sute. If the miller should not 
bee heere to prosecute, or his Attorney for him, with suf- 
ficient proofe to make good the chardge, ther wilbe great 
damadges recovered by the other party. Lett him know 
soe much, that hee may not miscarry. 

* The writer probably refers to the expedition, under Capt. Dennis, sent by Cromwell 
against Virginia in 1651. — Eds. 




To his most Worthy frende, John Winthrqpe the younger, Esq : f 

Sir,- — You shall receiue from Mr. Hopkins a perticular 
of what is sent. Therin you shall fmde our constancie 
and care. Our dependance on you is greate, wee neede 
not expresse it. Your abilitie to performe your vndertake- 
ing we doubt not ; your integritie to goe on with the 
woorke we suspect not; only our request is, that (with 
what speede possible may be) fitt houses be builded. 

We write this (as we hope) to congratulate your ariuall, 
and to incourage your forwardnese, in a woorke of such 
exceedinge consequence. Wee shalbe happie to Hue to see 
you, howsoeuer our best desires are yours, and wee 

Your truest seruants A. Hesilrige.J 

Geo : Fenwick. 

Lond: this 18 of Sept: 1635. 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, Jr., " Sr. Arthur Haselrick & Mr. 
George Fenwicks letter." 

* George Fenwick, a lawyer of Gray's Inn, London, came over in May, 1636, and 
returned the same or the following year; but came back again, with his family, in July, 
1639. He was interested in the Connecticut Patent, and now came as agent for the paten- 
tees, and established himself at Saybrook, which place he named in honor of two distin- 
guished noblemen of the company he represented. His establishment was independent 
till December, 1644. He subsequently returned to England, was a colonel in the Par- 
liamentary Army, member of Parliament, and named one of the "High Court of Justice" 
which condemned the King; but failed to serve. He died at Berwick, of which he was 
Governor, on the 15th of March, 1657. See Winthrop's Hist, of N.E., i. 306; Savage's 
Geneal. Diet. — Eds. 

t John Winthrop, Jr., was, at the date of this letter, in London; whence he arrived here 
in the " Abigail," October following. — Eds. 

| Sir Arthur Haselrig, Bart., was son of Sir Thomas Haselrig of Nosely, in Lincoln- 
shire. Disgusted with the arbitrary government of Charles I., it is said that he intended, 



For his very loueing freind Mr. John Winthrope att Salem, (ties. 

Sir, — I thanke yow for your kind letter, & am as glad 
to heare of your welfaire as yow of my safe arriuall in thes 
partes, as I should also be to se yow & other good freinds 
there with yow. I thanke God I find noe want heare but 
company, which I hope the Lord in his owne tyme will 
supplie. Imployment I haue enough, if not too much for 
my weake number, which takes vp both my tyme & 
thoughts. I hope heare after I shall find a vacation to 
visit my freinds. I am glad to heare yow are about your 
salt workes, & wishe you hartilie all good successe, of 
which I shalbe exceeding glad to heare. If there be any 
thing wherein I can pleasure yow, I shalbe glad to doe it. 
In the mean tyme recomending my loue & respect to your 
selfe & bedfellow, with Mr. Peters & Mr. Endecott, I rest 
Your loueing & assured freind Geo. Fenwick. 

Conecticutt, Sept. 13th, 1639. 

My wife remembers her respect to yourself & wife. 


For his honored freind John Winthrop esqr, att his house in Bos- 
ton, thes. 
Sir, — When I was with yow I did not know how Mr. 
Whitefeild & I should devid. I thought it most equall 

in 1637, in company with Cromwell and John Hampden, to leave his native isle for New 
England; but he did not sail. He was, with Fenwick, interested in the Connecticut Patent. 
He was a member of Parliament, and distinguished himself by preferring a bill of attain- 
der against the Earl of Strafford. He also showed great acrimony against the king, and 
was chosen a member of the "High Court of Justice" for the trial of Charles; but he 
never sat in that body. He was colonel of a regiment of cuirassiers, called "the Lob- 
sters," from their being so completely armed. He was one of the " Council of State," 
1649; Governor of Newcastle in 1650; and, in 1654 and 1656, a member of Oliver's Parlia- 
ment. He afterwards took an active part in the stirring events prior to the Restoration. 
He was sent to the Tower in 1660 by Charles II., and diea in that or the following year. 
See Cromwelliana; Noble's "Memoirs of Several Persons and Families," &c. ; Nalson's 
Journal of the High Court of Justice, &c; Trumbull's Hist, of Connecticut, i. 497, 498. — 


that he should haue had part stock & part of your debt, 
but he being vtterly destitute of catle, & relyeing vpon those 
he expected vpon his bargaine with my wife, I haue con- 
discended to lett him haue all the 5 cowes that remained 
of my wifes whole stock, and haue taken your debt wholly 
vpon my selfe, beinge confident that as your occasions will 
inable yow, yow wilbe mindfull of it. I speak not this to 
straiten yow, for the Lord knowes that from that respect I 
beare yow, for your publique mindednes & personall worth, 
I could be very reddi to doe a greater courtesie for yow, if it 
were in my power, yet my occasions are such, & my disap- 
pointments haue bene soe great, that I haue bene & am lik 
to be more straitned for moneyes this yeare, then in that 
litle tyme I haue liued I haue euer bene ; for of 1000£ & 
aboue I ordered to be returned into the Bay, I haue receaued 
but 3261, & it is very doubtfull what is become of the rest ; 
as also after the death of my servant, I sent another for 
England to bring me some returnes, who was forced to goe 
about by Spaine, & I heare noething of him, though I 
haue a letter from John Wood, who mentions provisions 
he hath to bring for me from some freinds, but mentions 
not my man, which makes me the rather feare, because the 
letters I wrott by him were left behind, & sent by another 
conueyance, & by them such freinds as I wrot to may 
provid for me. The Lordes wilbe done. If he se 
not meet my occasion should proceed, according to my 
owne order & provision, I hope he will giue me a hart, 
with all humblenes, to be contented to haue them stayed 
or caried on after His good will & pleasure. I haue re- 
ceaued the cow that was with you (by my servants), & shall 
not trouble yow now further, but presentinge my true re- 
spects to your selfe & bed fellow, I rest 

Your lo : freind Geo : Fenwick. 

Seabrook 6? July 1640. 

My wife remembers her loue to yow both. 



For Ms much respected freindJohn Winthrojo, Esqr. att Boston, tlds. 

Sir, — Robert Saltonstall hath bene , . 

that land he hath disposed w 

the countrie gaue to his father 

bonght of Capt. Pathick the c . . 

my letter to yow was, to manifest 

& his gone, which his letter de 

all to prejudice either. I wrott 

wherby he desires me to take care 

which I wonder he should doe w 

of all to his sonne by the letter 

The truth of the bussines vpon the 

& discourse with Rob. I . 

did really giue him such po . 

verball reseruation to himself . . 

not to answere his promises to h 

& good behauiour for the time to com 

of him. He is att present very se 

passages & I would gladly hope) d 

promise reformation, & to doe neer 

advice of freinds, his present strait 

discharge his present ingagments, he ...... . 

with me to helpe him out of them, & althoug .... 

neuer to haue had any dealings with hi 

some experience of his setlednes, yet vpo 

promises of future care in his occasio 

more to performe them I haue consent 

what I can, therfor Sir, if it stand any 

conveniency to cutt of what he owes you 

wayes with any other to further him, I shall allow . 
account. I haue also consented to lett him haue some 
other moneyes that are oweinge to me, if he can make vse 


of them. He also intreats me to be a sutour to yow on his 
behalf e, to further him to such moneyes as may be dew to 
him from the countrie, for his purpose is to dispatch as 
sone as he can, that he may returne & attend the aggre- 
ment with Stiles, which Mr. Haynes & others aboue 
conceaue wilbe for his advantage. I nead not say any 
more to yow, whom he hath euer found soe much his 
freind. I haue receaued the trees yow sent me, for which 
I hartily thanke yow. If I had any thing heare that could 
pleasure yow, yow should frely comand it. I am prettie 
well storred with chirrie & peach trees, & did hope I had 
had a good nurserie of aples, of the aples yow sent me 
last yeare, but the wormes haue in a maner distroyed 
them all as they came vp. I pray informe me if yow know 
any way to preuent the like mischeife for the future. Your 
sonne was with me befor your letter, & acquainted me with 
your owne & his desire. I did but expresse my hart when 
I told him I should be glad any way to pleasure either of 
yow, &, soe farre as it did concerne me, gaue my con- 
sent (with this reseruation, which I know in his owne 
disposition he would be reddie enough to yeald to), that if 
there were any fishing neare it (which soe farr as I se we 
must all suddenly seek after) you might [ ] me a liberty 
to make vse of part of it for that imployment, but whither 
euer there will be any such occasion or noe, I know not : 
soe with the tender of my owne & wifes loueing respects to 
your selfe & bedfellow, I rest your assured frend : 

Geo. Fenwick.* 

May 6th. 1641. 

Your bill I left with Mr. Bellingham. 

* This letter is indorsed by Governor Winthrop, " Mr. Fenwick for money . . . payd to 
Mr. R. Saltonstall ; " and by John Winthrop, Jr., " Mr. Fenwicks consent for Fishers Hand." 
See further, in relation to this grant, in Public Records of Connecticut, i. 64. — Eds. 




To the Right Worshipfull Mr. John Wintrop Gouernor at Co- 

nettecot dlr. 

Roxbury, 22 Aprill, 1636. 

Mr. Wintrop, — My respectiue loue remembred : being 
glad to here of your safe ariuale, .& of your comfort- 
able hopes of a good proceedinge. My desyer is to 
see you, but because I desyer to hasten back, I shall not 
now find tyme to see you, I thinke. But I will hasten 
to setle myself there as soone as I can, & then I shall see 
all the plantations. It pleased God, by his prouidence 
to bring home the Blessinge,-)* before Mr. Allerton could be 
ready for vs, & so we haue agreed with your ffather [and ?] 
Mr. Gibbins, for the fraight of 16 tunns of goods at 35s. 
to the river mouth ; & also it is further agreed that if ther 

* William Pynchon, named an assistant in the Massachusetts Charter, was from Spring- 
field, Essex County, England. He came over with Winthrop in 1630, and settled first at 
Roxbury; but in a few years (about 1636) removed to Springfield, of which town he was 
the founder. He there lived till 1652; when he, with Capt. Smith, his son-in-law, and 
Eev. Mr. Moxon, the first minister of the town, went to England, never to return. He 
died at Wraisbury, on the Thames, in Buckinghamshire, in October, 1662. In 1650 was 
published in London a book written by him, entitled " The Meritorious Price of Man's 
Redemption;" which, on arriving at Boston, was publicly burnt by order of the General 
Court, and the author called to account for it. Norton was employed to answer this book; 
and published at London, in 1653, " A Discussion of that Great Point in Divinity, the 
Sufferings of Christ," &c. Pynchon published a rejoinder in 1655; and followed up 
the discussion in a book, printed in 1662, called " The Covenant of Nature made with 
Adam Described," &c. The address to the reader is dated " From my study, — Wraysbury, 
Feb. 10, 1661." See ante, p. 285 ; 3 Mass. Hist. Coll., i. 35 ; Savage's Geneal. Diet. — Eds. 

t Gov. Winthrop's bark, the " Blessing of the Bay," which was launched at Mistick, 
July 4, 1631. — Eds. 



a faier wind will giue way, we must haue our goods 
delivered at New Towne or Water Towne, at such further 
prise as shall be iudged by the medle prise of carrienge 
goods vp the riuer : & I doe earnestely intreate you to be 
a meanes to hasten them vpp, if by any meanes the wind 
will serue, for it will greately helpe to promote our worke, 
hauing so few hands to helpe vs, & so once more I pray 
further vs what you can. I haue but 4 peeces of cloth 
loose, being 4 speciall good peeces at 85. heere, but 
fraight & venture will be 6d. in a yard more : so if you 
please you may haue them ; or at least I pray lay them 
vpp safe for me : the contentes and cullers of the cloth 

1 violet, 35. y. 

U \r 1 5 > so markd also on the cloth. 
1 murry, 35. y. % 

1 russet, 35. y. 

If you accept of them, send me word by my seruant, 
because else I may sell them to some of New Towne 
or Dorcester. 

Also if you haue any further councill or aduise to 
giue me about plantation or the like, write me 2 or 3 
words. Also you shall doe well to inquier & take 
careful informations about the Indians killing 2 of our 
men, that a course of iustice may be taken, so as may be 
cleere to all that the course is iust; & so if our goods 
be landed with you, doe vs all the kindnesse you can with 
howseroome : & so Jehouah blesse you in layeing a good 
foundation in all your vndertakinge for the publike. 
Your euer assured faithfull ffreind, 

William Pynchon. 

I pray remember my harty loue to Mr. Gardener, & to 
the rest with you. 



To the Right Worshipfull & my worthy ffrend Mr. John Wintrop 
at Quinettecot Bluer mouth dlr this. 

Roxbury July 4, 1636. 

Deere & worthy Freind, — My true loue remembered: 
I sent you a few lines by land, & now againe by sea, to 
assuer you that I forget you not: & the name of your 
good health is good newes vnto me. I suppose the for- 
mer parsell of cloth is neere all gonn, & therefore I haue 
sent you a smale parsell more ; the best that euer came to 
Quinettecot : the contentes are as folio weth, viz : — 

33 y. of tauny : plaine wool. 

39 y. f tauny shagg. 

38 y. \ liuer culler shagg. I ^ & 8s _ m . Qg ^ 

38 y. murry shagg. 

37 y. § murry shagg. 

38 y. of liuer culler shagg. 
All thes at 85. per yard, better cloth by much then any I 
see heere in the Bay. 

I pray accept my bill of exchang to you, by Mr. Peeter, 
for 63^': & as for the freight of the Blessing formerly, 
I haue a perfett account of it: but I haue not mett 
with Anthony Dike, to confer my notes with him. 

& as for the fraught of the Batcheller,* I shall mak 
vpp the tunag with Mr. Gose at Watertowne, for thither 
I haue conditioned that she must deliuer our goods. I 
asked Lieftenant Gibins, before I would hier her, if she 
might goe as far as Watertowne, & he confidently affirmed 
she might, & that there is water enough : therefore I pray 
giue all the furtherance you can. 

* The " Bachelor" appears to have sailed on her second trip to Connecticut near the 
date of this letter. See Winthrop's Hist, of N. h., i. 389, 392. — Eds. 


Also I received a parsell of course wampam from you, 
but I could not trade any of it, because others were fur- 
nished with plenty of better : but if you will send me a 
parsell of a 100 or 200 fathom of fine white wampam, I 
shall accept it as beuer. If you sell not this cloth, keepe 
it in good condition, & I will take it againe. 

As for vsing ould traders to trade for you, it is not the 
best way for your gaine ; for they know how to saue 
themselues ; but a trusty man that neuer was a trader will 
quickly find the way of trading, & bring you best profitt. 

& so the God of peace be with you euer. 
Your euer louing fireind 

William Pynchon. 


To the Right Worshipfull Mr. John Wintrop Gouernor of the 
Massachuset, dlr this in Boston. 

Springefeild, this 19 of the 12 month 1643. 

Mr. Gouernor, — My respectiue loue remembred vnto 
you & your wife, & to your son John Wintrop & his wife : 
I received a letter lately from you by Nippumsint, & 
another to Mr. Haines, which I sent him. I blesse God 
to heere of your good health, & I praise God we are all in 
good health & in peace in our plantation ; & the Lord hath 
added some 3 or 4 yonge men out of the River, that are 
godly, to us lately : & the Lord has greately blessed Mr. 
Moxon's ministry, to the conversion of many soules, that 
are lately added to our Church : & hetherto the Lord hath 
preserued vs in peace from enimies. Much talk was of 
the great actes that the Mowhoaks would do at the begin- 


ing of winter, but the latest reports are that they will not 
help Sowaquassim, & yet they kep his wampum. I doe 
not certainely heere whether they will aid the Naricanset 
Sachim, but as far as I can vnderstand they reiect him also. 
But wheras you writ that you thought the Naricanset 
Sachim would be content to sit still, my intelligence from 
the Indians of the River is otherwise : & they haue lately 
killd a Munhegan woman. I conceiue you vse your best 
endeuors to hould of the Naricanset, & I suppose they in 
the Riuer do also hould of Woncas, & in so doinge you doe 
well : & my advise is that neather you nor the riuer should 
do any thing else, but vse delatory meanes, for I perceiue 
the nature of the Indians is vppon eury like occasion to be 
much prouoked with the desyer of reuenge, but if meanes 
of delay be vsed but a while, the edge of their reuengefull 
desyer will soone be cooled. I perceiue they are carefull 
of this, not to begin first with the English, but they make 
account, if the English begin first with them, to doe great 
matters : & I veryly beleeve they may soone make lamenta- 
ble hauock. But I hope the English will neuer put it to 
the tryall, till they be more then a litle prouoked to it. 

I had not the news of England, in any large measure, 
till I had first written to Mr. Haines, but then he spedily 
sent me such bookes of records as he had, 7 or 8, wherin 
I blesse God to se that strict & godly couenant betweene 
England & Scotland. It is the high way of God for their 
deliuerance. I hope it is now the day of Antichrist's 
great ouerthrow at Armageddon. I greately long to 
here whether the Scotts be yet come into the aid of the 
Parliment. I hope you will haue newes by the fishing 
shipps err longe: & so the God of peace be our Fore- 
gaurd & Reareward all our dayes, Amen. 

, Your euer loueinge ffrind in the Lord, 

William Pynchon. 



To his honored ffreind Mr. John Wintrop Deputy Gouernor, this 

jn Boston. 

Springefeild this 15 day of Sept. 1645. 

Mr. Wintrop, — My best respect remembered, hopinge 
of the continuance of your good health. I cannot but 
admire at the particullorre wisdome & prouidence of God, 
that hath so ouerruled war as to make it the meanes of so 
hopefull an accord betweene Indians & English. If warrs 
had proceeded, as it was like, I apprehend it would haue 
cost the Hues of many English, as well as Indians, partly 
by warrs, & partly by disordered hardshipp. Experience 
doth apparently shew it : for many of the souldiers of the 
River are returned very ill, & one of them is dead, & yet 
they were out but a very litle while, in comparison of 
that they must haue bin, if warrs had proceeded ; or else 
if you had withdrawen your forces before the full con- 
quest, the Indians would haue had liberty to doe a world 
of mischeefe. It seemes the Lord did not see sufficient 
ground as yet to shed so much blood as both sides intend- 
ed, both of English & Indians ; & therefore the Lord 
framed the hartes of the Indians to submitt. Suerly this 
was the Lords doing, & it ought to be maruelous in our 
eyes, & to be acknowledgd with all thanckfulnesse. 

All the Moheganicks that are enimies to the Narican- 
sett speake well of the Naricansett Sachim, & do perswad 
themselus that he means honestly, & that he will keepe 
his word. But they are iealous of the Nayantuk Sa- 
chim, conceiuinge that he will breake his word in the 

I wrote vnto you by Quodnams pinace, about one Mary 
Lewis, the wife of one Lewis, a papist. She hath bin 
aboue 7 years seperate from her husband, & is perswaded 
by others that she may marry by the lawes of England. 
She is easely perswaded to that, because she Hues vnder 


temptations of desyer of mariage, & I vnderstand lately 
that sh,e is falen into a leauge of amity with a bricke maker 
of our towne : I gaue you what light I could in the case, 
& desyred you to take aduise at the Court, what I may doe 
in this case, if she desyer to be maried. She hopes that 
you will giue her liberty to mary in some short tyme : & 
therefore your answer to my letter requiers the more hast : 
& so the God of all peace be with you euer, Amen. 
Your assured louinge ffriend euer, 

William Pynchon. 

Whether was their any speech aboute the purchase of 
the Eiuers mouth. 


To his honored ffreind, Mr. John Wintrop, deputy Gouernor, at 
his howse in Boston, thes dlr. 

Springefeild, this 4 of Nouember, 1645. 

Sir, — My best loue remembered : this is the last 
opportunity, I feare, that I shall haue to write vnto 
you before winter, & though I haue no serious matter to 
writ of, yet I cannot loose this opportunity. I received 
yours about Mary Lewes,* who is now newley maried to a 
brickmaker. I thanke God I & my wife & family are in 
good health, & God hath been pleased to inlarge my ffa- 
mily. My only son f is now maried, & he hath brought 
home his wife this day to my howse, where he may con- 
tinue as long as he finds it for his comfort & benifitt. 

Yet the Lord is pleased to mingle some afflictions with 
His mercies, for the last Wednesday 2 of our Towne going 
downe the Riuer with a cano laden with corne & other 

* See the preceding letter. — Eds. 

+ John Pynchon, who married, 30th October, 1645, Amy, daughter of George Wyllys 
of Hartford. The Hartford record gives the date of this marriage (incorrectly) as 6th 
November, 1645.— Eds. 


goods, were cast away, eather a litle before they came to 
the forks or at the first enterance : I thinke it is the meere 
hand of God, & therefore I hope the Lord will help vs to 
search our w r aies, & labor for more weanednesse from thes 
emty cretures that are so vncertaine. 

I intreat you if there be any newes stirring that you will 
impart what you know, as I thank you, you vse to doe. 

I intreate you to remember my best respect to your 
wife, & to your sonnes, & to their wifes, to Mr. Cotton, Mr. 
Wilson, &c, & so the God of all grace & mercy supporte 
your hart in euery condition that God shall please to ex- 
ersise you with all : & so I rest your assured louing ffriend 
& brother in the Lord euer 

William Pynchon. 


To Ms Louinge ffre[ind] Steeuen Bay, tante uscu [torn] in Nipnett 

this dlr. 

Springefeild this 8 of the 8 month 1644. 

Steeuen Day, — I received a letter from you by an 
Indian, who saith that his name is Ta-mug-gut. Whereas 
you write for butter & cheese, it is not to be had in all our 
plantation, I spend it as fast as I make it, because I haue 
much resort & many workmen, which eate it as soone as 
I haue it; & as for porke or bacon, I haue none, I haue 
not yet killd any hoggs ; only 2 of our neighbors killd 
some yesterday : but the weomen say with carriage it will 
putrifie, especially seeing Indians will often linger on such 
a iorney two dayes : only I procured Sli of bacon of a 

* Stephen Day, the first printer in New England, came over in 1638, under a contract 
with Rev. Jose Glover, who died on his passage. Day commenced printing in Cambridge 
in March, 1639. His name appears among the petitioners for a grant at Nashaway, now 
Lancaster, in May, 1644; and it may be conjectured that this letter was addressed to him 
while he was in that part of the country, engaged in the affairs of the new settlement. 
He died at Cambridge, Dec. 22, 1668. — Eds. 


neighbor, which is sent yon at 6li; & 2li of tobbacco 
I procured at another place, which cost ISd per li. I 
haue no pepper, but I haue sent 2 ounces of ginger at 3d, 
also I haue sent ]d in white paper : sault, 1 quart sault, 
jd ; Hi sugar, 20d ; 4 loafes, 2s. bd. The whole is 95. , & 
the bagg & basket to put the things in 6d : so the Lord 
blesse you in your proceedings. 

Your euer louinge ffreind 

William Pynchon. 

If you doe your businesse by Indians, you will find it 
deerer then to send an Englishman. 

As for the blew wampam there is 18s of it, at 3 a peny, 
but I will not take such as this vnder 6 a peny : I had 
rather haue white wampam, then bad blew at 6 a peny. 
I will kepe it, because you may redeeme it for white, if 
you thinke good, our Biuer will vent of any course blew 
wampam, as the Bay doth. 

I spake to this Indian in your behalfe : I tould him that 
the Gouernor sent you to serch for something in the 
ground, not for black lead, as they suppose, but for some 
other mettell : I tould him that the hill of black lead by 
Quassink, was not so good as that which lay southward of 
it, nere the cornefield, where one Namoswhat Hues. I 
suppose it is 5 or 6 miles southward of that place by 

I tould the Indian also that the Gouernor did send you 
to see what friendship they would shew you. I tould him 
also that they might safely trust you, for venison or beanes, 
& wished them to let you haue such things vppon trust. 
I also shewed him how the trust might be made sure on 
both sides : by splitting a sticke in the midle & by mak- 
ing notches : euery notch to stand for 6d. in wampam : & 
that the Gouernor (meaninge Mr. Wintrop) would pay 
you at Boston in the springe of the yeere, though it were 
20 fatham. 



He tould me also that they would sell you beanes & 
corne & deere, as soone as they tak any deere : but I 
feare they will make you pay well for it. I giue for a 
good doe, 2 fatham, for a fawne of a yeere, 1 fatham: 
though yet I have bought none, nor do not expect any this 
14 dayes at sonest. 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, Jr., " Mr. Pinchen to Mr. Day about an 
other place of Blacklead." 


Spmngefeld, this 7 of the 5 m, 1646. 

Mr. Gouernor, — I received your letter by one of Mr. 
Shepherds company, & thank you for your intelligence 
about the state of things in England. I conceiue it is 
now out of doubt that the Parliament haue preuailed ouer 
the malignant party, & though there be some iarrs be- 
tweene the Scotts & the parliament, yet I hope it will be 
reconsild without a warre. It would be an odious thing, 
all the world ouer, if such conioyned freinds in the com- 
mon cause of religion should now fale together by the 
eares for smaler matters. 

We haue a hand of God vppon vs on the Eiver, in 
that our English corne is so much deuored by multitudes 
of catterpillars ; the Lord affect our hartes, & humble vs 
kindly in the sight of our sins & provocations. 

As for Daniell Turner, which I imprisoned with a lock, 
& committed him to the constable to worke with the lock 
on his leg in the day tyme, but ordered to hang a chaine 
vppon him in the night tyme : & so he did the first night, 
& made account to doe so the next night, but whiles the 
conestable was stept out of dores, he slipt away with his 
lock on : & in the night tyme came agane & entred into 


the howse, for in the morning, when the conestable came 
in, he found 2 whit blanketts that were hanged vppon a 
beame gon: & the flocks shaked out of the tyke, & both 
bed tyk & boulster, & a bushell of meale in a bagg gon. 
I offerd our Indians a fathom of wampam to bringe him 
againe, but I herd by some of them that he was in that 
setlement, but now I heere by some of Mr. Shepherds 
company, especially by Mr. Damfort, that one Groug, that 
kepes the ordenary at Sudbury, tould him that theer was a 
yong fellow latly gon from his howse, that said he came 
from Springfeld, & that he would put himself into one of 
the men of warr. He said also that he had formerly 
dwelt with Mr. Starr, & he was in a whit wastcoate, & in 
a white pair of drawers, & that he had a pair of wodden 
held shoes. This is the clearer. He hath mad his clothes 
of the whit blanketts he stole, & sould the other things to 
the Indians for wampam ; for he paid him in wampam : but 
when he was at Springfeld his iacket & breeches was made 
of mose skinn, but he had a payer of high heeld shoes. He 
stole also a pair of sizors, with which it seemes he cut out 
his sute. It is lik you may here ty dings of him. If he be 
not suddenly taken, he knowes the way so well to play the 
theife, that he will do more robberies quickly. 

I perceiue by some godly ministers that haue wrote into 
this country, that this is not a tyme of reformation, but of 
liberty of conscence. I beleeve by that tyme they see a litle 
more of the lawlessenesse of liberty of conscience, they will 
change their iudgmentt, & say that liberty of consience 
will giue liberty to Sathan to broch such horrid blasphe- 
mose oppinions, as were not the like in any age. The 
Lo[rd] awaken some able men to confut that vi[le] tenent. 

I spake to Mr. Olcot to ship some corne & benes for me 
at Hart[ford]. Mr. Olcot refused to doe it, vnlesse I would 
haue it entred according] to their order : else he said it 
might come into a great deale of [to™']. I wrote to Mr. 
Olcot that we being of the Bay jurisdiction, were no[t] 

380 . THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1646. 

within the compasse of their order: therevppon I gave 
order [to] him that shipped our goods not to enter them ; 
& I tould him that if they would arest our goods, I had 
rather they should doe it now then another tyme. Yet 
Mr. Olcot perswaded him that shipped my goods to enter 
them, contrary to my expresse order. Since that tyme I 
shipped more corne, which I gaue order should not be 
entered : & it was not, neather is it arested that I heere of. 
Methinkes it is strange to my vnderstandinge, that they 
should so much as once offer to make vs pay to the pur- 
chase of their fort pattent & howseinge, seeing we haue no 
interest therin, as all ioynt purchasers must haue. They 
plead we ought to pay to that purchase as well as them- 
selues, because we haue as much benint by the fort as 
themselues : that plea must stay till there be a fort there, 
& till it be maintained as a fort. That plea cannot fetch 
vs in to pay towards this purchase, except we consented, 
& had an equall interest therin with themselues. But if 
we should be forced to such a thinge, this plantation will 
be deserted. I think no man will dwell heere to be 
brought vnder such payments. I desyre your advise, 
whether we were best to enter our goods or no. My owne 
apprehensions are that we ought not to doe it : & so Jeho- 
vah cause His face to shine vppon you euer. 

Your assured louinge brother euer, 

William Pynchon. 

I heere that Gorton arested Captaine Cook & Mr. Tyng 
for satisfaction of the wrongs don him by the Bay : but 
there is a speciall prouidence of God in that act, to clere 
the iustice of the Bay, & to open his infamy to the world, 
for he was whipped & stockd for his lewdnesse by the 
Hand themselues. This will clere the justice of New 
England to the Parliament more then any thing that man 
could haue devised, by that tyme the answer is returned. 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, " Mr. Pynchon, (5) 46." 



Springefeild this 9 of the 1. m. 1646. 

Worthy & much respected, — I received your letter 
by my neighbor Cooper : & am glad to heere of your wel- 
fare. I received also your extracts, & after I had coppied 
them, I sent your coppie to Mr. Hopkins as you directed. 
I cannot but be much affected with that malignant spirit 
that breathes out in their endeuors, because by their man- 
ner of proceedinge (though they pretend honest reforma- 
tion, yet) it seemes to me they would destroy both Church 
& Commonwealth, in laboring for a generall Governor, & 
in charging treason by conniuence vppon the Court, not 
consideringe that the Parliament it self is faint to beare 
much about speeches & books printed, which doubtlesse 
they would not beare if it were a tyme of solid peace. 

But how soeuer, their endeuors cannot but haue an ill 
construction ; yet I thinke the Courte both of magistrates 
& deputies, should not turne of all the particulars wherein 
they desyre a reformation, without making a right vse of so 
much of their position as doth iustly cale for reformation : 
for as we had the happinesse to be bredd & borne vnder 
such lawes for ciuill gouerment as I conceiue no nation hath 
better, so it should be our care, in thankefulnesse both to 
God & that state, to preserue & adhere to what euer lawes 
or customes they haue, except those that be contrary to 
God, & therin we must obey God & not man, & yet we 
haue liberty from the pattent to make what soeuer by 
lawes may tend to the good of this place : & I cannot but 
apprehend that your spirit lies this way, for I remember at 
oure first comminge, as soone as euer the people were 
diuided into seuerall plantations, you did presently nomi- 
nate a conestable for each plantation, as the most common 
officers of the king's peace, & gaue them their oath in true 


substance as the conestables take it in England : likewise 
all controuersies about meum & tuum were tryed by juries, 
after the manner of England, & after a while grand juries 
were appointed, for further inquiry into such matter as 
might tend to the king's peace ; & still thes courses, I thinke, 
are contin[ued,] & thes courses are the best courses that this 
Commonwealth can take, if they ha[ue] free liberty to alter : 
as Fortescue in commedation of the lawes of England [to] 
my satisfaction doth shew. He giues good reasons for the 
necessary vse of juries for all tryalls, shewing that it is con- 
sonant to the word of God, & preferrs it far aboue the 
course of justice in France, which is also of high respect. 

But that wherein I feare the Generall Court is most faulty 
is, in that they doe not issue out all warrantes in the name 
of the kinge : I know no hurt in it : for what though the 
kinge be neuer so corrupt in religion & manners, yet if his 
subjectes will be faithfull to the lawes of England, he can- 
not hurt his subjects, for when warrantes are issued out in 
the name of the kinge, they are not issued out in the name 
of his personall prerogatiues, but in the name of his power, 
which is his lawes, & therefore if his subjectes will sticke 
to his lawes, (as the Parliament do at this day) the king 
cannot wrong them. Thes things you know much better 
then my selfe. 

Againe, by the lawes of England, if any of our people 
will stand vppon the priuiledge of an English subject, they 
may, I conceiue, lawfull[y] disobey warrants of processe, 
or attachments & the like, in case the warrants be not made 
in dew fourme, accordinge to the lawes of England : as, 
for example, if they be not dated, or if they be dated in 
any place out of the Jurisdiction, or if they be not sub- 
scribed by such as are in authority, thes & many such like 
circumstances may mak warrantes illegall, & so a nullety, 
as Dalton in his Country Iustice sheweth at large ; & to my 
greefe I haue seene many warrantes failing in thes circum- 
stances. But aboue all, if warrants be not sent out in the 


name of the king, they are not legall : we are not a ffree 
state, neather do I apprehend that magistrates, elders, or 
deputies doe think we are a ffree state, neather do I think 
it our wisdome to be a ifree state ; though we had our lib- 
erty, we cannot as yet subsist without England. 

But as for their desyre of an inouation in church [tom'j 
not proceed out of zeale of Gods glory, neather is the 
reform [*»■«] that they can as yet presume what it will be 
for there [«*»'] breach betweene Presbuterians about set- 
tling the presbute [*»•»] betweene them as betweene the 
presbeterians & the independa [fora] that if the most mini- 
sters in England were for the indepen [fom] New England, 
that the parliament would as soone establish the indep 
[for«] for they are at a great distance with the Scotish way : 
for the parliament doe not hould any certaine fourme of 
church gouerment to be commanded in the particulars 
thereof, as the only way of Christ, as the Scotts do : for 
the Scotts say that their fourme of presbuterian gouerment 
is the only way of Christ, & the Independents say that their 
fourme of discipline is the only way of Christ. But the 
Parliament say that neather of them is the only way of 
Christ, & therefore they haue ordained Comissioners to 
superuise the conclusions of the presbuterian Courtes. 
But truly where zeale of God's glory & godly wisdome are 
ioyned together : a world of good hath bin don by godly 
ministers, euen in England, that haue held no certaine 
fourme of discipline : on the contrary, where a could spirit 
doth rule in ministers, though they may haue a good fourme 
of gouerment, there people may be said to haue a name to 
Hue, & yet be but dead christians. 

I thanke you also for the coppie of the Generall Court, 
about declaring their iudgment for our paying to the pur- 
chase or custome of the Bivers mouth. I received the lik 
from the Secretary, but I did not think it wisdome to send 
it to Mr. Hopkins, because T here by severall persons that 
he & Mr. Whiting were chosen Commissioners, & that they 


did resolue, if they can, to bring vs vnder their power in 
that point. The point hath bin disputed among themselues, 
& some of their deputies would not haue vs to pay, fearing 
least the Bay may do the lik to them : but it seemes they 
think you cannot by the lik iustice make them pay, as 
they haue to mak your subjectes pay to them. 

Lately my son was at Hartford, & spake of this coppi 
to one of Hartford, who spake of it to the gouernor. After 
that the gouernor askd my son if I had not sent the coppi 
to him. He said no, & so they had no more speach: but 
the next day the former party tould my son, that Mr. Hop- 
kins said it was nothing to them what the Generall Court 
had don in the Bay ; for the Court of Commissioners was 
the Supreame Court, & what they did must stand ; & there- 
in it is likely they may haue the vantage of the Bay, for 
when Mr. Endicot came last from New Hauen, he tould 
me that New Hau[en] Commissioners were wholly for our 
payeing to the River, & that Plimouth Commissioners were 
wholy silent: but methinks, seeing you haue made an 
order to fr[ee the] Vnited Colonies from all charges to 
that fort in the Bay, it may be a leading principle to them 
to think it but iustice that the River should do the lik for 
your subjectes ; or else if they begin, & you should with- 
draw that order, & make them all contribute, it would not 
be so much sauoring of mutuall concord as ought to be. 

Mr. Endicot did shew himself faithfull to the Common- 
wealth in not yeelding at that tyme, & yet I had not spoken 
so much as the least word to him about it, neather did it 
come into my minde till his returne, & then he tould me 
how earnest the Kiuer were to haue them yeeld. 

There was also an order of G enerall Court sent to the 
conestable for a leuie vppon our plantation. But I shall 
write to goodman John[son] about that, if the messenger 
will but stay. The summe is this, to intreat the Court, in 
the name of our plantation, to spare them for this yeere, 
promisinge to be ready to expresse their willingnesse for 


tyme to come. He will acquaint you more fully with our 
desyr, hoping you will be pleased to solicit the Generall 
Court for their forbearance for this yere. 

There is no newes worth the writing, but we are all in 
good health at present. I pray remember my best respect 
to your wif & to your sonns & daughters : & I would 
intreate you, if you think good, to shew this letter to 
goodman Johnson who is my vsuall agent in matters that 
may conserne our plantation ; & I haue not tyme to writ to 
him as I would. So the God of all peas be with you euer, 
Amen. Your assured louing brother euer, 

William Pynchon. 

Hast — hast. 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, "Mr. Pincheon, Eec : 16 (1) 46." 


To his honored ffreind Mr. John Wintrop Gouernor at Boston 

this dlr. 

Springfeild, this 19 October, 1648. 

Sir, — I cannot omitt to writ to you now & then, 
though I haue no matters of consequence to impart vnto 
you. I know no late newes, since I wrot to my sonn, who 
I mak accont did impart to you what I wrote to him. 

When Mr. Hopkins returned home, he came wett to 
my howse, & taried till next day, almost mid-day after, but 
he spake nothing to me, nor I to him, about our busi- 
nesse : but I vnderstand from my sonn that all the pains 
of the Committy hath bin in effectuall hitherto. Ther- 
vppon I haue written a letter to Goodman Johnson, who 
is my faithfull agent, to communicate my further appre- 



hensions to the Commissioners, & if they see any thing in 
it, worthy notinge, then it is to be commended to the 
consideration of the Generall Conrt : & now at this tyme 
also the Generall Court is begun at Harteford; I think 
yesterday it begann. 

One thinge I cannot omitt to write vnto you. "When 
Mr. Ludlo lay at my howse he tould me that he saw two 
sheets of the orders printed, & he did much blame the 
meanesse of their framing & contriuinge, & wished they 
might be corrected before any coppies were sent into 
other parts. But often tymes it fals out that a man may 
be one of the 20 that will find fault, & yet be none of the 
20 that will mend them. 

I much longe to heere out of England. I look vppon 
that land as in the saddest posture that euer they were, 
for danger of ruine. The Lord in mercy turne the whele 
vppon the wicked, & let them that loue the Lord in sin- 
cerity shine as the sunn in its strength. 

So resteth your assured louing brother in the Lord, 

• W. Pynchon. 




To his much Honored & ivorthy freind Mr. John Wynthropp, 
Governor, at the mouth of the river of Conitticut, these. 

Worthy Sir, — Your letter coming but late this even- 
ing, irnmediatly before your servants were returning, I am 
forced to shorten these few lynes. Your charge & advise 
is seasonable, & so exceeding vsefull, that I should be much 
awanting in my duty to God, & that due respect I owe 
vnto your self, if I should not help forward the execu- 
tion of so good a work. I haue observed in my life tyme 
that want of prudence & providence hath occasioned the 
most of hazards that befall men in their life. I desire 
that we may not preiudice the Lords care he hath had of 
our preservation, & our owne comforts : for the way is 
open & easy, in my apprehension, to prevent any pretend- 
ed evill, if we be faythfull to attend God's way. I heard 
but this day, how likely the trade is to miscary, for want 
of care in setling of it. If you be pleased suddaynly to 
advise, that a course may be taken by the mutuall agree- 
ment of all the plantations, & that execution may be 

* Eev. Thomas Hooker was born in Leicestershire, England. He was educated at 
Emanuel College, Cambridge, and was afterwards chosen one of the Fellows. Subsequently 
he became a lecturer at Chelmsford, in Essex; and preached for a time in London. Being 
subject to annoyance for his Puritanism, he went to Holland; where he spent four years in 
the exercise of his profession. He came to this country in 1633, in company with the 
Rev. Samuel Stone and Rev. John Cotton ; arriving at Boston 4th September. He settled at 
Cambridge, but in June, 1636, went to Hartford with a majority of his parishioners, where 
he resided till his death, 7th July, 1647, in his sixty-first yea-. He was one of the most distin- 
guished of the early clergymen of New England. See Winthrop's Hist, of N. E., i. 108, 
109; Savage'3 Geneal. Diet.; Allen's Biog. Dici. — Eds. 


speedy, & through for the accomplyshment of it, it may 
yet be recovered, but delay will breed a vtter & irrecover- 
able decay. The good Lord bless you in your way & 
work: which he wisheth who is 

Yours in all due respect, T : Hooker. 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, Jr., "Mr. Hooker, 1636." 


To his much honored freind John Wyntrop Esquier his house at 

Boston dd. 

Much Honored in our Blessed Saviour, — When I 
first heard of those heavy distractions which have risen so 
vnexpectedly, I did reioyce from the root of my heart, 
that the Lord did, & hath gratiously kept you from any 
taynt of those new-coyned conceits. The Lord strength- 
en & establish you in every holy word & work. In a good 
cause He hath given you gratious abilityes to do Him 
much service, & I am perswaded He will blesse you in 
such indeavors. You know my playnnesse : you can not 
keepe your comfort, nor an honorable respect in Christ in 
the hearts of His, more then in keeping closse to the 
truth. You shall have what interest I have in heaven to 
help you in that work. How the Pequoyts have made an 
inrode, by a suddayne surprisall, vpon some of our brethren 
of Watertowne,* slayyng weomen & children, who were 
sent out carelessly, without watch & guard, this bearer 
will tell you. 

Though we feele nether the tyme nor our strenght fitt 
for such a service, yet the Indians here, our frends, werr so 
importunate with vs to make warr presently, that vnlesse 

* This attack of the Pequots upon Watertown (now Wethersfield), Conn., took place 
in April, 1637. — Eds. 


we had attempted some thing, we had delivered our per- 
sons vnto contempt of base feare & cowardise, & caused 
them to turne enemyes agaynst vs. Agaynst our mynds, 
being constrayned by necessaty, we haue sent out a com- 
pany, taking some Indians for guides with vs. What is 
done, you will better heare it by report, then I shall relate it 
by penn, for our men went downe as these pynaces came to 
vs. Only we heare, ther is six of the Pequoyts slayne by 
our Indians, not far from the fort. I hope you see a 
necessity to hasten execution, & not to do this work of the 
Lords revenge slackly. I shall commend the cause to 
your love & wisdome, & your self to the rich mercy of our 
God in Christ, & in all thankfulnes for all your love, 


Yours in all due respect T: Hooker. 


To his much Honoured freind John Wyntropp Esquier, Governor 
of the plantations in the Matcheshusets Bay, dd. 

Much Honored in our Blessed Saviour, — At the re- 
turne of our Magistrates, when I vnderstood the gratious 
& desired successe of ther indeavor, and by the ioynt rela- 
tion of them all, not only your christian readines, but 
enlarged faythfullnes in an especiall manner to promote so 
good a work ; though the appearance of flattery (if I 
know my self & be knowne to you) be not only crosse to 
my conscience but to my disposition, yet my heart would 
not suffer me but as vnfeynedly to acknowledge the Lords 
goodnes, so affectionately to remember your candid & cor- 
diall cariage in a matter of so great consequence ; laboring 
by your speciall prudence to settle a foundation of safety 
and prosperity in succeeding ages : a work which will be 
found not only for your comfort, but for your crowne at 


the great day of your account.* Its the greatest good that 
can befall a man in this world, to be an instrument vnder 
God to do a great deale of good. To be the repayrer of 
the breach, was of old counted matter of highest prayse 
& acceptance with God & man : much more to be a meanes, 
not only to mayntayne peace & truth in your dayes, but to 
leave both, as a legacy to those that come after, vntill the 
coming of the Sonne of God in the clouds. 

I know my place & I would not abuse your pacience, or 
hynder greater imployments : my ayme is nakedly this ; to 
be in the number, & to have my voice with those, that 
whyle your self & your faythfull Assistants, (as Zerubba- 
bell & his fellow helpers) be laying the first stone of the 
foundation of this combynation of peace, I may crye grace, 
grace, to your indeavors. And by presenting the worth 
and acceptablenes of the work before you, to strengthen 
your hands, & encorage your hearts to proceed on with 
blessing & successe. Goe on therefore (worthy Sir) & be 
ever enlarged in such worthy services, & the God of truth 
& peace will ever be with you, which he desires dayly to 
begg, who desires to be 

Yours in all due respect Tho : Hooker : 

The 15th of the 5th mon : 1642 : Sea-brooke : 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, " Mr. Hooker Grat [tom~\ Rec : (5) 24, 

* The writer is here evidently referring to the agency of Winthrop in the establishment 
of the "Confederacy" of the New-England Colonies, which was happily brought about 
this year. The Commissioners of Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven, and the Gene- 
ral Court of Massachusetts, met at Boston in May of this year, and substantially agreed 
upon the " Articles of Confederation." — See Hazard, ii. 1 el se<j. 

A most interesting and important letter of Thomas Hooker to Gov. Winthrop has been 
found by J. H. Trumbull, Esq., Secretary of State of Connecticut, within a few years past, in 
the Massachusetts Archives in the State House, and is printed in the first volume of the 
Collections of the Connecticut Historical Society. It is in reply to the letter of Winthrop 
to Hooker (not known to be extant), of which a summary is given by Winthrop himself 
in his History (see addenda to second volume of Winthrop's Hist, of N.E., p. 428). The 
correspondence took place in the autumn of 1638. If the perusal of it should leave an 
impression that there had been any disagreement between these old New-England wor- 
thies, the beautiful tribute which Hooker pays to Winthrop's conduct and character, in the 
letter here given, would be sufficient to show that such disagreement was of short dura- 
tion. — Eds. 




To the very Woorshipfull his moclie respected good friende Mr. 
Wynthop geve these at Grotton. 

Woorshipfull Sir, — I am very lyke, the Lorde assist- 
inge, to be with you the nexte Lords daye, to performe in 
that behalfe what yee haue desyred.f I thanke you for 
your lettres, & for your soonnes lettres, £ which I heere re- 
torned agayne. I sende you of France suche a mappe as 
I have. 

The messenger hasteth his retorne, which maketh mee 
breefe. And so with remembrance of my beste respecte 
'vnto you & vnto Mres. "Wynthrop, I take my leave & 
remayne Yours euer redely to his power 

Robert Ryece. 

Preston, 23 of Auguste 1627. 

* Eobert Ryece, of Preston, in the county of Suffolk, sometimes called the Suffolk 
Antiquary, is said to have " had his education some years in the house of Mr. Theodore 
Beza, at Geneva," and to have been " an accomplished gentleman and a great preserver of 
the antiquities of this county." His wife was Mary Appleton, of Little Waldingfield ; 
of the same family with our honored benefactor, the late Samuel Appleton, Esq., of Bos- 
ton, to whose bounty we owe the Publishing Fund, from the income of which this volume 
is printed. One of Robert Ryece's nephews has left this testimony to his character: "He 
was bountiful to the poor, good to his friends, a Christian to his enemies, gentle to all, and 
to me a good uncle : so I testify. — Robert Appleton." Ryece seems to have written to 
Governor Winthrop under more names than his own. The absolute identity of handwriting 
would leave no doubt, even if other evidences were wanting, that the letter signed Lawrence 
Browne, and the three letters signed Thomas Smythe, all of which will presently be given, 
were as much Ryece's as those which bear his own signature. The letters signed with his 
own name will be given first in their order; and opportunity may be found, in connection 
with the others, for further reference to this mystery. Ryece died about 1638. For his 
Will, and other illustrations of his life and character, see " Memorial of Samuel Appleton, 
of Ipswich, Mass,," &c. : Boston, 1850, pp. 70-82. — Eds. 

t Winthrop's son Samuel was baptized at Groton, 26 August, 1627 ; and Ryece may 
have been invited to stand godfather. — Eds. 

\ John Winthrop, Jr., was at this time serving in the Duke of Buckingham's expedi- 
tion to the Isle of Rhe"; and his letters thence had doubtless been sent to Ryece for 
perusal. — Eds. 



To the Woorshipfull his moche respected goodfriende Mr. Wynthrop 
at Bury, geve these. 

Sir, — Were I able to ryde so farre, I woolde wyllingly 
haue attended you this daye, not for the leaste abyllytie of 
any service which I can performe, but to shewe the beste 
of my affection to so deseryinge a good friende. ffor the 
subiecte you wrytte of, breefely & playnelye to shewe you 
my mynde, what so ever other saye, I pray you geve mee 
leave in one woorde to shewe you. The Church & Com- 
mon welthe heere at home, hathe more neede of your beste 
abyllytie in these dangerous tymes, then any remote plan- 
tation, which may be performed by persons of lesser 
woorthe & apprehension, which I coolde shewe, yf I had 
tyme to thinke vpon dyversities of reasons which mighte 
be produced. Agayne, your owne estate wylbe more 
secured in the myddest of all accidents heere at home, 
then in this forreine expedition, which discovereth a 1000 
shipwrackes which may betyde. All your kynsfolkes & 
moste vnderstandinge friendes wyll more reioyce at your 
stayenge at home, with any condition which God shall 
sende, then to thro we your selfe vpon vayne hopes, with 
many difficulties & vncertaynties. Agayne, you shalbe 
more acceptable in the service of the Hieste, & more vnder 
His protection whiles you walke charely in your vocation 
heere at home, then to goe owte of your vocation, comyt- 
tinge your selfe to a woorlde of dangers abroade. The 
pype goeth sweete, tyll the byrde be in the nett ; many 
bewtifull hopes ar sett before your eyes to allewer you to 
danger. Plantations ar for yonge men, that can enduer 
all paynes & hunger. Yf in your yewthe you had byn 
acquaynted with navigation, you mighte haue promised 
your selfe more hope in this longe vyadge, but for one of 


your yeeres to vndertake so large a taske is seldome seene 
but to miscarry. To adventure your wholle famylly vpon 
so many manifeste vncerteynties standeth not with your 
wysdome & longe experience. Lett yonger yeeres take 
this charge vpon them, with the advyse of that which elder 
yeeres shall directe them vnto, the losse shalbe the lesse 
yf thay myscarry ; but there honor shalbe the more if thay 
prosper. So longe as you sytt at the helme, your famylie 
prospereth, but yf you shook! happen to fayle, your flocke 
woolde be at the leaste in hazarde, if not totally to mys- 
carrye. Yonge mens directions thowghe sometymes with 
some successe, do not all wayes succeede. These remote 
partes wyll not well agree with your yeeres ; whiles you 
are heere you wyll be ever fytter by your vnderstandinge 
& wysdome to supplye there necessities. But if it shoolde 
happen that you shoolde gett safely thither, you shall 
soone fynde, how necessitie wyll calle for supplie from 
these partes. I pray you pardon my boldnes, that had 
rather erre in what I thinke, then to be sylente in that I 
shoolde speake. How harde wyll it bee for one browghte 
vp amonge boockes & learned men, to lyve in a barbarous 
place, where is no learnynge & lesse cyvillytie. I beseeche 
the Lorde to directe you, & to keepe you in all your wayes. 
Thus in haste with the beste remembrance of my true affec- 
tion vnto you, I leave you to the protection of the All- 
mightye and do reste 

Yours ever in all true affection 

Robt. Eyece. 

Preston, this 12 of Auguste, 1629.* 

* The date of this letter was just a fortnight before that of the memorable Agreement 
at Cambridge, by which Winthrop and others pledged themselves to embark for New 
England. Winthrop had doubtless invited Ryece and others to meet him at Bury to con- 
sult on the subject. — Eds. 




To the very woorshipfull hys mooclie honored good ffriende Mr. 
Wynthop at his hoivse at Boston in JSfewe Englande geve these. 


kynde lettres of the 29 of. June 1636, came safely to my 
liandes the 3 : of November laste, by which I doe perceyve, 
you had not then received any lettres from me for this 
yeere. Sir, your contynewall love to Gods Church, & His 
servantes, doothe euer make mee so longe as I lyve to be 
myndefull of you, even with my beste endeavours : and for 
writinge to you, I wrotte vnto you the 17 of Maye laste, 
accompanied with a boxe of boocks, which I sente by my 
brother Samuel! Apple ton, to be convayed to hym for you ; 
nowe yf thay bee not yett come to your handes, as I feare 
thay are not, for abowte the 8 of this moneth I received 
lettres from my brother Samuell, dated the 19: of October 
laste, by which I perceyve he had not then received my 
lettres, nor sondry other thinges accompanied therewith ; 
ffrom whence I do feare, as many others else doe heere, 
that the schippe with the passengers, mooche stuffe & 
goods, are all perished by the waye. I wrotte also vnto 
you the 9 of September laste, which I hope maye be safely 
come to your hands, and I hope agayne by the nexte op- 
portunitie, God wyllinge, to wryte vnto you. I am muche 
beholdinge vnto you for your lettres and advertisements, 
beinge very sory I can not now make any requitall agayne. 
I am styll a bolde petitioner to you to helpe vs to a mappe 
of your contry as it is now inhabited, & is ioyned with new 
plantation of Conetticote, & yf wee lyve, wee hope to be 
very thankefull for the same. 

There is a matter wherein I am entreated to wryte vnto 
you, in the behalfe of one Mres. Sarah the wyfe of Mr. 


Henry, surnamed the blacke Henry Coppinger of Laven- 
ham, that whereas now allmoste 4 yeeres synce the sayd 
jMres Sarah had owte of the frugallitie of hir owne laborious 
industry e, withoute the privitie of hir husbande, gathered 
the summe of xjfo', which desyringe to putt it owte for 
benefyte of hir poore children, yonge Hamonde heere of 
Lannam then beinge heere, & vnderstandinge of hir pur- 
pose, moved Hamonde [sic] for the mony, promisinge resti- 
tution after a yeere, with as moche more for the gayne. 
Heerevpon, heere more xxs was delivered with the mony, 
in good penny woothes of goods, & Wylliam Payne, late of 
Lanham, nowe of Newe Englande, gave them his woorde 
for the repaymente of the said 1 2U, with the profitt thereof 
arisynge within a yeere ; synce which tyme shee never 
harde of Hamonde, one whitt, but that he is deade, & 
shee withowte all meanes for hir mony : ffrom whence shee 
hearinge that you have in Newe Englande all good lawes 
to recover debttes, entreated mee to wryte vnto you in her 
behalf e, beinge vnknowne to you, to desyer you to com- 
mone with olde Hamonde & with Wylliam Payne abowte 
this debtte, & how it may be recovered. Sir, I praye you 
beare with my boldenes, you can not doe a more meritorious 
deede, wee wyll all be thankefull vnto you for it. Newes 
wee have none heere that good is. All your friends heere 
are well, bothe at Lanham & otherwheare. So remem- 
bringe my beste affection vnto you, I ende, beseechinge 
the Allmyghtye to keepe you in all your wayes, & do re- 
Yours ever moste bownde in all Christian observance 

Robert Ryece. 

Preston this : 17 : of January 1636 : 

I Thomas Roote, now of Lavenham, doe wytnes that I 
harde the sayd Wylliam Payne then heere at Lavenham to 
geve his woorde in my presence to Mres Sarah Coppinger, 
that yf yonge Hamonde dyd not pave the mony agayne to 


the sayd Mres Sarah Coppinger, that he woolde then make 
good & paye the principall which is aleven powndes. And 
this can the wydowe Onge, now of Waterton in Newe Eng- 
lande, bnt then of Lavenham, in whose presence & in hir 
shoppe wytnes. Thomas Eoote. 

I haue seene a lettre of the sayd Wylliam Hamonde, 
dated at Watertowne in Newe Englande the : 4 : of July : 
1635 : to Mres Coppinger, wherein he promised hir, by the 
helpe of God, to be heere in Englande, betweene that 
& Christetyde nexte followenge, & so to pay hir hir 

I have seene also another lettre dated at Watertowne the 
15 of July laste, from William Hamonde the elder to 
the sayd Thomas Eoote, to desyer hym to goe to his 
moother, the widowe Stewarde of Cockeflelde, to whom 
he had signified in a lettre that shee shoolde paye the mony 
in question to the sayd Thomas Eoote, for to paye it over to 
Mres Coppinger accordingly, but the sayd wydowe Stewarde 
denyed the sayd Eoote to paye one pennye of it. 

Nowe for that it may be demanded whie the husbande 
of Mres Coppinger (who is of sufficient abyllytie to deale 
in this buysynes) is not prevye to this matter, that is 
awnswered, that it is vnseemelye for the wyfe to reveale 
the husbands defects, who if he knewe of it or coolde 
fynger it, woolde soone spende it, as formerly myserable 
experience hathe tawghte, from whence shee is enforced, 
withowte his privitie, to seeke to recoover it, only for the 
supplie of hir owne & hir childrens necessitie. And if it 
shoolde so falle owte that any wayes paymente heereof 
be made, then it is humbly desyred you woolde be pleased 
to sende it to mee for hir. 

Yours ever & vnfaynedlye Eobte. Eyece. 



To the looorshipfuM his moste respected good ffrinde Mr. John 
Wrinthrope esqr. at his liowse at Boston in Newe Englande geve 

Sir, — This bearer, Mr. Fyske,* beinge one every waye 
so pious & religeous, needes not my comendations of hym, 
but the malignitie of the tymes, removinge hym with son- 
dry others of his profession into your partes, hathe re- 
quired this shorte wry tinge of mee, in his behalfe, that 
what imployement you can procure hym, I may be thanke- 
full vnto you for it. Hee is a graduate, & havinge preached 
mooche, seinge the danger of the tymes, he changed his 
profession of divinitie into phisicke, wherein he hathe now 
laste warde employed hym selfe. He is a good schollar & 
an honeste man. I pray pardon my abrupte & sooddeyne 
wri tinge. I can stay no longer, but after the true remem- 
brance of my beste respecte vnto you, I take my leave this 
19 of Apryll, 1637, and do remayne 

Yours euery wayes mooche bownde 

Robte. Ryece. 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, " Mr. Ryece per Mr. Fiske." 

* The writer refers to the Eev. John Fiske, who was born at St. James's Parish, in 
South Elmham, Suffolk, 1601, and educated at King's College, Cambridge. He came over 
in 1637 ; settled first at Cambridge, but removed the same year to Salem, where he taught 
the grammar school; Sir George Downing being among his pupils. He was ordained at 
Wenham, 8 Oct., 1644; and removed to Chelmsford in 1655, where he died 14 Jan., 1677. 
Mather's Magnalia, iii, xxiv; Allen's Hist, of Chelmsford, pp. 119-126; Savage's Geneal. 
Diet. — Eds. 




Whereas abowte 12 moneth synce came forthe a boocke 
in defence of the orthodoxall doctrine of the church of 
Englande against Sabbatarian novel tie, whereat many 
began secretly to murmure, for that it was bytter, & dyd 
overthrowe the tenents of the church of Englande, in that 
poynte which none durste publickly oppose, bycawse many 
defended it so earnestly, at the length, abowte whitsontyde 
laste, there was scattered abroade a very lytle treatise of 
16 leaves, in 4to, entyteled a briefe awnswere to a late 
treatise of the Sabbath daye, digested dialogue wyse be- 
tweene 2 divines, A & B, withowte the name of any 

These 2 divines meetinge & conferringe of this boocke, 
the one of them thowghte it a verye dangerous boocke 
to the awthor, if it mighte be well examined before compe- 
tente judges, bycawse, as he sayeth, it overthroweth the 
doctryne of the church of Englande, in the poynte of the 
Sabbathe, for the very tytle is A defense of the Ortho- 


* The handwriting of this letter is the same with that of the four letters which have 
preceded it, and is unquestionably that of Robert Ryece. We have preferred to give those 
bearing his own name first and together; but it will be perceived that this letter, under the 
assumed name of Lawrence Browne, was written a few months earlier than either of the two 
last of those under his own name. In addition to the evidence of handwriting, it will be 
observed that the letter preceding the last given makes distinct reference to this one. It 
says, "I wrotte also vnto you the 9 of September lasted' — which is the exact date of this 
letter; and adds, " I am styll a bolde petitioner to you to helpe vs to a mappe of your con try 
as it is now inhabited;" while this letter says, in a marginal postscript, "I praye you 
remember the plott or mappe of New Englande." We shall see more of this mystery in 
the three letters which follow this. — Eds. 


Sabbatarian Noueltye. Those divine[s] shewe that the 
boocke is dedicated to the Archbishop of Canterbury,* 
by whose direction, &, that accordinge to his Majestyes 
sacred comande, he sett vpon this woork bothe for the 
preventinge of mischeefe, (as he sayeth in his Epistlle 
dedicated to the Archbishop) & to setle the Kinges good 
subiectes, who of longe tyme had byn dystracted abowte 
Sabbatarian questions. Nexte of all these devynes doe 
shewe that the awthor can have but smalle thankes for his 
labor, when as the King, who is the defender of the faythe 
of the church of Englande, hathe often solomly protested 
& that in his publicke declarations, in printe, as at the 
dissolvinge of the parliamente, & declaration before the 39 
Articles, that he wyll neuer suffer therein the leaste 
innouation. So agayne one of them alledgeth there ad- 
versary is a greate scholler, deepely learned, a Reuerende 
father of the church, his judgemente must be taken for an 
oracle. Accordinge to that, in a late boocke established 
by aucthoritie, as the Communion boocke expounded by 
Reue, page 20, sayeth, that the holy fathers in God, the 
Bishops, are to be guydes in divinitie, vnto the wholle 
clargie of inferior order, vnto whose godly judgements in 
all matters pertayninge to religeon all owghte to submitte 
them selves, bycawse the fathers in the church now & all- 
wayes doe in the greate mistery of Godlines comprehende, 
which the common people do not ; and some thinges which 
the ministers of the inferiour order do not apprehende, so 
that wha[t]soeuer thay delyver muste be beleeved as sownde 
rewles. And heere the divines take occasion to speake 
that wee lyve in a learned age, that wee denie the popes 
infallabyllytie, or that it can convaye it selfe as from the 
heade, & so confine it selfe within the veines of the body 
of the prelacye ; or that a rochett can confine this grace 
ex opere operato. Then thay saye thay had neede to vin- 

* Laud. — Eds. 


dicate not only the doctrine of the church of Englande, 
which is by this boocke cleane overthrowne, but also those 
calumnious & odious tearmes which he geveth to those 
whose opinions he impugneth in this treatise, as venemous 
serpents, noysome tares, pestilente weeds, vncleane beastes 
& novell Sabbatarians. 

Now to shewe how the doctryne of the church of Eng- 
lande is overthrowne in this poynte of the Sabbath, these 
divines say that the doctrine of the church of Englande 
concerninge the Sabbath is moste cleerely sett downe in 
the boocke of homylyes, vnto which all mynisters do sub- 
scribe, & by 39 Articles is comended as whollsome, neces- 
sary, &c. Heere the severall places are alledged at large, 
& then observeth owte of them these conclusions, as 1, That 
all Christians are bownde in conscience of the 4 comandi- 
mente to keepe the Lords day holyly. Secondly, that by 
force of the 4 comandimente one day in 7 is perpetually 
to be kepte holy. Thirdly, that the keepinge of the Lords 
day is grownded vpon & commanded in the 4 comandi- 
mente, & so is not of humane institution, fforthely, that the 
Lords daye is & may be called our Christian Sabbath daye, 
there fore it is not Jewish, so to call it. 51y, that this daye 
is wholly to be spente in holy reste & dutyes of sanctifica- 
tion, & therefore no parte of it owghte to be spente in 
vayne pleasures and prophane sportes, all which conclu- 
sions the adversarye overthroweth by this boocke. 

The adversary to this sayeth that this position (to wytt 
the 4 comandimente is properly & perpetuallye morall ; & 
is for qualytie & obligation equall to the other 9 comandi- 
mentes) which for many yeeres hathe reigned in pamph- 
letts, pulpitts, & coventicles, (& is entertayned as an oracle 
by all suche as eyther openly professe, or do leane to the 
desciplinarian faction) is destitute of truthe. These woords 
compared to the homylye ar fownde quite contrarye. 

The divine sayeth that the 4 comandimente determynes 
expressely the tyme & daye for the Sabothe & service of 


God. The keepinge of the Lord's day is grownded 
vpon the equitie of the 4 comandimente. The tyme 
for this resteth in no mans pover to determyn, bnt only 
in God. 

The adversary sayeth the particular forme & circum- 
stances of restinge are prescribed vnto vs by the precepts 
of the church, our spirit uall actions are tawghte by the 
Evangelicall lawe : our modification, limitation in respecte 
of rytes, forme, place, duration, gesture, habytt &c. are 
prescribed by the lawe of the church & so page 270. It 
was in the free election of the church to appoynte what 
day or dayes or tymes shee thowghte good for religeous 
dutyes, &c. 

The devines saye that the 4 comandimente prescribes a 
certayne proportion of tyme, & a fixed daye, consecrated by 
God hym selfe vnto His solemne & sacred woorship, which 
in that very respecte is perpetually morall. The adversary 
confesseth naturall equitie in the 4 comandimente, that some 
tyme is to be sett aparte for the service of God, but lefte 
to the liberty of the church to determyn & lymytt the speciall 
tyme when, & how longe, what portion or proportion is to 
be allowed, whither one day in 20, or 40, or 100, or one 
day in the yeere, or but one peece of a daye in suche a re- 
volution of tyme, & not one wholle or entyre daye, muche 
lesse one wholle daye in euery 7. And so page 98, the 4 
comandimente in respecte of any one defenite & speciall 
daye of every weeke, was not symply & perpetually morall 
but posityve & temporary onlye. 

This the divines say is contrary to the homy lies, even 
in terminis, which saye by the 4 comandimente wee owghte 
to have a tyme, as one day in a weeke, &c., & this appurtayn- 
eth to the lawe of nature as a thinge moste godly, moste 
juste, & needefull for the settinge forthe of Gods glory, & 
therefore owghte to be retayned & kepte of all good Chris- 
tian people. No, sayeth the adversary, one day in the 
weeke was but posityve & temporary only. 



But the divine, leavinge to presse the adversary any more 
with auctorytie of the church, observeth these reasons & 
growndes owte of the woords of the comandimente, Re- 
member the Sabboth daye to keepe it holy, which woords 
are the very morall substance of the 4 comandimente. The 
Lord sayeth not, Remember to sanctifye some conveniente 
& sufficiente tyme, as the church shall think e fytt. The 
comandimente prescribeth a certayne & sett tyme, yea a 
daye, the Sabbath daye, one daye hi the we eke, which is 
the Sabbath daye. 

Agayne it teacheth vs what daye in the weeke, the Sab- 
bathe daye is, to wytt, the Sabbothe day of the Lorde thie 
God. That day in the weeke wherein the Lord our God 
resteth muste be our Sabbath day : so that as the comandi- 
mente prescribes vnto vs a weekely Sabbath daye to be 
sanctefied: so God's precedente & example poyntes owte 
vnto vs, what or which daye in the weeke wee muste reste 
on, to sanctefye it. And this is not only the naturall equi- 
tie, but the very naturall lawe & substance of the 4 co- 
mandimente, to prescribe a sett solemne day in the weeke ; 
& not to leave it in the power of man or of the church to 
appoynte what tyme thay please. The reasons ar these. 
1, bycawse the comandimente expressely lymiteth one sett 
daye in the weeke, beinge the Sabbothe day of the Lorde 
our God. Now the comandimente prescribinge a sett & 
fixed daye in the weeke, what humane power shall dare to 
alter it into an indefinite tyme I 2. The seconde reason 
whie it is not lefte in the power of the church to prescribe 
what tyme men please, by cawse it is Gods prerogatyve as 
a maister to appoynte his owne woorship & service, so the 
tyme wherein he wylbe served. 3 reason is, becawse an 
indeffenite tyme muste eyther binde to all moments of tyme, 
as a debtte when the daye of paymente is not expressed is 
liable to paymente eny momente, or else it bynds to no 
tyme at all, ffor if the lawe of God binds vs not to an ex- 
presse determinate tyme, or daye consecrate to his service : 


then the not allowenge hym a sett tyme, or daye, there is 
no transgression, if a sett tyme or daye be not observed, 
ffor where no lawe is, there is no transgression. Heere he 
alleclgeth sonclry remarkable judgements of snche as have 
profaned & polluted some parte of the Lords daye within 
2 yeeres. 

Agayne the divines affirme thay have harde the adver- 
sary say in open courte, that a man mighte be iustefyed to 
daye & condemned to morowe. That there is no sanctifi- 
cation of the Sabbath but reste, reste only. And by cawse 
the dyvines woolde not be taxed of a pryvate interpretation 
of the homely as a factious Sabbatarian noveliste, enclined 
to the disciplinarian faction, he sheweth the judgemente & 
vnderstandinge of others which do agree in the same inter- 
pretation of the doctrine of our church layed downe in the 
homy lie, as Mr. Hooker & Dr. Andrewes, from whose 
woorkes thay alledge sondry playne places withowte excep- 
tion, so that thay conclude that the Lords daye is come in 
place of the olde Sabbathe daye, & so is become our Sab- 
bathe daye, & by necessary consequence grownded vpon the 
4 comandimente. And if it be asked Quo Jure, by what 
righte doothe the Lords daye take the place of the Sabbath 
daye? It is awnswered owte of the Psalme, God made it 
so ; and Christes Resurrection declared it to be so : & the 
Appostles observed it so ; yea & commanded it so too. 
After thay shewe it was the tenet of the antiente catho- 
licke church which dyd observe it, & call the Lords daye, 
the Sabbath of the Lorde, which thay kepte in place of the 
olde Sabbath daye. 

And bycawse there is a greate clamor of late for appli- 
enge the name of the Sabbothe to the Lords daye, thay 
proove it may be so called by these reasons. 1. Becawse it 
is our reste daye. 2. The Appostles calle it our reste, a 
Sabbatisme. 3. The very name of the Lords daye im- 
portes so moche, as beinge the Lords holy daye, as Esay 
58 : 13 : and that day whereon the Lorde rested from the 


woorke of his Redemption, & so sanctefied by hym & to 

And so thay showe, that in the sayde homyly it is called 
the Sabbathe daye 10 tymes, in one other homy lie 8 tymes, 
& in a 3 homely 2 tymes ; and in King James his procla- 
mation, 7 of May 1603, twyce. 

Then thay come to all recreations on the Sabbath daye, 
which thay proove vnlawefull, by lawes domesticke, by the 
Imperiall lawes, by the edictes & constitutions of famous 
princes, comon lawes & cyvill lawes, & by all the reformed 
churches, thowghe the adversary nullefyes them for no 
true churches, bycawse thay have no prelates, to putt them 
in order & governe them, who all calle the Lords daye the 
Sabbathe daye, for the due sanctification whereof they 
pleade moste earnestly & zealouslye. 

In May laste came forthe a boocke allowed by aucthori- 
tie, & withowte the name of the awthor, entytled A Coale 
from the Altar* or an awnswere to a lettre not longe 
synce wrytten to the vicar of Grantham, against the placinge 
of the communion table at the Easte ende of the chancell, 
& now of late dispersed abroade to the disturbance of the 
church. Heere I pray you I vnderstande that the vicar of 
Grantham was deade 6 years synce, & this supposed lettre 
is sayde to be wrytten at a leaste 1 1 yeeres synce by the 
Bishop of Lyncolne, one not hi the favor of these tymes, 
but labored by his adversaryes to have all disgrace heaped 
vpon hym ; and the author of this Coale from the Alter 
is an notable flatterer of the courte, one Dr. Helyn, one that 
hathe mooche for abrogatinge the olde syncerytie of the 

* Dr. Heylin's work, entitled "A Coale from the Altar, " — published in 1636, in re- 
ply to a letter ascribed to Rev. John Cotton, but written by Dr. Williams, Bishop of 
Lincoln, — was answered by Prynne, in an elaborate treatise of 358 pages 4to, under 
the title of "A Quench Coale;" the address to the reader bearing date July 10, 1636, 
but printed in the following year. — Eds. 


The Dr., at the firste enterance, gathereth that this let- 
tre to the vicar of Grantham shoolde come from a reuercnde 
prelate of this church, which lettre havinge muche dis- 
coraged a greate friende of the doctors, who had thowghte 
to have removed his communion table to the vpper ende 
of the chancell, vntyll readinge this lettre or epistell he was 
wholly discorged ; vpon the which the doctor wryteth his 
opinion of this lettre, & awnswereth every parte of it, ad- 
visynge his friende to obay the orders now prescribed. 
Then he gathereth the passages in the epistle for which it 
is probably beleeved the epistle was wrytten by a reue- 
rende prelate, as from a diocesan to a private parish prieste 
in his jurisdiction, which when he had made as playne as 
he coolde, he sayeth that he can not thus beleeve, but 
rather that this lettre was wrytten by Mr. Cotton of Bos- 
ton, who meaninge one daye to take sanctuary in New 
Englande, was wy Hinge to doe some greate acte before his 
goenge, that he mighte be the better wellcome when he 
came amongest them. And thus he concludeth that this 
epistle was now spreade abroade of purpose to discownte- 
nance the vniformitie of publicke order, to which the pye- 
tye of these tymes was so muche enclyned, and that this 
discourse or epistell, which was so muche sowghte after, 
applawded, & scattered in sondrye coppies, was so of pur- 
pose doone, to distracte the common people, & to hinder 
that good woorke which was now in hande. As towchinge 
the preamble he had not sayd any thinge, but that there he 
mett with somewhat, which seemed to cast a scorne vpon the 
reverence appoynted by the canon vnto the blessed name 
of Jesus. 

Then he discendeth to the 3 particulars wherein the 
vicar of Grantham desyred to be satisfied, 1, for the 
havinge of an altar at the vpper ende of his quier. 2, 
the placinge of the communion table altarwyse. 3, the 
flxinge of it in the quier, so as it may not be removed into 
the bodye of the church. He sheweth that the Elders 


of the vestrye, & the vestry doctryne of these dayes, were 
againste this doctryne ; he declared that as the Lord's Supper 
may be called a Sacrafize, so may the holy table be called 
an altar, & sett vp in the place where the altar stoodde, 
he shewed that the martyrs called the Lords Supper a Sa- 
crifice, & many tymes the Sacramentt of the altar. So that 
there is a Sacreiice, Christes propitiatory Sacrefize, and 
there is an altar, not the Jewysh altar, vpon which the 
Jewes were wonte to offer there burnt offeringes, but 
the table of the Lorde, and there is the Sacramente of the 
altar, the sacramente of the body & bloodde of Christe. 

He sheweth that the papistes calles the communion 
table, sett in the myddest of the channcell an oyster boorde 
or oyster table, & when this table is fixed in the wall, the 
Puritane and Mr. Prinne calleth the communion table a 
dresser bourde, he expecteth that this trymme episteler wyll 
shortly contrary hym ; & for the latter parte of dyvine ser- 
vice, called the seconde service, he sayeth there muste be 
some spare tyme for the mynister to goe from the readinge 
pewe, & the Lordes table, there muste be some tyme rea- 
sonable betweene morninge prayer & the comunion, yea 
he afhrmeth the wholle frame & fashion of divine service 
had byn longe synce cleane loste in Englande, had it not 
byn kepte & preserved in the Kings chappell, & cathedrall 

He calleth hym an extravagante episteler ; by this you may 
see of what strayne the episteler is, for the Lorde[s] table 
was awntiently called an altar. In Kinge Edwards raigne 
the comon people tooke the Lordes table sett altar wyse for 
a dresser, thowghe Bishop Jewell sayeth that the holy table 
was called an altar, only in allusion of the altars of the 
olde lawe. 

He concludeth that the vicar of Grantham might safely 
holde his 3 conclusions. 1, that an alter maye be vsed in 
the Christian church. 2, that the communion tablie may 
stande alterwyse, the mynister officiatinge at the northe 


encle thereof. 3, That the table may stande constantly in 
the vpper parte of the channcell, close alonge the wallc, 
both hi the fyrste or seconde service. 

Laste of all, he alledgeth that in a case of St. Grego- 
ryes church nexte St Pauls, London, his sacred majestie 
hathe declared his pleasure, that all Metropolitanes, Bi- 
shops, & Ordinaryes shall require, in all the churches 
commytted to there charges, that the communion tables be 
placed altarwyse, and this, he sayeth, he faythefuliy coppied 
owte of the registers of his cowncell table. 

And further sayeth that the communion table is to be 
placed altarwyse, at the vpper ende of the channcell, in 
such manner as it stande th in the Kings Chappell, & in all 
colledgiate & cathedrall churches, the moother churches, (as 
consonante to the practise of approved antiquitie), by which 
all other churches dependinge there vpon owghte to be 
guyded & governed. 

I muste nowe entreate you to goe backe agayne to calle 
to mynde our Episcopall visitation in lente laste, as you have 
harde, the strictest that euer was ; so many good men sus- 
pended & removed for not conformitie to the new orders, 
amonge which, a lytle before harvest, Mr. Stansby was 
deprived ; thay enquire, whither the surplyce hathe byn 
woorne & the syne of the •f vsed at euery tyme the Sacra- 
mente is administred, whither the Sacramente of the Supper 
byn admynistred to any, not syttinge, standinge, or leaning 
vnreverently, but humbly kneelinge vpon there knees in 
playne & open viewe, withowte collusion & hipocresye. 
Doothe the communion table stande at the easte ende of 
the chancell, where the alter in former tymes stoodde ? 
Doothe euery one vse lowly reverence at the name of 
Jesus % Dothe euery one stande vp at the Ghospell 1 
Doothe all the people stande vp & say Glory be to the 
Father, at the ende of euery psalme readinge ] To beginne 
the mariadge, in the mariadge, in the body of the church, 


& then to goe to the communion table : at every mariadge 
to have a comunion ; to kneele at all the collectes, at the 
buriall & the comunion : the women to be churched with 
there vayles, which is begunne in the body of the church 
& then fynished at the communion table. No mynister or 
lecturer but muste fyrste in his whoodd & surplyce reade 
all the devine service what so euer, before the sermon, & 
then, goenge into the pulpitt, he muste saye his sermon 
(for the woorde preache is obsolete) ; at the ende he muste 
goe to the hie altar, there to saye the seconde service & to 
fynishe all. Is there any vestry meetinges, who doe 
secretly hinder the peace of the church? 

By this breviate heere formerly abstracted you may see 
how the Lords day is kepte heere. Maysters of famylies 
complayne exceedingly thay cannot contayne there ser- 
vantes from excursions into all prophane sportes & pastimes 
on the Lords daye ; wee haue judgements daylye vpon suche 
occasions, but no man regardeth them. It hathe byn well 
observed this laste springe heere was very whotte & drye, 
euen in seede tyme, & so contynewed of longe tyme, that 
the grasse was so burned vp, that at our vzuall hay seele * 
wee had lytle or no grasse to cutt, or to feede our catle ; 
at laste God sente vs rayne, but it was so immoderate & 
vehimente, even in our harvest, with suche stronge blastes 
& stormes, layenge moste of the corne natte vpon the 
grownde, that not halfe of the corne which came vp coolde 
be reaped, & that which was reaped is so growne, that 
many feare but doe not knowe what maye heereof prove 
& ensewe. The plague & infection is come to 536 this 
laste weeke at London. The Kinge hathe byn very care- 
full to prevente the infection from dispersenge, for which 
cawse he adiourned parte of laste Trynitie tearme, as from 
the seconde retorne, called octavis trimtatis, vntill tres tri- 

* Haysel, the time of hay -harvest. Hay-sale. Moor's Suffolk Words and Phrases. — 


nitatis then nexte folio wenge, at Cambrydge no pnblicke 
Commencemente, no Barthollmew fayer at London, or our 
Lady fayer in Sowthewoorke, no Styrbrydge fayer, no Ely 
fayer &c. In all these calamyties wee never wente to God 
publickly, by fastinge & prayer, which was deemed as hate- 
full as conventicles, the frute of the vestry elders, there 
vestry doctryne, & the disciplinarian faction ; yett at the 
lengthe, vpon the private prayers & fastes of many of Gods 
deere servants, it pleased the Lorde to sende suche an 
abundante frutefull Mihellmas sprynge, to the full supply 
of what so euer was wantynge in our Soommer springe, that 
for grasse, haye, & pasture euery one hathe an aboundante 
store & supplie. I woolde I coolde wryte vnto you of any 
lectures contynewed : our hie contempte of the woorde when 
wee had it abondantly, hathe begoonne this presente fa- 
myne, which is feared wyll sty 11 encrease. I haue no more 
roome, so that I cannot now goe any farther, only I woolde 
entreate you remember vs in your prayers. And so after 
the true contynewance of our beste affection & respecte 
vnto you, wee desyre the Allmighty styll to preserve you 
with all yours. 

Yours euery wayes as I shoolde be or woolde be 

Lawrence Browne. 
9 September, 1636. 

I praye you remember the plott or mappe of New Eng- 





Moste Deere & Christian Ffriende, — To satisfie 
your expectation, & myne owne dewe respecte, (wherein I 
woolde be loathe to be any wayes defectyve) I praye you 
to vnderstande that our Allminake makers, blasted some 2 
yeeres synce with Jupiters Thunderbolte for beinge to 
curious in there predictions, have ever synce sylently lefte 
all presages to the evente of eury season ; yett have many 
noted sondry strange alterations this laste yeere now paste. 
The Springe was very hotte & drye, burninge vp the grasse, 
the harveste very wette & dropping, & so the weather fol- 
io winge very variable, which bredde a sore plague bothe 
at London & in sondrye other places, by reason whereof 
mydsommer tearme was in parte cutte of, and so was Mich- 
elmas tearme for the moste parte cutte of. This Sommer 
the King wente in progresse, as I thinke, into Shropshiere, 

* There are three letters with this signature. The name of Thomas Srr^the is fami- 
liar as that of the old Treasurer and Governor, for twelve years, of the Virginia Company; 
but he is believed to have died some years before the date of these letters, which, like the 
last, are all in the unmistakable handwriting of Robert Ryece. The first of these letters 
contains general information and remark in Ryece's peculiar vein; the second gives a 
manuscript copy of Prynne's " Newes from Ipswich; " and the third communicates some 
of the " particular orders, directions, and remembrances " of that Bishop of Norwich whom 
Pr} r nne had satirized. The danger of being discovered in writing such letters in those days 
of civil and religious persecution, and particularly of being detected in giving circulation to 
any thing of Prynne's (then a prisoner in the Tower, with his ears at least once cropped), 
will account sufficiently for the assumed name under which the letters were written. 
They are dated but a few days apart from each other, and doubtless came over by the 
same ship. Gov. Winthrop has indorsed on the last of the three, in which the others 
would seem to have been enclosed, "Mr. S: his A: B: C: " and these letters of the alpha- 
bet are affixed to the signatures, respectively, by the writer himself. On another part of 
the back of the same letter, Gov. Winthrop has also written, " Mr. R: Answ: " — Eds. 


where the King was exceeclinge angry for his badde enter- 
taynemente. The Sheerefe had but 10 men, & never a gen- 
tleman with hym, but euery gentleman was from his howse, 
& in all places where the King shoolde lodge, the goodman 
gone, none at home but the wyfe, with abondance of all 
sortes of victualls & servants. Heere formerly was Bene- 
volences & Shipmony denyed, which some construed was 
the cawse of euery mans generall absence. Duringe this 
progresse there was one Bumpsted, sometymes a tayler of 
Mellforde, then folloAvenge the Lorde Savadge, & synce 
folio wenge a knighte who maried the lords dawghter, was 
observed to followe the courte, & there apprehended for 
dyvers evill woords & purposes to the King : he was comit- 
ted to the Tower, where he yett resteth. 

This Summer the Bishop of Norwiche, by his deputyes, 
made as stricte a visitation in that Diocesse, as euer was 
seene before; all the weekely lectures putte downe, with ser- 
mons in the afternone on the Lord's daye, many mynisters 
sylenced, suspended, & putt from there places for not con- 
formytie & readinge the Kings boocke* for liberty & recre- 
ation on the Lords daye. Our Littargie now devyded into 2 
partes, the one to be reaclde in the readinge deske, in the 
other, called the seconde service, to be reade in the chancell, 
at the communion table, placed now at the easte ende of the 
chancell, nexte the wall, northe & sowthe. Euery preacher 
to say all the service fully, with the seconde service at hie 
altar, before he goeth into the pulpytt, & there to vse no 
prayer, but to end all at the hie alter. Yf there be a 
communion, euery communicante is to kneele at the rayle 
now sett vp in euery chancell before the hie alter. After the 
comunion euery one offereth his devotion or oblation, with 
all humble inclyninge reverence to the mynister at the hve 
altar. Every wooman in her vayle goeth to the rayle, there 

* King James I.'s " Declaration concerning Lawful Sports to be used," published in 
1618, and now required by Laud to be observed by the clerg}'. — Kps. 


to be churched. Euery mariadge is there with all solem- 
nitie fynished. No man is to passe by this alter withoute 
crowchinge & humble obeysance. And to what ende is 
all this service & devotion so many waves performed heere 
at this altar, but only to drawe veneration & addoration of 
that invisible power vnto which it is referred ? Ffrom the 
communion tables they are in many places come to erecte 
curious altars, which they adorne with sylke & embrodered 
carpetts, in some places with lightes, in other places with 
crucifixes, etc. Whiles these thinges were a setlinge, & 
religion in euery place wente downe, the Bishop came to 
Ipswiche to lye there at a howse of his wyves, but the 
mariners & inferior vulgar, impatiente to haue there myni- 
sters & religeon dysplased, gave sondry rude affrontes to 
the Bishop & his followers, which cawsed hym all on a 
sooddayne, as afrayde, on his owne condition to leave Ip- 
swiche, and to take a howse almoste halfe way betweene 
Ipswiche & Bury, at Tostocke, whither he had dayly intel- 
ligence of all thinges befallen ; but this place beinge farre 
from the courte, he removed agayne, & wente to Wyndsore 
& those partes, to bee neere the courte. Soone after son- 
dry petytions & complayntes of suspended & depryved myn- 
isters to aucthoritie, but withowte all redresse that I coolde 
euer heere, and at the Courte of Comperts* or Correc- 
tions, all severitie & extremitie vsed. One accidente which 
I credibly hard, I can not omytte ; — while the Bishop his 
chancelor, Dr. Corbett, was vpon his seate of justice at 
Bury, newes was browghte hym that Mr. Rogers of Ded- 
ham dyed the laste nighte.f Is he so? sayd the chancelor, 
let him goe in reste, for he hathe troobled all the contry 
these 30 yeeres, & dyd poyson all those partes for x myle 
rounde abowte that place, — the manner of whose death 
is thus reported ; whiles the Bishop was at Ipswiche, one 

* Comperlorium, a judicial inquest made to find out or relate the truth of a cause. — 
Bailey's Dictionary. — Eds. 

f Rev. John Rogers of Dedham died Oct. 8, 1636. — Eds. 


daye, havinge occasion to ryde forthe, comanded his ser- 
vantes to hyer poste horses ; who browght hym worde that 
all the horses were taken vp, by suche as wente to the 
sermon at Dedham. Is the wynde at that doore ] sayde 
the Bishop, I wyll soone ease that : & so not longe after, 
as the Commissary synce confessed, he had commande 
from Canterbury vpon the complaynte of Norwich to stay 
the lecture at Dedham : wherevpon the Commissary wrotte 
a friendely letter to Mr. Rogers, shewenge hym he had 
commandemente from Canterbury to require hym to stay 
his lecture now for a whiles the plague continewed, 
which by suche concourses was daylie encreased. Mr. 
Rogers, beleevinge, as was pretended, stayed his lecture, 
& after harvest ended, the Doctor & Comissary was moved 
for renewene of the lecture ; the Comissary gave fayer 
woordes, promysynge very shortely thay shoolde haue 
liberty, which after sondry promyses, withowte all in all 
intention, Mr. Rogers seinge there was a secrett determi- 
nation wholly to suppresse that lecture, this strooke hym 
to the harte, hastened all his naturall malladies to his 
vttermost periode. It may be you may thinke I am some 
what teadious, yett bycawse you may deeme I owe you 
many letres, & wrytinge but once in a yeere, albeit you 
have farre better relations from others, yett you are con- 
tente to beare with mee ; and therevpon I muste further 
shewe you what further occurred this yeere, as sondry 
libells secretly scattered this yeere, but grownded vpon the 
presente state of thinges, whereof I wyll geve you only 
the tytles & ffrontespices, by which you maye iudge what 

they conteyne. As, Certayne Questions propownded 

to Archbishops, Bish6ps, Arche deacons & Comyssaryes, 
Chawncellers, Officialls, & other awdacious vsurpers vpon 
his majesties royall prerogatyve, lawes, & his loyall sub- 
iectes lawfull liberties; woorthie there awnswere & all mens 
knowledge. — Item, Certayne Queres propownded to the 
Bowers to the names of Jesus, & to the patrons thereof, 


wherein the authorities & reasons alledged by Bishop An- 
drewes & his followers in defense of this ceremony are 
breefely examined & refuted ; the mistranslation of Phil : 
2. 10. 11. cleered, & that texte with others acquited bothe 
from commandinge or awthorizinge this novell ceremony, 
heere geven to be vnlawfull in sondry respectes. The 4 
edition corrected, 1636. — The Vnbishopinge of Tymothie 
& Tytus, or a briefe elaborate Discourse, provinge Tymo- 
thie to be no Bishop (muGhe lesse any sole or dyocesan 
Byshop) of Ephesus, nor Tytus of Creete, & that the 
power of Ordination, or imposition of hands belonges 
Jure diuino to Presbiters as well as to Bishopps, and not to 
Bishopps only. Wherein all obiections & pretenses to the 
contrary are fully awnswered, & the pretended superioritie 
of Bishopps over mynisters & presbiters, Jure diuino (now 
moche contended for) vtterly subverted, in a moste per- 
spicuous manner, by a well wysher to God's truthe & 
people. In the yeere 1636. — A breefe awnswere to a 
late treatise of the Sabbath daye, digested dialogue wyse 
betweene 2 Dyvines, A and B. — A divine tragedy lately 
acted, or a collection of sondry memorable examples of 
Gods Judgements vpon Sabbathe-breakers, & other lyke 
lybertynes in there vnlawefull sportes, happeninge within 
the Reallme of Englande in the compasse only of 2 yeeres 
laste paste, synce the boocke was published ; woorthie to 
be knowne & considered of all men, especially suche who 
are guyltie of the synne, or arche patrons thereof. Anno 
1636. In the ende of which collection is inserted the 
history of Mr. Prynne pursewed by Mr. Noy, a greate fa- 
vourer of Sabbathe recreations & pollutions, in this manner. 
Mr. William Noye, the greate Gamaliell of the lawe, the 
Kings attornye generall, as he had a greate hande in com- 
pilinge & republishinge the late declaration for pastimes on 
the Lords daye (thruste owte by hys, & a greate prelates 
practice, to thwarte Judge Richardson's good order for 
suppressinge of wakes & revells in Somersetshiere, & the 


Justices of that Shires petition to his majestye for the con- 
tynewance of it, & to make waye for a Starrechamber 
cawse against Mr. Prinne), he so eagerly persecuted this 
Mr. Prinne, of his owne profession & societye (to whom 
he was formerly a friende in apparance, but an invete- 
rate enemy e in trewthe) for his Histrio mastix* compiled 
only owte of the woordes & sentences of other approoved 
awthors of all sortes, againste the vse & exercyse of stage 
playes, maypoles, wakes, lascivious mixed dawncinge, & 
other Ethenicke pastimes, condemned in all ages, with- 
owte any thowght or suspicion of gevinge the leaste 
offence, eyther to the Kings moste excellente majesty, the 
Queene, or State, as he averred in his awnswere vpon his 
oathe. And althowghe this boocke was written 4 yeeres, 
licensed allmoste three, printed fully off a quarter of a 
yeere, & published 6 weekes before the Queenes Majes- 
ties pastorall, against which it was falsely voyced to have 
byn principally wrytten ; dilligently perused & lycensed by 
Mi\ Thomas Buckner, the then Archbishop of Canter- 
bury his chaplyn, bothe before & after it came from the 
presse, entered into the Stationers' Hall, vnder the warden's 
hande, printed, published in 3 aucthorised printing howses, 
withowte the leaste controwle ; & published by the sayd 
licensers direction, who woolde haue nothinge newe print- 
ed in it, as appered vpon oathe at the hearinge ; and 
althowgh Mr. Noye hymselfe (to whom he presented one 
of the boocks) vpon the firste readinge of it, commended 
it, thanked him for it, ofte affirmed, that he sawe no hurte 
in it ; & at the hearinge confessed, that the worste & moste 
dangerous phrase & passage in it, mighte haue a good & 
fayer construction, & schollars woolde all take it in a good 
sence ; yett he handled the matter so (by suppressinge the 
gentlemans exhibitts & defense, wrestinge his woordes 

* Prvnne says this book was published "about Christide, 1632;" but the imprint bears 
date 163-3. New Discovery of the Prelates' Tyranny, &c , p. 7. — Eds. 


and meaninge, refucinge to discover the particulars of his 
boocke, on which he woolde insyste, thowghe ordered so 
to doe by the Courte, it beinge also impossible to instructe 
Cownsell how to make a reply e, & by tamperinge vnder 
hande with some of his cownsell, by no meanes to make 
any justification or defence to cleere his innocencye : 
thowghe the partie earnestly entreated, & gave them instruc- 
tions to the contrarye) that the poore gentleman receved 
censure at laste to be expelled owte of the vniversytie of 
Oxforde, & Lyncollns Inne, thruste from his profession, in 
which he never offended, ffyned 5000/£, to stande in 2 
severall pylleryes, & there to loose bothe hys eares, his 
boockes to be there burned before hym, & to suffer imprison- 
mente duringe hys lyfe besydes ; which sentence * thowghte 
by moste that harde the cawse to be meante only in ter- 
ror em, withowte any intention at all of execution, beinge 
respited for above 3 monethes space, & in a manner re- 
mitted by the Queene['s] moste gracious mediation, was yet 
by this attornyes & a greate prelates importunitie, beyonde 
all expectation, sooddenly & severelye executed, withowte 
any, the leaste mittigation, fewe of the lords so moche as 
knowenge of it. The gentleman heerevpon is sett vpon the 
pyllory at Westminster, & there he lost an eare. Mr. Noye, 
lyke a ioyfull spectator, lawghes at his sufferinge, & this 
his greate exploite he had browghte to passe, which 
diverse there presente observed & condemned in hym. 
The gentleman, lyke a harmeles lambe, takes all with 
suche patience, that he not so moche as once opened his 
mowthe to lett falle any woorde of discontente. Yett the 
Juste God & Sovereigne Lorde of heaven and earthe, who 
beholdeth mischeefe & spighte, to requite it with his 
hande, & avengeth the innocente bloodde of his servants, 
tooke this his myrthe & mallyce so heynously, that the 

* Prynne was sentenced 17 Feb. 1633-4, and the sentence was carried into execution 
on the 7th and 10th of May following. New Discovery, &c, pp. 10, 11. — Eds. 


same daye (as some abowte hym, & of his owne societye 
reported}, he who thus shedd his brothers & companions 
bloodde, by the juste hande of God, fell a voydinge & 
pyssinge owte his owne : which so amazed hym, that he 
vsed all the meanes he coolde, to smother it from the 
wooiide, charginge his lawndresse & those abowte hym 
not to speake of it, refucinge to acquaynte his phisitians 
with it. Heerevpon he growes very pallide, & ill ; the 
Phisitians wonder at it ; he complaynes to them of the 
gravell & stone in his kydneyes, tyll at laste he grewe so 
yll with this dyvine stroke, that he was forced to disclose 
his greefe to them, yett so as thay muste faythefully pro- 
myse to disclose it to no man, for feare the people shoolde 
saye it were a juste judgment of God on hym for shed- 
dinge Mr. Prinnes bloodde. But God woolde not have 
this secrett longe concealed ; his lawndresse, men, and some 
gentlemen of his societye discover & talke of it : he, 
mooche vexed in mynde, insteade of repentinge what he 
had doone, & seekinge to righte the partie wronged for 
his irreparable damage, lyke a harte or beaste once mor- 
tally wounded, proceeds on in his former furye ; seekes to 
bringe the poore distressed gentleman into freshe trooble, 
& a further censure, bringes hym ore tenus into the Starre 
chamber, reviles hym with all manner of vncivil woords, 
mooves to have hym close prysoner amonge the rogues in 
Newgate, sells his chamber, as forfeited to the howse by his 
expulsion, seiseth his boocks, & when the courte woolde 
not grawnte his vnreasonable malicious motion, above 5 
weekes after, in the longe vacation, when most of the lords 
were gone, & his Majestye in his progresse, drawes vp an 
order of his owne makinge in the Starre chamber, for the 
gentleman's close imprisonmente (the laste order he ever 
made), cawsed the Register to enter it, & sends it to the 
Tower to be executed. The same daye, he wente to Tun- 
bridge waters, with owte the lords or Courts pryvitie. The 
daye followenge, drinkinge of those waters, he was in 



myserable torture, in so moche that moste dispayred of his 
lyfe, & some reported he was deade ; & hearinge there that 
his disease of voydinge bloodde was then publickly knowne, 
& talked of in London, he was so vexed at it, that he felle 
owte with hys phisitians & servants, raylinge on them lyke 
a ffranticke man, as if they had betrayed hym, & disclosed 
his secretts ; yea it so fretted & gnawed his harte & con- 
science, that it made his very harte & entrayles to perishe, 
& abowght a fortnighte after browghte hym to his ende. 
Beinge opened after his deathe, there was not a droppe of 
bloodde fownde in his bodye, for he had voyded owte all 
before, his falice, malicious, hard harte with inwarde fret- 
tinge & vexinge was so consumed & shrinked vp, that it 
was lyke an olde rotten leather purse, or meere scurfFe. 
The phisitians never seinge the lyke before, his neshe & 
kydnes were as blacke as a hatte, his entrayles (excepte 
his lunges only) all putrid, & his carkase as a miserable 
spectacle, but no stone that coolde trooble hym was founde 
abowte hym. His ffunerall, accordinge to his desyre, was 
so pryvate, that there were hardlye gentlemen enowghe to 
carry hym to hys grave, but that some came in by acci- 
dente. Hys clyents, the players, for whom he had doone 
knightes service, to requite his kyndnes, the nexte tearme 
followenge make hym the subiecte of a merry Comedye, 
styled a Proiector lately deade, wherein they bringe 
hym in his lawiers robes vpon the stage, & openlye dissect- 
inge hym, fynde a 100 proclamations in his heade, a bun- 
dle of olde moathe eaten records in his mawe, & halfe a 
barrell of newe white sope in his belly, which made hym to 
skoore so muche, & yett say thay, he is styll very blacke & 
fowle within. And as if this voydinge of all his owne 
bloodde, & publicke disgrace on the stage were not 
sufficiente to expiate the wronged gentleman's bloodde 
& infamye, hym selfe in his laste wyll, layes a brande 
on his owne soonne & heire : bequeathinge all his goods 
& lands, not therein given to others, to Edwarde his 


eldeste soonne, to be scattered & spent : nee de eo melius 
speraui: * enowghe to make dutyfull childe turne vnthrifte; 
& a signe of a dispairinge man : which soonne of his, vpon 
his owne challenge & rashenes, hath byn synce slayne 
in a duell f in France, by Captayn Byron, who escaped 
scott free, & had his pardon. Thus hathe God ponished 
bloodd with bloodde, thus hath he dealt with one of the 
cheefe occasioners of this declaration, & burner of that 
boocke, which learnedly manifested the vnlawfullnes of 
the seuerall sportes & pastimes cowntenanced in it, espe- 
cially on the Lords owne sacred daye, owte of olde & new 
wryters of all sortes, & specifyed dyvers judgements of 
God vpon the awthers, acters & spectators of them, not 
vnwoorthy consideration in these sable tymes of plagues 
& judgements. 

There is yett one libell more, which vntyll better advyce, 
shall sende it you ; that you may the better judge what it 
dyd speake of, I sende you heere also the tytle, or prefixed 
frontispice of that treatice, entytled Newes from Ipswich, 
discoveringe certayne late detestable practises of some do- 
mineeringe Lordly Prelats, to vndermyne the established 
doctrine & discipline of our Church : extirpate all Ortho- 
doxall sincere preachers & preachinge of Gods woorde, 
vsher in Popery, Superstition & Idollatrye, with there late 
notorious purgations of the new ffaste boock, contrary to 
his majesties proclamation, and there intollerable affronte 
therein offered to the moste Illustruous Lady Elizabeth, the 
Kyngs only syster, & hir children, (even whiles they are 
no we Royally entertayned at Courte) in blottinge them owte 
of the Collectes: and to his Majestye hym selfe, his Queene, 

* The will of Attorney-General Nov, which is dated June 3, 1634, contains the follow- 
ing clause: " All the rest of my estate I leave to my son Edward (who is executor to this 
my will), to be squandered as he shall think fit. I leave it to him for that purpose, and I 
hope no better from him." William Noy died Aug. 9, 1634. — Eds. 

t Steele, in the "Tatler" (No. 9), relates that this "generous disdain, and reflection 
upon how little he deserved from so excellent a father, reformed the young man." It 
appears, however, that no such effect followed, and that he was killed in a duel, within 
two years after his father's death, as stated in ibis letter. — Eds. 


& there Royall progenye, in dashenge them owte of the 
nomber of Gods electe. Edition 3 : Printed at Ipswich, 
An: 1636* 

Vpon the 27 of December laste came the Erie of Aron- 
dell & Surrey home from his Ambassage to the Emperor 
Fferdinande the 2, & to the princes of Germany. He tooke 
his journy abowte the beginnynge of Aprill, and was 
sente from our King as Ambassador extraordinary vnto the 
Emperor, abowte the restitution of the Pallatinate, as it was 
sayd, but in vayne. He had a longe and difficulte journy, 
yett entertayned in eury place very respectyvely, especially 
at Prague in Bohemia, where an Iryshe man recter of the 
colledge of Jesuites. There our Ambassador was inter- 
tayned w T ith a Comedye in this sorte. Mercurie's servante as 
the prologue employed abowte makinge redy of the Theatre 
for the assembly of all the Gods and Goddesses (there to be 
presente, for the receyvinge of the Ambassador) falls vpon 
lytle children, who woolde fayne see the Ambassador of 
the King of England : he tells them they cannot see hym 
in the Theatre, vnlesse they wyll congratulate his comynge, 
whom by reason of there yonge yeeres thay can not salute 
in Latyne, but they may performe it in there owne naturall 
language, which was agreed vpon. And so the Gods & 
Goddesses enteringe, Mercury receyves them & places 
euery one accordingely. Then comes in Astrea, complaynes 
to Jupiter & the reste of the Gods, of the wickednes 
of the woorlde. Jupiter havinge harde all, delyvers the 
woorlde to be ponished by Mars & Vulcane. Here Peace, 
all forlorne, seekes vp & downe whar to have a place to be 
secured from the fury of Mars. Neptune carries Peace over 
into Englande in a sea shell. Then Mars devides the globe 
of the earthe into dyvers partes, & distributes them to the 
fury of Bellona & other agents. Heare Ceres, Apollo, & 

* The "libells," of which the titles are given in this letter, are all ascribed to Prynne; 
and, with a single exception, are enumerated in the list of his works given by Wood. See 
Athense Oxonienses, third edition, iii. 856. — Eds. 


Bacchus complayne before Jupiter of the infinite calamytie 
which thay endure from Mars : Jupiter sends them to Nep- 
tune : Neptune tells them, that he hathe comytted the 
Imperiall Governmente of the Sea, to Charles, Kinge of 
Greate Brittayne, and that thay muste make sewte to hym 
to restore peace to the woorlde. Mercury byds Ceres 
and Apollo to be of good cheere, & wylls them not to 
dowbte but that King Charles wyll shortly, by his Ambas- 
sador, Howarde, Earl of Arondell, reduce peace. Peace 
amrmeth that shee shalbe restored to hir former habita- 
tions, thay doe all gratulate one another, & geve there 
acclamation to Howard, to whom thay do wyshe & presage 
all happiness, etc. 

Sir, this supplimente I have added, but for a lytle re- 
freshenge, vpon the which many do dyversly opyne. Heere- 
vpon Charles Lodovike, Cownte Pallatyne of the Rhene 
publisheth his protestation againste all the vnlawfull & 
violente proceedinges against hym & his brotheren, particu- 
late againste the secrett & invalide dispocetions & decrees 
of the Emperor, in the translation of the Electorall digni- 
tie & dominions vpon the Duke of Bavaria : the vnlawfull 
and vayne election of a Kynge of the Romaynes, where 
his highnes & the Ellector of Tryers were excluded: and 
lastly againste the vyolente & vniust vsurpation & posses- 
sion of the Electorall dignitie, tytle, voyce & session, by 
the Duke of Bavaria. What this in tyme wyll effecte, tys 
only tyme wyll relate. And so sceasinge further at this 
tyme, remembringe my selfe moste respectyvely vnto you, 
I leave you with all yours to the safe protection of the 
Allmightie, and do reste 

Yours allwayes in all true & synceare affection. 

Thomas Smythe. 

This firste day of Marche, 1636. A 

If these lettres come to your hands, as I hope they shall, 
and to which ende I wrotte them, I pray you advertise mee 
of the receipte & date thereof. 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, " Rec. the 22 : of June." 





Christian Reader, this is the deplorable newes of our 
presente age, that our presses, formerlye open only to 
truthe & pietye, are closed vp againste them bothe of late, 
& patente for the moste parte, to nowghte but error, 
superstition & prophannes. Wytnes those a many pro- 
phane, erronious, impious boockes, printed within these 
3 yeeres, by aucthoritie (poynte blanke againste the estab- 
lished doctrine of the church of Englande, & his Majesty es 
pious 6 declarations) in defense of Arminianisme, Popery 
& popishe ceremonies: & which is yet more impious & 
detestable, ageynste c the very morallitie of the sabbath 
& forthe Commandimente : the divine institution, title, & 
entire religious sanctification of the Lord's daye sabbath, 
& the necessitie of frequent preachinge, (exceedeingly 

* This is believed to be an exact copy of Prynne's "Newes from Ipswiche;" though 
we have in vain sought for a printed copy of that production, with a view to comparison. 
It was said to have been written as " a satire upon the severe proceedings of the Bishop of 
Norwich." The bishop's name was Matthew Wren : hence the satire is signed Matthew 
White. In the anonymous letter which immediately follows the A: B: C: in this volume, 
the writer, referring to the " Newse from Ipswitch" as just published, says of its author, 
" He pretends the name of Matthew White, & the newse to be sent from Ipswitch, which is 
noe better than lying, & pretends in the frontispice a third edition &c." Possibly there 
was never more than one edition, and that was suppressed as soon as possible. Printed 
copies must have been scarce, or Robert Ryece would hardly have taken the pains to copy 
it with his own hand. — Eds. 

a Shelford's S. Treatises; Rheeves Communion Boocke; Chatechisme expownded; 
Chouneus Collect; A Cole from the Altar; The Female Glory e, Studlye; Dr. Lawrence & 
Brownes Sermons, with others; Apparatus ad Histo: Eeclesiast: 

b Before the 39 articles, & concerninge the Parliaments dissolution, P. 20, 21, 22, 42. 

c The Treatise, Historie, Doctrine, and Discowrce of the Sabbath. A sovereine Anti- 
dote. Dr. Primerose, Rheeve, Shelford, & Powell in the lyfe of Kinge J. 


pressed in our d Homilies, & booke of e Ordination) which 
some of onr vnpreachinge, domineeringe, secular Prelats 
(owte of there Arche-piety towards God, & Arche-charitie 
towarde the peoples sowles, which thay seeke to murther,) 
now so farre deteste, that thay not only geve over preach- 
inge them selves, as no parte of there function; & suppresse 
moste weeke day lectures in divers contries ; but have lyke 
wyse lately shutt vp the mowthes of sondry of our moste 
godly, powerfull, paynfull preachers/ (who haue woonne 
more sowles to God in a yeere, then all the Lord Bishopps 
in Englande, or the woorlde, haue done in divers ages) owte 
of meere malyce to Religeon, & the peoples salvation; 
contrary to the very lawes of God & the Realme ; & strict- 
lye prohibited, vnder paine of suspension, in sondry dio- 
cesse, all afternoones sermons on the Lords owne daye ; 
that so the prophane vulgar mighte haue more tyme, to 
dance, playe, revell, drinke, & prophane Gods Sabothes, 
even in these dayes of plague & pestilence/ to drawe 
downe more plagues & judgements on vs, for this synne 
of Sabbathe breakinge, when as not only the 7 * Synode of 
Dorte, but* sondry popish Synods & Bishops have byn so 
religious, as to prescribe 2 sermons euery Lords daye at 
leaste, in eury parish church, to keepe the people from 
suche prophanations of this sacred daye. Alas what 
coolde 7 *' Belzebub the prince of devills, had he byn an Arch- 
bishop or lordly prelate heere in Englande, (as there were 
many Divells Bishopps, at least, Bishops Dyvills, in* Bar- 
nards age, & moste feare there are to many no we,) have 

d Preface to them of the righte vse of the Church. 

e Exhortation to those that are to be made ministers. 

f Bishop Latimer's 2, 4, 5, 6 Sermons before K. Edwarde, & his Sermon on the Plowgh. 

g Neh. 13, 17, 18. Leuit: 26, 46 to 55. Jere. 17, 17. Ezech. 20, 13 to 22. The faste 
boocke, 1. Jacobi & Caroii, & the examples of Gods Judgements vpon Sabbath breakers. 

h Sessio 14. 

i Apud Bochel. Decreta Eccles: Gal. 1. 1. Tit. 3, c. 10, 11, 13, 16, 17, 18, 37, 52, & 1: 4: 
Tit. 7, c. 26. 

k Math. 12, 24. i 

I Sermo 33 in Cant, et in Concil: Rhemense. 


doone more against the stricte intire sanctification of the 
Christian Sabbathe day to TO make it the devills daye in 
steade of the Lorde's daye, & to advance his owne king- 
dome & service on it ; or against the frequente powerfull 
preachers, & preachinge of Gods woorde, & salvation of 
the peoples sowles, then some Luciferian Lord Bishops 
have lately done] Whose impietie in this kinde tran- 
scends all precedents what so ever in former ages. And yet 
these prophane atheisticall graceles persecutors of all holi- 
nes, piety, sinceritie, godly mynisters, and preachinge of 
God's woorde (yea in these pestilentiall times, as meanes 
to spreade the plague, thowghe the w Scripture, &° all for- 
mer ages have prescribed fastinge, preaching, & prayenge, 
as the chiefe antidotes & cure against it,) will needes bee 
Lorde Bishops^ Jure divino, by the Holy Ghostes owne in- 
stitution, (who never yett instituted any g vnpreachinge, 
rare-preachinge prelates, or persecutors & suppressors of 
preachinge,) and shame not to style themselves, the r godly 
holy fathers of our church, & pillars of our fay the, 
when as there frutes & actions manifeste them to be 
nowghte else, but the very step fathers & caterpillars, the 
very pestes & plagues of bothe. Take but one freshe in- 
stance for an example ; these desperate Arche-agents for 
the devill & pope of Roome, and master vnderminers of 
our Religeon, as thay were the only instruments of delay- 
enge the present generall ffaste, in the beginninge of the 
pestilence/ when it was moste acceptable & requisite ; so, 

to Horn. 3. against Rebellion, pag. 293. & of the tyme & place of prayer. 

n 2Chron: 6. 28, 29, 30. cap. 7. 13, 14. Nomb: 25, 6 to 10. Joel, 1. 2. Zeph: 
2. 1, 2, 3. 

o Se the Faste boocke 1° Jacobi et Caroli. 

p Bishop Bancrofte Sermon & Bishop Whites tretise of the Sabothe Daye. Epist: 

q Act. 20, 28. 1 Tim: 3, 2. cha. 4, 11 to 17. 2 Tim. 4, 1 to 5. Tit. 1, 9. c. 2, 1, 
10, 13. c. 3, 1 to 12. 1 Pet. 5, 1, 2, 3. 

r Bishop White Epist: dedica: to his treatise of the Sabath. Reue Epist: ded: 
before his exposition of his Chatechisme in the Communion boocke, & P. 2. 

s Zeph. 2, 1, 2, 3. Num. 16, 46. 


to shewe there inveterate mallyce againste preachinge 
('the thinge that the devill wrastleth moste againste, all 
whose stvdy hathe byn, to decaye the office of preachinge, 
which shoolde not be diminished), thay contrary to his 
Majesties pious intentions, (who hathe so^ofte protested 
againste all innovations) have cunningly cawsed all Ser- 
mons (*the very lyfe & sowle of a faste, as beinge the only 
meanes to humble men for there synns, & bringe them to 
repentance), to be prohibited on the faste daye, both 
in London, & its suburbes, & in all other infected places in 
duringe the tyme of the infection in them : yea, in parishes 
not infected, (as if preachinge only, of all Gods ordinances 
were pestilentiall, &c, and that on the ffaste daye, not on 
others :) contrary to the presedents of all former ages, & 
that the orders for the generall faste in the 2 laste greate 
plagues, which prescribed two sermons of 1 hour longe a 
peece, for none & faste dayes, y & that as well in parrishes 
infected, as others, even in the summer season, when the 
infection was more contagious & raginge then nowe. By 
which device thay have not only made this faste distaste- 
full to all* sortes of men in infected places, who have 
little harte vnto it, robbed the poore of mooche charitable 
releefe, & depryved the people of the spirituall foode & 
phisicke of there sowles, when thay neede & desyre it 
moste, to there intollerable griefe & discontente, but quite 
suppressed all setled weddensday lectures in London & 
other infected townes, as longe as the infection shall con- 
tinewe in any one parishe, thowghe it shoolde laste these 
7 yeeres (the thinge thay principally aymed at:) forced 

t BB: [Latimer's] 4 & 6 Sermons before K. Edw: which I woolde our Prelates woolde 
now pervse, & his Sermon of the Plowgh. 

u Declaration before the 39 Articles, & of the dissolution of the parliamente. 
P. 21, 42. 

x Zeph. 2, 1, 2, 3. Isay. 58, 1 to 8. Jer: 23, 29, c. 36, 6 to 11. Act. 16, 13. Heb. 
4, 12, 13. 2 Tim. 2, 25, 26. 

y Order 6 for the faste. 

* Who stile it a dombe faste & a mocke fa te. 



many mynisters & # people to flee owte of infected places 
into the country, to keepe there fastes, where there is 
preachinge ; browght in a famyne of God's woorde, the 
gretest plague of all others, to the encreasinge & further 
spreadinge of the presente pestilence, & drawenge downe 
of Gods wrathe vpon vs to a the vttermoste, by inhibitinge 
ministers in the tyme of gretest neede, to preache vnto 
the people, that thay maye be saved. O heavens, stande 
amazed at this vnparalled practise of impious popishe pre- 
lates ! But is this all] Noe verelye. ffor whereas his 
Majesty b commanded, that the boocke of common prayer 
for the faste, formerly sett forthe by his aucthoritie vpon 
the lyke occasion, shoolde be reprinted, these Romish 
inquisitors haue miserablie gelded it, after it was newe 
printed, in sondry particulars, flirste, thay have purged 
owte the prayer for seazonable weather ; one cawse of the 
shippwracks & tempestuous vnseazonable weather ever 
sence its publication. Secondly, thay haue dashed the 
Lady Elizabeth and her children in the olde collect, quite 
owte of the newe ; as thay have expunged bothe them, 
with our gracious Kinge, Queene, & there children, oute 
of the catalogue of Gods electe, by blottinge owte this 
clawse (who arte the Father of Thine electe, & of there 
seede) owte of the collecte for them, in this & all other 
new comon prayer boocks, as if thay were all reprobates, 
& none of the nomber of Gods electe, eyther to a tempo- 
rail or an eternall crowne. O intollerable impiety, affronte, 
& horride treason ! Thirdly, thay lefte owte this collecte : 
It had byn beste for vs, etc., in the newe boocke, (thowghe 
the moste effectuall prayer of all) becawse it magnifies 
contynewall often preachinge of God's woorde, & the 

* And many to spende the tyme in Alehowses & Tavernes & to neglecte the Church. 

z Amos 8, 11, 12. 

a 1 Thes: 2. 15, 16. Isay. 30, 9 to 17. 2 Chron: 34, 16. 

b See the proclamation. 

c The collect for the'Queene, &c. 


Scriptures, & calls our powerfull preachers God's servants. 
A signe these prelates have conspired togither lyke so 
many execrable trayters, to exterpate our frequente power- 
full preachers, & contynewall preaching of Gods woorde, 
(as thay have doone in many places of late) thovvgh pre- 
scribed by rf God him selfe & e our homelyes. ffourthely, 
thay haue dashed this remarkable clawse owte of the firste 
collect : Thow haste delyvered vs from • Superstition & 
Idollatry (twoo grand cawses, bothe of many- 7 " former, and 
our presente plagues no dowbte) wherein wee were vtterly 
drowned, & haste browghte vs into the moste cleere & 
comfortable lighte of blessed woorde, by which wee are 
tawghte howe to serve & honor thee, & how to lyve order- 
ly with our neighbours, in truthe & verytie : the reste of the 
collect remayninge as before. Now what can be the cawse 
of this strange purgation, but a resolved professed con- 
spiracye of these Romishe prelates, euen now agayne 
vtterly to drowne vs in # popish superstition & idollatry 
(which have now drowned vs in Gods Judgements, by 
there stupendious late encrease amonge vs) & to remove 
vs owte of the moste cleere & comfortable lighte of God's 
woorde, by the which wee are tawghte how to serve & 
honor hym, (the true cawse whie thay now suppresse lec- 
tures, preachinge & suspende our powerfullest preachers 
every wheare,) that so wee may walke on in Romish, hell- 
ish darkenes, servinge & honoringe the pope & dyvill 
insteade of God, & lyve in all disorder with owte truthe or 
verytye. ffyftely, in the 6 order for the faste, thaye have 
pared awaye this passage ; to avoyde the inconvenience 
that may growe by the abuse of fas tinge, some esteem- 

ed 2 Tim: 4, 1 to 5. Luk. 19, 47; c. 21, 37. John 18, 20. Act. 2, 46, 47; c. 5, 42. 

e Of the righte vse of the church. 

/ Numb. 25, 1 to 10; c. 32, 16. Josh: 22, 17. 2 Chro. 21, 13, 14. Psal. 106, 28, 29. 
Ezech: 5. 11, 12, 17; c. 6. 11, 12; c. 12, 16; c. 14. 3, 19, 21. Amos 4. 4, 10. 

* Witnes there alteringe of the Gunne-powder treason boocke, there pleadinge for the 
Pope & church of Roome, & settinge vp altars, images, crucifixes, & bowenge to them in 
all Cathedralls & elsewhere, & in there owne chappells. 


inge it a meritorious woorke, others a good woorke, & of 
it selfe acceptable to God, withowte due regarde of the 
ende ; (only to gratefye the papistes, whose 9 doctrine this is, 
& to place some merytt in this presente faste,) addinge this 
clawse to it : in places where Sermons are allowed by the 
proclamation: of purpose to putt downe Wednesday lectures, 
& preachinge in London & other places where any parishe 
is infected. If these prelats then be thus desperately 
wicked & popishe, as to take advantage of God's Judge- 
ments, to suppresse the preachinge & preachers of his 
woorde, when it is moste necessary & vsefull, & to cownte- 
nance, justefye & sett vp popery, superstition, idolatry, error, 
& disorders, (the cheefe cawses of our plagues) even in 
these dayes of pestilence, & that in the very faste boocke 
to abuse and h mocke God to his face, to dishoner his ma- 
jestye,& grieve his pious peoples sowles; how transcendently 
impious & popish wyll thay prove, when God shall staye 
this plague, yf thay be not now deservedly ponished for 
these there notorious impieties \ And is it not high tyme 
then for his majesty e to hange vp suche arche tray tors to 
our fay the, Christian Religeon, & suche true bred sons 
to the Roman Antichriste, (ifrom whom Dr. Pocklington 
bostes thay are lineally discended) & to execute judge- 
mente on them for these strange purgations, & other 
Romishe innovations, whereat the wholl kingedome cryes 
shame ; which breede a generall feare of a sudden altera- 
tion of our Religeon'? Certaynly tyll his majestye shall 
see these purgations rectefyed, superstition & idollatry re- 
moved, God's Sabbathes duly sanctefied,* the suppressed 
preachers & * preachinge of Gods woorde restored, & 
hange vp some of these Romishe prelates & inquisitors 

g Bellarmine de bonis operibus; li. 2, c. 11. Bonauentura Diet. Sal: c. 15. 

h Job 13, 9. Gal. 6, 7. 

i Sundaye no Sabbath. P:2&44. 

* The honor & safty of the kingdome. - 2 Cron. 17. 8, 9, 10. 


before the Lo-rde, as the k Gibeonites once dyd the 7 sonnes 
of Sawle, wee can never hope to abate any of Gods 
plagues, or drawe downe any of his blessinges on vs 
by z suche a faste & faste boocke as this, but augmente his 
plagues & Judgments more & more, which haue strangely 
encreased synce this faste begun, contrary to all humane 
reason & probabillitie : & whereas it moche decreased be- 
fore ; the totall nomber dyenge of the plague the weeke 
before the faste beinge but 458, & 58 parishes infected, & 
the very firste weeke of the faste, 838, (treble the nomber 
the 2 laste greatest plagues) & 67 parishes infected." 1 Cam- 
bridge, Norwich, Hampton, Bath, & other eminente places 
cleere before, beinge lykewyse visited since this faste 
begunne ; a cleare evidence that God is moche offended 
with these purgations, & the restraynte of preachinge on 
the faste daye, against which some prelates are so mad, 
that thay have sylenced & persecuted dyvers mynisters 
since the faste proclaymed, there beinge now so many sus- 
pended in our Norwich dyocesse, only for not yelding to 
popishe innovations, that in sundry churches, they have 
neyther prayers, preachinge nor fastinge, which hathe 
browghte the plague amonge them, & made the people at 
there wytts endes, many mynisters & people heere havinge 
lefte the kingedome, & thowsandes more beinge redy to 
departe the lande, there beinge never suche a persecution 
or havocke made amonge Gods mynisters, synce Queen 
Marye's dayes, as a leacherous, prowde, insolente prelate, 
hathe heere lately made against all lawes of God & man, 
to the astonishmente of the wholle realme. What then 
can wee expecte but plagues, tyll suche desperate perse- 
cutors be cutt of, & Gods woorde & mynisters restored vnto 

k 2: Sam: 21. Num : 25, 4. 

I Isay 58, 3, 4, 5, &c. 

m And that the very next weeke after an order there published, that eury scholler 
shoolde bowe to the altar, & at the name of Jesus, vnder payne of expulsion owte of the 
universitie, after 2 admonitions; an idolatrous & superstitious order. 


there former liberty, by our moste gracious Sovereigne, per- 
secution of God's mynisters & people beinge one cheefe n 
cawse of plagues ; wherefore O Englande, Englande, if 
euer thow wilt be free from pestes & Judgements, take 
notice of these thie Antichristian prelates desperate prac- 
tises, innovations, & popish dessignes, to bewayle, oppose, 
redresse them, with all thie force & power: O all yee 
Englishe nobles, courtiers, & others, who haue any love or 
sparke of religeon, pietye, zeale, any tendernes of his majes- 
ties honor, or care for the peoples, the Church, or king- 
domes safety, yett remaynynge within your generous brestes, 
putt to your helpinge hands & prayers, to restore our reli- 
geon & mynysters now suspended, from the iawes of these 
devowringe woolves, & tyrannisinge lordly prelats, (raysed 
from, & fytt only for the donge hill) who make havocke 
of them bothe. O our moste pious kinge Charles ; as thow 
haste in 2 severally declarations, protested before God to 
all thie lovinge subiectes, that thow wylt never geve waye, 
to the licensinge or authorisinge of any thinge whereby 
Any Innouation in the leaste degree may creepe into our 
church, nor ever connive at any Backslydynge to Po- 
perye ; and that it is thie hartes desyer to be fownde 
woorthie of that tytle which thow esteemest the moste 
glorious in all thie crowne, Defender of the faythe : so 
now beholde these desperate innovations, purgations, & 
Romish practizes of thie Prelates, in open affronte of these 
thie declarations ; and now or never she we thie selfe (as 
wee hope, beleeve, & praye thow wylt) a Prince more 
woorthie of this glorious tytle, then any of thie royall pro- 
genitors, by rootinge all popery, superstition, idollatry, 
errors, innovations, owte of this Church & kingedome, by 

n Ezech: 28. 23, 24; cap: 38: 28: 22. Ezech. 14, 12. Eusebius Eccles: Historie 1:9; 
c: 8. Cen: Mag: 3; c. 3: p: 31. 32 Cent. 4, c. 3: p: 156. Henry Holland his spirituall 
preservatives againste the plague. 

o Act. 20, 29. 

p Before the 29 Articles, & dissolution of the parliamente, pag. 21, 42. 


restoringe the preachinge, the preachers of God's woorde, 
& puritie of his woorship, & q takinge vengeance on 
these perfidious prelates, who have thus gelded thie faste 
boocke, (and intende to make an Index ejcpurgatoriiis vpon 
all other awntiente Englishe wryters, ere thay be reprinted, 
a thinge considerable,) thus openly abused thie only syster, 
& hir children now presente with thee ; oppressed & 
greaved thie faythefull subiectes, dishonored thie God, 
betrayed thie religeon, increased the plague amonge the 
people, & as moche as in them lyeth, robbed thee bothe of 
thie Gods & peoples loves, & pulled thie crowne of thie 
royall heade, to sett it on there owne trayterous ambitious 
pates, by exercysinge all ecclesiasticall power, yea papall 
jurisdiction over thie subiectes, in there * owne names & 
rightes alone ; & by tramplinge all thie lawes & subiects 
liberties lyke copwebs, thie subiectes lyke dogges & dyrte, 
vnder there tyranicall papall feete. If thow thus r execute 
judgmente on .them, restore preachinge, & ease thie people 
from there intollerable tyrranny, no dowbte this plague 
shalbe ceassed, & this faste be pleasinge to the Lorde ; else 
he wyll not accepte it, but proceede to plague vs more & 
more. O blessed Soveraine, that thow dydest but heare the 
severall cryes & owtecryes of thie people againste these 
persecutinge prelates in many places, especially in our 
Norwiche dyocesse, where lytle Pope Regulusf hathe 
played such Rex that he hathe suspended above 60 of 
our sincerest, paynefullest conformable mynisters, boothe 
from there office & benefice, so as many of our churches 
(as the lyke was never synce Kinge John's dayes) are quite 
shutt vp, and Lorde haue mercy upon us, may be wrytten 

q Rom. 13, 4; Psall. 101, 8. 

* Contrarye to the Statutes of 26 of H: 8, c. 1, 37; H: 8, c. 17; 1 Ed: 6, c. 2, 1; 
Eliz: c. 1. 

r Psal. 106, 30. 

t It signifies a lytle kinge, a wren, & lykewyse a serpente ealled a Basaliske, so called 
becawse lyke a tyrante he kylleth men with his very sente. 


on there doores ; the people crye for the breade of there 
sowles, & there mynisters are prohibited to geve it them : 
this not only wowndes but breakes there hartes, & makes 
them quite amazed. O therefore, gracious Sovereigne, 
helpe now, & heere the petitions, cryes, & teares of thie 
poore people, & hange vp these Popelinges for these & 
other there innewmirable oppressions, extortions, innova- 
tions & harmes, who suspende, imprison, & ruine others 
for meere toyes & trynes, yea for * defendinge thy Royall 
prerogatyve against there papall vsurpations. 

This all the newes I shall now imparte in this Curranto, 
the nexte weeke, God wy Hinge, you shall heare of Mr. 
Dade his excommunicatinge of Ferdinando Adams, a 
churche warden in our towne, for not blottinge owte this 
sentence of Scripture paynted on Mr. Wardes church wall, 
over his bawdy theevishe Courte : f It is written, my howse 


denne of theeues, which excommunication is of recorde 
in Starre chamber ; of our Byshops commandinge. J Woe 
is mee if I preache not the Ghospell to be wyped owte 
of Mr. Scotts church, & of the strange proceedinges at 
Colchester, againste Mr. Samuell Burrowes,§ for inditinge 
parson Newcoman (for raylinge in the Communion table 
altarwyse, & cawsinge the communicants to come vp 
to the rayles to receyve, in a newe vnaccustomed manner, 
contrary to the Statute of 1 Elizab : ca : 2 : & his majes- 
ties declarations) which Indightmente the || grand Jury 
hathe fownde, this laste Michellmas Sessions: but his 
majesty yett can gett no judgemente. So moche are the 
Prelates now feared more then God or the kynge, or his 

* Witnes Dr. Bastwicks case, 
t Matt. 21, 13. 
\ 1. Cor. 9, 16. 

§ See Prynne's " Quench Coale," p. 351 et seq. — Eds. 

|| & some of them pursevanted into the high commission for there labor, in affronte of 
lawe & justice. 


lawes &c. In the meane tymes I shall conclude my newes 
with the woordes of Patricke Adamson, Archebishop of 
St. Andre wes, in his 33 publicke recantation in the Synode 
of Ffyffe, Apryll 8, 1591 : * That the office of a diocesan 
Bishopp hathe no aucthoritie at all to supporte it in the 
woorde of God ; that it is only fownded on the pollitycke 
devyse of men; that the primacy of the Pope or Anti- 
christe sprunge from it, that it is woorthely to be con- 
demned ; & that it hathe byn for 500 yeeres & more the 
chiefe originall & instrumente of suppressinge the preach- 
inge of Gods woorde in all kingdomes, as all Ecclesiasti- 
call Historians testefie, closinge vp this curranto with the 
collecte on St. Mathias daye, — Allmighty God, which in 
the place of the traytor (Byshop f ) Judas dydst chuse thie 
faythefull servante Mathias, to be of the nomber of the 
12 Appostles, grawnte that thie church being allwayes pre- 
served from false Appostles, may be ordered & guyded by 
faythefull & true $ Pastors, through Jesus Christe our 
Lorde. And with the Collecte on St. Peter's daye : All- 
mighty God, which by thie Soonne Jesus Christe haste 
geven to thy Appostle St. Peter many excellente guyftes, & 
commaundest hym earnestly to feede thy fflocke ; make 
(wee beseeche thee) all Bishopps & Pastors § dilligently to 
preache thy holy woorde, & the people obediently to fol- 
low the same, that they may receyve the Crowne of Ever- 
lastinge Glory, throwgh Jesus Christe our Lorde. Amen. 
From Ipswich, Nouember 12, 1636: 

Thine in the Lorde, 

Mathew White. 1 1 

* Patricij Adamsoni palinodias p : 55. 

t Act: 1, 20. 

\ Not lordly Prelates. 

§ Which fewe Byshopps now doe, beinge taken vp with secular offices, iraployments & 
state affares, incompatible with there spirituall callinges. 

|| Wood in his list of Prynne's works (Athense Oxonienses, iii. 856), says of this 
tract, "Printed, as 'ti3 said, at Ipswich (but false), an. 16o6, in one sh. in qu., published 
under the name of Matthew White, three times in that year, and another time in 1641." — 



The tytle & ffrontespice of this boocke followeth. 


Discoyeringe certeine late detestable practises of some 
domineeringe Lordlye Prelats, to vndermyne the estab- 
lished doctrine & discipline of our church, extirpate all 
Orthodoxe sincere Preachers, & preachinge of Gods 
woorde, vsher in popery e, superstition & idollatrye, with 
there late notorious purgations of the newe ffaste boocke, 
contrary to his majestyes proclamation, & there intolerable 
affronte therein offered to the moste Illustruous Lady 
Elizabeth, the Kinges only Syster, & hir Children (even 
whiles thay are now royally entertayned at Courte) in 
blottinge them owte of the Collect ; and to his majesty e 
hym selfe, his Queene, & there Royall progenye, in dash- 
inge them owte of the nomber of Gods Electe. 

For who hathe despised the daye of small things ? Zech. 4, 10. 

Woe bee vnto the Pastors, that destroye & scatter the sheepe of my pas- 
ture sayeth the Lorde. Jer. 23, 1. 

Take heede therefore vnto yourselves, & to all the flocke over the which 
the Holy Ghoste hathe made you Bishops, to feede the Churche of 
God, which he hathe purchased with his owne bloodde, iFor I knowe 
this, that after my departinge shall grievious woolves enter in amonge 
you, not sparinge the fflocke. Act : 20, 28. 

If the salte hathe loste his savour, wherewith shall it be salted ? It is 
thenceforth good for nothinge, neyther fytte for the lande, nor yett for 
the donge hill, but to bee caste owte, & trodden vnder foote of men. 
Mat : 5 : 13. Luke 14 : 34. 

Edition 3. Printed at Ipswich, An. 1636. 

Sir, I pray you pardon my teadiousnes, comende mee to 
Mr. Wylson, and so I reste 

Yours every wayes in the Lorde, 

Thomas Smythe. B. 

This 7th of Marche, 1636. 




Particular orders, directions Sf remembrances geven in the dyoces 
of Norwiche, vpon the primary visitation, of the Reverende 
father in God, Mathewe, Lorde By shop of that Sea. 1636.* 

(1) Firste, the wholle dyvyne Service be readde (bothe 
the firste & seconde service) on Sondayes & holly dayes, & 
lecture dayes, (if they have any): And that the Communion- 
service, called the seconde service be awdiblye & distinctly 
redde at the Communion table, vnto the ende of the Nicene 
creede, before the sermon or homely. Yett so as in verye 
large churches the mynister maye come neerer to reade the 
Epistle & Ghospell. And after the Sermon or Homely, 
the prayer for the wholle estate of Christe's church : & 
one or more of the appoynted collectes, at the Communion 
table lykewyse ; & after to dismisse the congregation with 
the Peace of God that passeth, &c : 

(2) That the prayer before the sermon or homelye be 
exactely accordinge to the 55th Canon, (mutatis mutandis :) 
only to moove the people, to praye as there prescribed, & 
not otherwyse, vnlesse the mynister desyer, to enterpose 
the names of the 2 vniversities & of a patron. And no 
prayer to be vsed in the pulpitt after sermon, but the ser- 
mon to be concluded with Glory to the Father, &c : & 
so to come downe owte of the pullpytt. 

* This can hardly be the production of the Bishop of Norwich which provoked the 
satire of Prynne. Neal, in his " History of the Puritans " (vol. ii. p. 298), speaks of another 
publication of Bishop Wren, which is more likely to have excited ridicule. " Several of 
the bishops" (he says) "published their primary articles of visitation about this time; . . . 
but the most remarkable and curious were Dr. Wren's, Bishop of Norwich, entitled 
' Articles to be enquired of within the Diocese of Norwich, in the first Visitation of Matthew, 
Lord Bishop of Norwich. 1 The book contains one hundred and thirty-nine articles, in which 
are eight hundred and ninety-seven questions, &c." The paper which Robert Kyece here 
transmits has only twenty-eight articles, and no questions at all. — Eds. 


(3) That the Communion Table (in euery church) do 
allwayes stande close vnder the walle vp at the Easte ende 
of the Channcell, the endes thereof Northe & Sowthe, 
(vnlesse the ordinarye geve particular direction otherwyse). 
And that the rayles be made before it, accordinge to the 
Archebishops late iniunctions, reachinge crosse from 
the northe walle to the sowthe walle, neere one in 
heighte, & so thicke with pillers, that dogges can not gett 

(4) That the Lettany be never omytted on Sondayes, 
Weddensdayes, & Fry day es. And that at all the mynister 
be in his surplice & hoodde, when so ever he is in pub- 
licke to performe any parte of his priestely function. 
And that in readinge the chapters, he leave owte the con- 
tentes. And after the lessons doe vse no psalmes or 
hymnes, but those that are appoynted by the Common 
prayer boocke. 

(5) That the Gloria Patri be sayde after euery Psalme, 
standinge vp, & that all the people doe awdibly, make all 
awnswere in the Lettany, & in all other partes of the ser- 
vice, as is appoynted by the boocke of common prayer. 
And to the ende (to leade the common people theerein) 
that there be a parishe clarke provyded in euery parishe, 
that can reade sufficientlye, & have compotente allowance 
from the parishe. And where there is none, that there 
bee one forthewith appoynted & chosen, accordinge to the 

(6) That the Quicunque milt (or creede of Sainte Athana- 
sius) bee vsed on the dayes by the Kubrick appoynted, in 
steade of the Appostles creede. And that the mynisters 
forgett not to reade the Collects, Epistles, & Ghospells, ap- 
poynted for the conversion of St. Pawle. And for all the 
holy weeke before Easter, ffor Barnabas daye, and for Ashe 
Weddensdaye, with the commination (also) on that. And 
also to vse the prayers & suffrages, goinge the perambula- 
tion, which is yeerely to be vsed in every parishe, vpon the 


Kogation dayes — vizt, the Mundaye, Tewsedaye & Wed- 
densday nexte before Ascention, & at no other tyme. At 
which it is awntiently enioyned that the mynister (at some 
conveniente places) doe in a woorde admonishe the people 
to geve thankes to God, beholdinge his benefites in the 
frutes of the earthe, sayenge the 103 Psalme, & (as tyme 
& place shall admytte it) the 104 Psalme. And at any 
especiall bownde-markes, this or suche sentences of holy 
Scripture, Cursed bee hee that remooueth aw aye the 
marke of hys neighbours lande. And that returninge at 
laste to the churche, there thay saye the divine service. 

(7) That no man do presume to haue his hatte on his 
heade in the tyme of service and sermon in the church. 
And that due & comly reverence be vysibly doone by all 
persons presente, where the blessed name of the Lorde 
Jesus is mentioned. And that euery one of the people 
doe kneele devowtely, when the Confession, Absolution, 
Commandiments or any Collects, or other prayers, is 
readde, both at the tyme of the Communion-Service of the 
Church : as also at Christninges, Manages, Burialls, &c. 

(8) That they goe vp to the holy table, at Mariadges, at 
suche tyme as the Eubricke so directeth. And that the 
newe maried persons doe kneele withowte the rayle, & 
doe at there owne charge, (yf the Communion were not 
warned the Sundaye before) receyve the holy Commu- 
nion that daye, or else to be presented by the Mynister 
and Church wardens, at the nexte Generall for not re- 

(9) That woonien to be churched come & kneele at a 
syde, neere the communion table, with owte the rayle 
(beinge vayled accordinge to the custome, & not covered 
with a hatt), as other wyse not to be churched, but to be 
presented at the nexte Generall by the Mynister & Church 
wardens, or any of them. 

(10) That warninge be geven by the Mynister for 
holydayes & fastinge dayes of the weeke followenge, im- 


mediately after the sermon or homely e. And that the 
Communion for the Sondaye followenge be warned the Sun- 
daye before, immediately after the prayer for the wholle 
estate of Christes church. And that as so one as suche 
warninge be gyven, the seconde of those 3 exhortations 
(which nexte after the prayer for the vniversall church, 
are sett downe in the service boocke) be treateably pro- 
nownced. After which to followe some of the Collectes 
appoynted ; and to dismisse the people with the Peace of 
God, &c. 

(11) That when any neede is, the sycke be prayed for, 
in the readinge deske (& noe wheare else) at the close of 
the firste service ; excepte it bee the afternoone, and then 
to be doone immediately after the Creede, vsinge only those 
2 collects which are sett downe in the service boocke for 
the visitation of the sycke. That nexte after the mariadge 
(if there bee any) be begunne in the bodye of the church 
and fynished at the table. That the churchinge of women 
do begynne as soone as the mynister comes to the commu- 
nion table, before the seconde service ; vnlesse there be a 
mariadge the same daye : ffor then the churchinge is not to 
beginne tyll those prayers appoynted to be sayd at the Lords 
table (for the mariadge), be ended. 

(12) That no Mynister presume to marry any persons, 
whereof one of the parties is not of his parishe, vnlesse it 
bee otherwyse expressely mentioned in the lycence ; nor 
that he marrye any by vertue of any facultye or licence, 
wherein the name of the Archedeacon or officiall is men- 
tioned, sub pena suspensionis. 

(13) That the parishioners be warned by the Mynister 
& Church wardens to bringe there children to church for 
baptisme in due tyme. And if any childe be not browghte 
before the seconde lesson, that then the parents be present- 
ed for that defawte. And that no baptisme be administred, 
(exceptinge in the case of necessetie) but on the Sondaye 
or holy daye. 


(14) That the ffonte at baptisme be fylled with cleane 
water, & no dyshes, payles or basons be vsed in it, or in- 
steade of it. And that the Mynister admytte but 2 god- 
fathers & one godmoother for a male childe, & 2 good 
moothers & one god father for a female : and then doe at 
the fyrste aske them, whither the childe be yett baptised or 
not. And doe take it in his armes, & do signe it with the 
sygne of the crosse when he doothe baptize it. And after 
all do admonishe them to bringe yt to confyrmation when 
tyme shall serve. 

(15) That all communicants come vp reverently & 
kneele before the rayle to receyve the Communion. And 
that the Mynister repeate to euery communicante (severally) 
all the woordes that are appoynted to be sayd at the distri- 
bution of the holy Sacramente. 

(16) That no wicker bottles, or taverne potts be 
browghte to the Communion table. And that the breade 
be browghte in a cleane clothe or napkin. And that the 
woordes of consecration, be awdibly repeated (agayne) yf 
any breade or wyne be vsed which was not at the firste 

(17) That the Mynister & Churche wardens of greate 
parishes, to avoyde confucion, & over longe wearienge, 
bothe of the mynister & of the parishioners, doe take 
order that there doe not come aboove 300, or at the moste 
400 communicants, to one Communion, ffor which cawse 
thay are warned to have Communions the oftener. 

(18) That the holy Oblations, in suche parishes where it 
pleaseth God at any tyme to putt into the hartes of his 
people by that holy action to acknowledge his guyfte of 
all which thay have to them, & there tenure of all from 
hym, and there debtte of all to hym : bee receeved by the 
Mynister standinge before the table, at there comynge vp to 
make there oblations. And (then by hym reverendly) pre- 
sented before the Lorde, & sett vpon the table tyll the ser- 
vice be ended. 


(19) That the Mynister doe chatechyze in the after 
no one halfe an hower (at the leaste), immediately after the 
laste ringinge or towlinge of the bell for the eveninge 
prayer : accordinge to the questions of the churche chate- 
chisme only, and standinge in the readinge deaske. 

(20) That the Mynisters readinge deske doe not stande 
with the backe towardes the chawncell, nor to remote or 
farre from it. 

(21) That the chawncells & alleyes in the churche be 
not encroched vpon by buyldinge the seates. And if any 
be so buylte, the same to be remooved and taken awaye, 
and that no pewes be made on hie, so that thay which bee 
in them, cannot bee seene how thay behave them selves, or 
the prospecte of the church or chauncell hindered. And 
therefore that all pewes (with in) doe not exceede a yarde 
in heighte [sic], be taken downe neere to that scantlinge, 
vntill the Byshopp by his owne inspection (or by the vie we 
of some especiall commissioners) shall otherwyse allowe. 

(22) That none of what ranke so ever keepe any 
chaplyns or schollers in there howses to reade prayers, 
expownde scriptures, or to instructe the famylies, vnlesse 
thay bee there vnto enabled by lawe. 

(23) Whereas Sermons are required by the Churche of 
Englande, only vpon Sondayes and holy dayes in the ffore- 
noones, & at manages, and are permitted at funerralls, that 
none presume to take vpon them to vse any preachinge or 
expowndinge (or to holde any suche lecturinge) at any 
othe tyme, with owte expresse lycence from the Byshoppe. 

(24) That euery one (allowed to bee a lecturer) doe 
reade the devine service (ffullye) in his surplice & hoodde, 
before euerye lecture, in the same manner, as is appoynted 
on Sondayes. And that all lecturers behave them selves 
modestly in there sermons (preachinge fay the, obedience, 
& good woorkes : in all thinges observinge his Majesties 
declaration prefixed before the 39 Articles, and his Majes- 
ties iniunctions), with owte intermedlinge with matters of 


state, or questions late in difference, not favoringe or abeat- 
tinge any Scismaticks or Separatistes, eyther by especiall 
prayer for them, or other wyse approovinge of them. 

(25) That the Churche wardens suffer no man (but there 
owne person, vicar or curate) to preache vpon any occa- 
sion in there church, tyll he shewe hys lycence, & subscribe 
his name in there paper boocke (for that purpose) ap- 
poynted, & the name of the Bishop who allowed hym. 

(26) That there be the same manner of ringinge of 
bells to churche on holy dayes, which is vsed on Sondayes, 
And that there be no difference of ringinge to church (when 
there is a sermon) more then when there is none : except- 
inge the knell for ffune rails. 

(27) That no church or chappell-wyndowe be stopped 
vp in any parte, nor the ffloore (in any parte) vnpaved or 
vncleane kepte, nor the church any waves abused, anoyed 
or prophanned. 

(28) That all defawltes (contrary to the premisses 
heereof) be faythefullye inquired into by the Officialls 
from tyme to tyme at there Generalls; of whom the 
Byshoppe wyll require an accownte concerninge the 
same. Math : Norvic : 

Concordat cum articulis, 

Willyelmus Colman, Registrarius. 

Pardon my boldenes. Yours euer in the Lorde. 

Thomas Smythe. C : 

10 of Marche 1636. • 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop : " Mr S : his A : B : C : " also, in 
another place, "Mr. R : Answ:" 


442 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1636-7. 



To the worship/nil Mr. Wintropp, at his house in Boston in New 
England, these be old. 

Worshipfull & much honoured Sir, — My selfe with, 
many others are daily petitioners to God, for his grace to 
abound towards you in New England, that you may en- 
crease in fayth, wisedome, humility, loue, zeale, patience, 
brotherly kindenes, &c. inioying such a competency of 
outward prosperity as may make you to Hue in the seruice 
of the Lord the more comfortably. And we are exceed- 
ingly gladd to heare of your wellfare, & especially your 
growths in holines. 

Now for myne owne particular, I haue bin much 
moued of late, as obseruing some passages both in your 
& our England, to write my slender aduice to some pru- 
dent man among you, & one gracious with the plantations, 
& thereby able to giue counsell to them, & to prevayle 
with them in things conducing to God's glory & your 
owne prosperities. 

First, I haue red & heard of sundry lettres written from 
some with you vnto others with vs, (& I feare there haue 
bin very many such sent ouer to vs into diuerse parts of 

* This letter is without date or signature. It is indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, " Spec. 
Lre. ah ignos; " which was probably intended to designate it as a special letter from an un- 
known hand. We trust the Governor did not mean specious. There are few letters in this 
volume of which we should be more glad to know the writer. He says, " I have not sub- 
scribed heereunto, not knowing whither my lettre may not miscarry. The bearer per- 
haps can tell you of me." It is a remarkable letter both in style and substance, and 
contains many suggestions which might have been heeded with advantage. The reference 
to the "Newes from Ipswich," and other allusions, leave no doubt that it was written 
about the year 1636-7. — Eds. 

1636-7.] THE WINTHROP PAPERS. 443 

our land,) wherein there are many weake, & some dan- 
gerous passages, which if they should come to the eyes 
or eares of any one of many thousands of your aduersa- 
ries, it would afford them matter enough to attempt your 
vndoing, what in them did lye. And it is Gods mercy 
that they are not made knowen, if at least they are not. 
As, namely, there came ouer not long since a lettre from 
you to a friend with vs, which, I feare, through indiscre- 
tion, the eies & eares of many haue bin made priuy to, to 
this effect, that whereas it is reported there will be a 
Gouernour & a Bishopp sent ouer vnto you, he hopeth 
(or else it was, we hope) that God will giue you grace to 
stand for his truth ; which words will carry a strange con- 
struction with our state, howeuer it might not be soe 
meant by him that wrote it, and it would redound to the 
preiudice of you all. Another among you writes, that he 
knowes no newse to acquainte his friend with. all, but that 
you are like to haue warrs the next yeere with old Eng- 
land ! Others haue written as freely & vnaduisedly about 
your discipline, writing ouer to vs formes thereof, & the 
opinions & tenents which you hold, whyther all of them 
as they relate, or not, we know not ; which hath caused 
a wonderfull disaffection in very many towards you, & 
which is most grieuous, in many such as are the deare 
children of God, insomuch that there is like to be, if it 
be not maturely healed, a greate rent in affection be- 
tweene you & them, that though we are like to see sadd 
times, yet there are, till they be otherwise informed, who 
are resolued to vndergoe much misery heere, rather then 
euer to remoue hence. And one not of meane ranck, & 
of long approued holines, hearing of your renouncing vs 
to be a church, & that you mainteine the opinions of the 
seperacion, contrary to your declaracion at your first going 
ouer, professed secretely to one that told it me, that he 
could scarce tell how to pray for you. Not that I (for 
perhaps not himselfe, in cold blood, doth) approue such 

444 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1636-7. 

vncharitable speeches, but my intention is to shew what a 
rent and alienation there is like to be, and how sadd 
both myne owne & others harts haue bin made about thes 
things, not a little fearing the evill consequences that will 
come heereby, both to you & vs, from others, & to you & 
vs from ourselues, that soe, if it be possible, as much as 
in you lyeth, you may endeauour a prevention of them. 
Besides, the whole kingdome begins, or rather proceeds 
to be full of preiudice against you, & you are spoken of 
disgracefully & with bitternes, in the greatest meetings in 
the kingdome. The Pulpitts sound of you both at Visita- 
cions & Assises, & the Judges begin to mention you in 
theyre charges. The Judg in his circuite now lately, 
in giuing his charge & speaking of recusants, rancked 
them into two sorts, some Papists & others of the Sepera- 
cion, & those of the seperacion were such, he sayd, as pre- 
ferred Amsterdam before London, & New England before 
Old. And for these last, he gaue a speciall charge, that 
they should be lookt after, & to that end that they should 
take notice of such as inclined towards New England, for 
they were the causes of error & faction in Church & State. 
And much more there is, 'tis likely, that neuer came to my 
knowledg. I know that the wise among you doe not 
expect protection from God, without a mixture of the 
serpents wisedome with the doues innocency, & that is as 
much wisedome (the serpent being the subtilest of the 
beasts of the field) as may consist with innocency ; & as 
much innocency (the doue being the simplest of the 
fowles of the ayre) as may consist with wisedome. 

Now giue me leaue to propose some few things, of 
which some perhaps, if not all, may doe you good. 1. 
You may please in some publike meeting to disclayme all 
such lettres tending to the purpose first mentioned, & 
withall to establish an order against any that shall euer be 
knowen to indite & send ouer such lettres to vs, and 
against any that shall speake among you to such or the 

1636-7.] THE WINTHROP PAPERS. 445 

like purpose ; that soe if any question be made, at any 
time, of these things against you, by any in our state, (as 
iustly they may, & will if they meete with it) your order 
& penalty to be inflicted on such offenders may secure 
you. 2. You may please to haue further cautions giuen 
in eury plantacion, touching writing ouer to vs about your 
discipline, and how any be censorious of vs heere in 
theyre lettres to vs, not calling any of vs, as I vnderstand 
some haue done, doggs & swine, especially those of the 
profaner sort among vs, nor questioning our ministry & 
calling to it, as another with you did in a lettre written ouer 
to a godly minister & friend both of the parties & myne ; 
for your disclaymings of these & the like odious things 
shall much aduantage you, to the preseruation of brotherly 
affections & peace with your friends in old England. As 
you may gather heereby, that your disclayming of Mr. 
Williams's opinions & your dealing with him soe as we 
heare you did, tooke off much preiudice from you with vs, 
& hath stopt the mouths of some. Moreouer, you may 
please that items be giuen in plantacions, that whosoeuer 
of them shall at any time come ouer from you to vs, as 
most yeeres many doe, they would spare to speake of any 
such or the like matters as aforesayd, yea, though they are 
prouoked, for I heare of one of your men now with vs 
that disclaymes our church for a true church, & shews I 
know not what booke or bookes to that purpose, which if 
it be soe, as I heare it reported, it may doe both you & vs 
exceeding greate hurt. Likewise that all commers ouer 
from you to vs be aduised to carry themselues meekely 
& humbly, & not somewhat highly and disdeignefully, as 
slighting vs in comparison of you, as some haue bin noted 
to doe. 3. That any with you be aduised how they doe 
answeare the lettres (such as they may be) of theire friends 
sent ouer from vs to you ; for we heare of a letter that 
Mr. Cotton should write (how true the report is, I knowe 
not yet) in answere to a lettre written to him by one Mr. 

446 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1636-7. 

Bernard* of Botcombe in Sommersetshire, a man though 
vpright in the mayne, yet of very greate weaknesses; 
wherein, as we heare, Mr. Cotton should write, that we 
are a true church Implicite but not Eocplicite, which if it 
be soe (as you may soone vndrstand) will doe not a little 
hurt among vs, for besides that much fauour will be 
graunted vs by the strictest of the seperacion, and might 
haue bin graunted our church in the dayes of King Henry 
the 8th, or of Queen Mary, which will be the common 
exception against that distinction by the most among vs ; 
yet suppose the distinction admitted, we doe wonder if a 
reuerend & wise minister of Christ should vpon the letter, 
or perhaps prouocation of Mr. Bernard, or indeed of any, 
send ouer your opinions to vs in such a point, which can 
doe vs little or noe good, your selues very much disadvan- 
tage many wayes. 4. That your ministers, especially they 
of chiefest note, be persuaded to please to write ouer 
theire kind letters to theire friends with vs, especially to 
the chiefest of the ministry with vs in the seuerall parts 
of the kingdome, for the preseruacion of brotherly loue, 
which otherwise will decay apace, & it is concerned by 
many that there is a greate alienacion in you of affeccion 
towards vs. 5. Aduise may be giuen that any with you 
be wary how they receaue some such bookes as haue of 
late bin written in our land, which haue more stirred the 
state then euer I knew it, and after which bookes there is 
greate inquiry made, & many haue bin bound ouer to the 
Assises about them, others imprisoned, & not a few are 
now, as I heare, in the Starr-chamber about them, & if 
once it be perceaued that the bookes goe likewise ouer 
vnto you, it will double the preiudice against you. Of 
these bookes there are especially two, the one intituled 
Newse from Ipswitch, the other conteining the Judgments 
of God which within this two or three yeeres he hath 

* See Winthrop's Hist, of N.E., i. 275. — Eds. 

1636-7.] THE WINTHROP PAPERS. 447 

shewen on profaneners of the Lords day. For the first 
of which, it is a booke of extreame bitternes, & farr enough 
off from the spirit of Christ, wherein the libeller (for soe 
he is generally termed) speakes of the Bishops, that which 
the Ark-Angell would not speake vnto the Diuell ; besides 
that he makes in it an apostophe to our king, to whom he 
speakes very vnreuerently ; & he pretends the name of 
Matthew r White, & the newse to be sent from Ips witch, 
which is noe better then lying, & pretends, in the frontis- 
pice, a third edition, &c. For the other booke, there are 
very many remarkable Judgments mentioned in it, shewen 
of late on profaneners of the Lord's day, for the Lord 
hath bin knowen among vs by the Judgments that he hath 
executed, but the booke is carryed but weakely in the 
penning, for it is feared that there is a greate fayling in 
many & chiefe circumstances in the instances alleaged, if 
some few of them alsoe were not taken too suddenly on 
trust, & heare-say, without well looking after the truth, 
insomuch that the Judg, now lately in open Assises, boldly 
affirmed that all the instances were eyther altogether or in 
part lyes, & bad any one in the audience to say the con- 
trary, if he could. Moreouer there is a Post-script added 
to the booke, touching the remarkeable hand of God on 
Mr. Noy, which taxeth the whole Starr-chamber, & di- 
gresseth farr from the question of the booke ; & this latter 
is noe lesse, but rather more heinously taken then the 
other. The greatest clothier in England, one Mr. Ash of 
Sommersetshire, a man reputed for honest, is now in 
question for receauing & dispersing 150 of these bookes. 
He was bound ouer for it by his Bishop to the Assises, & 
about 20 more of ministers & others, and besides much 
spoken by the Judg vnto him & of this matter. He told 
him that he pittyed him, being one that did soe much good 
in his countrey, as setting a 1000 poore people on worke, 
but he would be made an example to the whole kingdome. 
These things I am bold to certify you of, that in your 

448 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1636-7. 

wisdome you may doe that which shall most make for 
God's glory & your prosperities. Especially our hope is 
that if euer any bookes should be penn'd by you, they 
will be farr from bitternes or weakenes, & such as may 
much profite God's people, & not iustly preiudice you ; 
but I suppose your imployments take you vp otherwise. 
Lastly, this one thing more, that whereas the hand of 
God hath lyen vpon vs aboue these two yeeres, by a 
grieuous kind of pox, gene rail through the kingdome, 
killing many of the ageder as well as others of the 
yonger sort, & likewise whereas the pestilence hath 
reigned for aboue this yeere, & killed betweene 12 & 20 
thousand in London, & the suburbs,* & euen layd wast 
New Castle in the North, & is like yet further to conti- 
new ; by meanes whereof there hath bin a greate stoppage 
in trading, & much misery throughout all the kingdome, 
for the Lord is highly displeased with vs, & there is some 
feare likewise of scarcity, (Oh, our sins are exceeding 
greate !) that you would be pleased to procure a generall 
publike Fastf throughout your plantations for vs, for we 
stand in greate need of it ; afford vs, for the Lords sake, 
the help & pitty of brethren, & how doe you know what 
fauour this may winne you, both with God & men 1 And 
how would such a pious course answeare for you to very 
many (&■ some of them your brethren) who thinke you are 
gone from vs in affection & brotherly kindenes, as well 
as in place. And let me speake freely to you, that if soe 
iust a motion as this should find noe place with you, I feare 

* Ten thousand four hundred persons are said to have died of the plague in London, in 
1636, after an unusual mortality from small-pox and other malignant diseases for two or 
three years previous. — Eds. 

t Winthrop says, 1636 (11), 20: "A general fast was kept in all the churches. The 
occasion was the miserable estate of the churches in Germany; the calamities upon our 
native country ; the bishops making havoc in the churches, putting down the faithful min- 
isters, and advancing Popish ceremonies and doctrines; the plague raging exceedingly, 
and famine and sword threatening them; the dangers of those at Connecticut, and of our- 
selves also, by the Indians; and the dissensions in our churches." See Winthrop's Hist, 
of N.E., i. 213; Mass. Colonial Records, i. 187. — Eds. 

1636-7.] THE WINTHROP PAPERS. 449 

that God will be angry with you. And O that some poure- 
full sermon that would endure the reading in old England, 
preached with you vpon such a day, might come to our 
hands heere, how ioyfully should we read it, & prayse 
our God, & how readily should we obiect it to all such as 
eyther condemne or suspect you of vncharitablenes, & 
vnnaturall affections ! 

And now perhaps you may thinke (at least I know 
many among you would, for I am well acquainted with 
the spiritts of many with you in this thing) that all these 
things sauour of feare, vnbeliefe & ouer much discretion. 
But I would answere them, that what I thus write, it is for 
theyre sakes, & well may I shew loue, but why feare 
for theyre sakes, I meane distrustfull feare ] And whereas 
my spirit is naturally farr from pragmaticall, inclining 
rather to the other extreme, I haue bin much moued of 
late thus to write, & yet whither euer I shall come ouer 
vnto you, I know not, for I desire to doe the worke of 
God, & to glorify him heere or there, liuing & dying; and 
I haue found the Lords speciall presence with me now of 
late (praise be to his name for euer) in such remarkeable 
manner, as I neuer found the like before, & I can but in- 
ioy his presence in any part of the world. Onely this I 
say, that if God send me to you, for I wayte vpon him, 
I shall not vnwillingly goe, & whereas he hath pleased to 
open a doore of liberty with you for many that haue bin 
streightned heere, my desire is to vse all iust wayes to 
keepe it open, both for your & our sakes, &, apprehend- 
ing you to be our deare brethren, to prevent all such 
inconveniences, as (without greate mercy from God, who 
yet will be wayted vpon in the vse of meanes) I plainly 
see approching towards you. Howeuer you conceiue of 
me, my endeauour is heerein with Jethro to giue aduise to 
the people of God, in the wildernes, for whom my prayers 
daily are. And soe long as you hold any correspondence 
with vs, haue any dependance vpon vs, stand in that rela- 


450 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1636-7. 

tion to vs which you can neuer breake, nor all the waters 
betweene you & vs wash away, I cannot but thinke my 
aduise, though weake, yet such as may doe you good. 
There be other things that I might haue written, but I 
shall be gladd if these may be accepted. I haue not 
subscribed heerevnto, not knowing whither my lettre may 
not miscarry. The bearer perhaps can tell you of me. 
Now the Lord in his Infinite mercy be with your plan- 
tacions & his churches with you, & with your selfe in par- 
ticular, to blesse you & your posterityes after you, to the 
world's end. 


Sir, — I humbly entreate you to conceale it, that any 
with vs hath thus written vnto you. There is another 
thing that I haue noted since I wrote the inclosed lettre, 
that many in your plantacions discouer much pride, as 
appeareth by the lettres we receaue from them ; wherein 
some of them write ouer to vs for lace, though of the 
smaller sort, going as farr as they may, for we heare that 
you prohibite them any other; and this they say hath 
very good vent with you, non bent ripce creditur. They 
write ouer likewise for cutt-worke coifes ; & others, for 
deep stammell dyes ; & some of your owne men tell vs 
that many with you goe finely cladd, though they are free 
from the fantasticalnes of our land. 

There is likewise another thing which I haue not men- 
tioned in the lettre enclosed, which I suppose you are not 
altogether ignorant of, that your Patent is called in & con- 
demned, & the Patentees haue renounced, and they are 
outlawed that haue not, till they come in & make theyre 
peace ; of whom one of them is my neighbour, & is now 
riding to London about it. You know, I beleeue, the 
causes heereof, but what the effects of it will be we are 
ignorant, but doubt & feare, onely we looke vp to God. 
I hope you striue to keepe close with the Lord. How 

1636-7.] THE WINTHROP PAPERS. 451 

earnestly can I pray that you may, & that you may all 
mind holines, & the things that are aboue, & grow vp in 
fayth, loue, humility, & self-denyall ; & that you may be of 
an Euangelicall spiritt. For if once pride, couetousnes, 
opposicion & contention &c. destroy the poure of holines 
among you, yea, or your being cast into a new frame of 
discipline take you vp for the most part, diuerting your 
minds, meditacions & practises from all holy conuersacion 
& godlines, there will soone grow a strangenes betweene 
you & God, who will then surely bring afflictions vpon 
you, to draw you nearer to himself e. The good Lord in 
his infinite mercy be gracious to you. Oh how doe I de- 
sire it ! I can noe more forget you then my selfe. And 
the Almighty God vouchsafe that both your doctrine & 
discipline worke mightily & effectually vpon your hearts 
& Hues, to meeken & sanctify them throughout. If you 
please to write any thing back to me, the bearer heereof 
can tell you how it may be sent & deliuered to me. The 
Lord be with your spirit. Amen. 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, " Spec. Lre ah ignot." 




To the Bight Worshipfull Mr. Winthrop in London these be dd. 

Worthy Sir, — Mr. Gurdon riding towards Dedham 
this morning (not to return this day) cald at the house of 
our honest neighbour goodman Kingsbury : & there per- 
ceiving how ill he was, being in bed then, he wished them 
there to send for me to come thither to see & here how it 
was with him, that I might write to your Worship to cer- 
tify you thereof ; for he had writ to you, but knew not so 
well how this party was. 

Now these are therfore to enforme your Worship, accord- 
ing to his & his wives relation to me (of whose trueth I 
dare not doubt), that he is in great weakenes, & more 
within this fortnight then of late, in so much that one 
Physition tels him he is in danger of his life, another saith 

* Rev. Henry Jacie (or Jessey, as his name is spelt by some authors), an eminent Puri- 
tan divine, was born 3 Sept., 1601, at West Rowton, in Yorkshire, where his father wa3 
minister. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge ; spent nine years, after leav- 
ing the university, as chaplain in the family of Brampton Gurdon, of Assington, in Suffolk; 
and, in 1633, was presented with the living of Aughton, in Yorkshire, but was removed 
the next year for his nonconformity. Upon his ejection from this place, he was received 
into the family of Sir Matthew Boynton; and, in 1635, was invited to take charge of the con- 
gregation in London, formed in 1616 by Henry Jacob, and of which Rev. John Lothrop 
was the second pastor. Jacie became a Baptist in 1645, and was rebaptized by Hanserd 
Knollys. He preached for some time at St. George's, Southwark ; from which living he 
was ejected at the Restoration, silenced from his ministry, and committed to prison. He 
died 4 Sept., 1663; soon after his liberation from confinement. His portrait is given in 
Toulmin's edition of Neal's History of the Puritans. Three of his letters to John Win- 
throp, Jr., are printed in vol. i., third series, of these Collections. See also Wood's Fasti 
Oxonienses, i. 435; 2 Mass. Hist. Coll., i. 165. — Eds. 


he is so dangerously sick that he dare not advice him to 
purge, it would kill him, nor to let him blood, he is so 
weak ; & that he is in danger of a consumption, the state 
of his body being changed to worse, so that now he is not 
able to go about his ordinary work. He endeavoured of 
late to have done somwhat easily, but hath been the worse 
ever since, so that he hath been glad to keep his bed til 
noon or therabout, every day this sennight. Altogether 
unable to travell. 

Whereas he had a warrant of your Worship to attach 
the bodies of his assaulters to appear at the Assize, one 
that was the constables deputy (as he said) left word at his 
house as from Sir Robt.,* that they were brought before 
him, & he had bound one of them over to the Sessions. 
Now he fearing least things should not be rightly caried, 
(being not able to go thither, if he live so long,) desires 
your Worships direction what course might be thought 
best to be taken, & your furtherance therin, for having the 
cause brought to the Size, if it may be, & you think good. 

As for himselfe, he is nowayes able to go to London for 
my Lord's assistance, to take his oath, &c. But if need be 
his brother would be willing to go for him. I need not use 
any motives to one that so knows the cause, & whose heart 
the Lord hath sett for him & his, & to be with the Lord 
to help against the mighty. 

The Lord enable your Worship still to proceed in so 
doing : yea, while you are for him, he will be for you, he 
wil not leave you nor forsake you. To whose Grace, 
which is sufficient, I desire humbly to commend you, & so 
I take my leave, resting 

Your Worships to be commaunded in him, 

Henrie Jacie. 

From his house in AsiNGTON, May 5, 1629. 

Sir Robert Crane. — Eds. 



Since the writing of the rest, Mr. Brampton Gurdon, 
newly returned from Dedham, from his father, further 
certifies me that it is his mind I should write to your Wor- 
ship in behalfe of this our neighbour : but now I perceive 
not that himselfe hath written to you : wherby I fear least 
ismarke. they mistook part of his words. But I know he purposed 
to certify you of it, to further the procurement of the 
Lord Chief Justice's help, to bring the matter to the As- 
sizes, notwithstanding his binding over to the Sessions, 
which his Worship thought might possibly be procured by 
the coming up of this our neighbours brother for him, if 
himself were not able, if you sent down word accordingly, 
that he may be directed what to do. May it please you' 
therfore to write down to Mr. Gurdon about it. 


To the Worshipful, his very good Friend, John Winthrop junr 
Esqr. son to the Cheef Governor of N.E., at Boston there. 

Dear Sir, — I humbly & most heartily salute you in 
the Lord, as also your loving yokefellow, not forgetting 
the other Mris. Winthrops, your pious mother & sisters, 
to whom I pray you excuse me, for I want time to write. 
How affayrs go here may better be related then written. 
Neither have I time to write the late passages of that wor- 
thy Swedish King : * and besides I have not the late Coran- 
toes, to send you any of them, as I would (for they ar of 
late as true as ordinary letters) yet seing like as cold waters 
to a weary soul, so ar good news from a far countrie, Pro. 

* Gov. Winthrop records, under date of Sept. 27, 1632, " A day of thanksgiving at 
Boston for the good news of the prosperous success of the King of Sweden," &c. — Hist, of 
N.E.'\. 90. — Eds. 


25, 25, I haue therfore sent you the best Corantoes we 
have in the house, that have things of most importance, 
though some of them long since, yet may be news to you, 
of another world. After you have perused them, I pray 
you send them according to their superscriptions. This I 
adde ; after Tillie's encounter with Gustavus Horn, a brave 
Swedish commaunder, a messenger that came from the Arch 
duchesse must needs speak with our King. His message 
was to certify his Majestie that Gustavus Horn had lost 
10,000 men, which Sir Isaac Ashly presently crossed, who 
being newly come from the King of Sweden, said such a 
report came at 1 to the King of Sweden, which made him 
very sad for 2 or three hours : then came a post to him 
from Gustavus Horn to certify him that the said Gustavus 
had lost 3 or 400 of his men, but had cut off 2 regiments 
of the enemie, & routed another. This being towards 
Bavaria, the King of Sweden sent thitherward a great 
armie, which hath greatly spoiled a great part of Bavaria, 
making that as the seat of the wars. There about the 
Lord hath given that king divers great victories. About 
8 weeks since we heard that our Kings Majestie had a 
letter, wherein was declared how the forces of Tillie being 
encamped on the River Donaw, the Sweds came so hotly 
on them, that they were forced through the river, to escape 
to Dunwerken in Bavaria. The King of Sweden having 
lately took a bridge neer, came upon them thereby quickly, 
& drove them out of the town, which yelded to him. 
'Tis said the King routed the armie, took al his munition 
& ordnance, & took 3000 prisoners. Again we hear since, 
that Tillies forces being entrenched strongly by Donaw, & 
some othir forces within a few dayes were to joine with him, 
against the Sweds. Sweden seing their was no adventur- 
ing on the land's side, proffered 10 dollars a peece (1.205.) 
to his Finlanders to lead the way over the great water, 
which some of them did, & but 3 of al drowned. Yet 
Tillie subtilly hath an ambushment against him, which the 


King of Sweden perceived, & seemd as if he did not, set 
his ordnance to follow the foot & horse : which being 
come to the place, & the ambushment appearing, the horse 
turne aside one way, the foot another, & leave them before 
the mouth of the canon to play on them, so routed the 
armie. Of late the King of Sweden hath had his horse 
twice kild under him, yet God preserved him. 

The last news we heard was that the Bores in Bavaria 
that slew about 300 of the Swedish forces, & took about 
200 prisoners, of which they put out the eys of some, & 
cut out the tonges of others, & so sent them to the King of 
Sweden, which caused him to lament bytterly for an howr. 
Then he sent an army & destroyed those Bores, about 200 
or 300 of their towns. Thus we hear. 

Great stir is among the Turks, because of the Emperour 
of them putting a Viseir Basha to death, by an other Basha, 
which caused a mutinie, the particulars' I cannot, nor have 
I time to relate. Mr. Gurdon with Mrs. Gurdon & their 
sons & daughter were al wel lately, they having ben now 
a fortnight at London, & to stay about a 14 day more. 

One Mr. Milburn that sets forth a prognostic under the 
name of Sofford, says on the 3d of October next wil be 
a fearful ecclipse of the sun in New England. About a 
quarter before 4 in the afternoon is the midst of it, with 
us not seen, being about 8 at night with us. So he accounts. 
He desired me to write to some in New England to observ 
it, so should the Longitude be more perfectly known of New 
England. I shal send you his observation of it ; I pray 
sofford. you observe it & send me yours, which I shal re turne with 
his, if you please.* In great hast, I take my leave, rest- 
ing Yours in the Lord H. Jacie. 

* It appears from a letter of Jacie, published in vol. i., third series, of these Collec- 
tions, thai Winthrop was prevented from making this observation by the cloudy state of the 
atmosphere. We find the eclipse noted in Riccioli's catalogue as central in Mexico, and 
8° 37 / digits eclipsed. The eclipse of the moon which occurred on the 17th of October, 
1632, was observed by Winthrop, and the result sent to Jacie, as noticed in the next letter 
in this volume. See 3 Mass. Hist. Coll., i. 243. — Eds. 


Dr. Taylor of London dying, hath given (we hear) 20s 
yeerly for a yeerly Sermon to be as a memorial of Leips- 

Mr. Nathaniel Rogers desires to have his best respect 
remembred to the Cheef Governor (as I also) & to Mrs. 
Winthrop & your selfe. 

Indorsed, " Mr Jacy, received Sept : 20 : 1632. Of the Eclipses." 


To his Worthy friend Mr. John Winthrop, sonne to the Right 
Worthy Governour of New England. 

Worthy Sir, — If you knew how ioyful a thing it was 
to me to receive (the last night) though but one letter from 
your so renowned plantation (vizt. from* Ephraim Child), I 
am perswaded you would have added to my ioy by a line 
or two. Before this his letter, yours dated October 21, 1632, 
concerning the moones ecclipse, October 17, was the last 
I received thence. A copy of that I sent to Mr. Milburne, 
from whom I expected to have received more in that kind 
about ecclipses, & directed him how to send to you. I re- 
ceived none since from him. Our estate here in particular, 
in general, you may better hear from the honest bearer 
John Firmin, then by my letter. The Lord hath been mer- 
veilous in his mercies to this our land ; and we have dealt 
shamefully unthankfully with him : and therefore if he pro- 
ceede to deal wonderfully in his judgements against us, as 
he threatned to do with Israel, Isa. 29, 13-15, that the 
wisdome of the wise sh[all] fail them, & the seers [b]e 
covered, etc., it were just with him. We have not feared 
when he hath oft shaken the rod, nor turned to him when 
he hath smitten us, except fa 4 nedly, and then to our sins 



againe. Yea, even to spiritual adultery, defiling the man- 
age bed, & yet say, wiping our mouths, What evil have we 
done I Who dare charge us therewith % Name him that 
we may make him smart for it ; as some have, others do, & 
more are likely. I read lately a large letter from Arch- 
bishop Grindal of Canterbury to Queen Elizabeth, from 
whom commaund was comming to him to forbid exercises, 
& cause fewer preachers in regard of contention, etc. He 
writ, God forbid his tongue should be an instrument of 
publishing that was so to Gods dishonour. We have no 
power against the trueth, but for the trueth. How it is 
for the Sabbath you shal heare. What wil become of us 
God knowes. We had need stand as much in the gap as 
we can, tho' we be not without some danger for it. Blessed 
be God, there are divers such in this cold climate of York- 
shire, yea & in Northumberland, people, ministers, gentle- 
men, & here some knights also. Pray for us, deare Sir, & 
desire your ministers to do so in publick, though I conceive 
they oft do so. God is not yet departed ; he walks some- 
times in our gardens, & makes some dead herbs to live and 
blossome, both elder & yonger, in these cold seasons. The 
God Alsufficient be amongst you, and perserve you, that 
you may be al of one mind according to trueth, that you, 
having salt in your selves, may be at peace one with another, 
Mar. 9, end: that you may deny your selves, & your own 
reasonings, in humility condescending one to another, so 
far as may stand with a good conscience, considering one 
anothers weakenesse to cover it in love, avoiding needles 
disputes, causing strife, rather then edifying, Heb. 13. 9. 
I desire al your prayers for me to the God that heareth 
prayer, that he that hath called me here to the ministery, 
& given desires of doing his work faithfully & syncerely, 
ev TrappvGta & humility, would direct me in al things to do his 
wil, & keep my selfe pure, & vphold & blesse me & my en- 
deavours, as he hath given me cause of praises to him in 
this behalfe, Blesse his holy name with me, who rejoice 


with you in his great kindnes towards you, and hope I shal 
no longer live, then I abide 

Your & New Englands faithfull friend so far as I am 
able Hen: Jacie. 

Aughton, Dec. 17, 1633. 

My best respect & heartiest love remembred to al my 
deare friends with you, richer & poorer ; for I am straitned 
in time. I can write no more now thither. 


To the WorsTiipfull his very good Friend John Winthrop the 
Yonger, Bsquier, in New Ipswich, in New England. Leave 
these with the Bight Worshipfull Mr. Winthrop of Boston. 

London 6th month 18th day.* 

Good Mr. Winthrop, — Though about 2 or 3 months 
ago I writ to you, yet it seeming that that letter is not yet 
sent away, & now there being further opportunity of send- 
ing, I desire, what in me lies, to make some satisfaction for 
my former neglect, or at least, not so oft performing it in 
this kind, as love & respect, I ow, bind me. Now to 
acquaint you with our affaires: S. Mat:f having (by the 
Lords good provision) obteined a most meet helper, as one 
of the same heart, mind, & spirit, remaining this 12 
month within 20 miles of London, in a place 5 miles from 
the Parish Church, hath enjoyed great freedome: but now 
of late the clouds gather fast towards a storme, their ship 
is like to be filled with waves, but they seeking to awaken 

* Although the year is not given, it is suffi ciently designated by the contents of the 
letter as 1637. — Eds. 

1 Probably Sir Matthew Boynton. — Eds. 


Christ for their help, they there desire to expect all help. 
As for me, the Lord having discovered the necessity & beauty 
of being under Christs Government, & refrained some time, 
hoping the last spring to haue come with them to New 
England. Now seing they ar yet stayed & ar like to stay, 
I know not how long, til they be satisfied, I could not so 
be content, tho I enjoyd so great priviledges there, bodily 
& spiritual : but having been sued unto & oft provoked 
by that society wher Mr. Lathr : * was, & long sought, & 
at last obteined ful satisfaction for uniting to them, the 
Lord removing divers lets, & providing so wel for 
the place I supplied, I am now come to London to 
them, though not undertaking any office, though now 
urged to it, desiring first to hear from some in New Eng- 
land to whom I writ about half a yeer ago. Letters to 
me may be directed as before, to be left with Mr. Overton 
in Pope's head Alley. 

Touching Mr. Burton etc. He having preached No- 
vemb. 5. on Prov. 24. 21; My son, fear God & the 
King, & meddle not with them that ar given to change ; 
then urged his people to take notice of many changes of 
late in books allowed, & in practise, as altars, etc. and 
being charged to answere before the High Commission, 
he appealed to the King. Being asked why he did so, he 
answered, because I would not have mine adversaries be 
my judges. Hence being forced thro danger to keep his 
house, he writ to the King the grounds hereof, together 
with his 2 sermons, as also to the Judges etc., which he 
appointed that vpon his apprehension should be delivered 
to the Counsel as they sate, by his wiffe, which was per- 
formed. She ergo was imprisoned for a time, then 
releasd upon petition. He remaind close prisoner in 
the Fleet, as Mr. Prynn in the Towr, & Dr. Bastwick at 
Gatehouse, divers books being by stealth printed & di- 

* Rev. John Lothrop, afterwards of Scituate and Barnstable. — Eds. 


vulged, (as News from Ipswich, of that Bishop Wrens 
acts, etc:), Judgments on Sabbath breakers of late, therin 
a story of Mr. Noys death ; Dr. Bastwick printing npa&g 
ruv EmaxoTrcov l conteining ther acts in their proceedings 
against him, for some passages against Lord Bishops in 
his book of reply in justifying the Kings supremacy 
against the Bishop of Rome, he having had many con- 
fronts here by a papist in that point. Then (as the 
Star Chamber bil saith) he writ a book cald a Leitany, 
wherin were many scandaulous passages, as, From Bishops, 
Priests, & Deacons, Good Lord deliver us. Also this, 
he therin in his wives name entreats Father William 
of Canterbury * his holmes (so is his stile) & Father Wil- 
liam of London,^ Magnificus Rector of the Treasury, to be 
Godfathers to her child, not doubting but that her hus- 
band should procure the Whoor of Babylon, their old 
Mrs. with whom they had so long committed adultery, to 
be Godmother. And then (says he) we shal have such 
a Christening as hath not been in Europe this many a 
blessed day, etc. Mr. Burton's books being spread by divers 
persons known. Also Mr. Wakelin, Esq. when the Church- 
wardens of Bures enquird whether their comunion table 
should be placed altar wise, & pailed in as others are, he 
answered; Its no matter, its but a dance before Popery. 
He being rebuked by others there answered ; You may say 
what you wil ; the King hath a wife, & he loves her wel, 
& she is a papist, & we must al be of her religion, & thats 
the thing the Bishops aime at, etc., as the bil hath it. 

Those 3 ergo, with Mr. Wakelin & about 16 more, 
were al joind together in a Starchamber bil, as such as 
ar combind together in their practises : the one doing or 
speaking so by the procurement, abetting etc. of the rest. 

These 3 came to their answer neer the end of June, whose 
speaches then were taken by some, showing how they were 

* Laud. — Eds. t Juxon. — Eds. 


hindred from giving answers, being close prisoners, & 
counsel not comming, & ther own answers not admitted ; 
& now Mr. Pryn would give his on oath. But now no 
answere to be admitted, but their guilt taken pro confesso. 
They were censured at 5000U a peece, & perpetual im- 
prisonment. Mr. Burton being first degraded, they al to 
stand on the pillory, then to loose their eares in Westmin- 
ster pallace ; Mr. Pryn also to be branded with S. L. for 
Seditious Libeller, which was performed Jun. last, (& their 
speaches then ar recorded by some writers.) Some say 
S. L. is for Syon's Lawyer.* The morning they suffred, Mr. 
Burton said thus to his sad wife : Good wife, let me not see 
a tear in thine eyes, nor hear a groane from thy heart ; I 
have had 2 very joyful dayes, the first when I married my 
former wife, the latter when I married thee : & it was a 
joyful time indeed: yet nothing comparable to this day. 
This day the Lord puts greatest honour upon me, and he 
so fils me with comfort, that I am not able to keep it in, 
and I long to be at the work I am cald to, etc, (or to this 
effect). Then presently the Officers came for him. Dr. 
Bastwick & Mr. Pryn were set on one pillory : who sweetly 
embraced one another. Mr. Burton soon after was 
brought to the other pillory, somwhat lower. Many 
thousands of people were there, al generally pitying or 
applauding them, & oft laffing & clapping & shouting for 
joy, to see so great courage, & comfort, & undauntednes 

* We find in the work entitled " A New Discovery of the Prelates' Tyranny," &c, the 
following epigram, said to have been composed by Prynne, while on his return, by water, 
from the Palace Yard at Westminster to the Tower: — 

" S. L. Stigmata Laudis. 
4 Stigmata mctxittis ref evens insignia Lavdis, 
Exvltans remeo, viclima grata Deo. 1 
" Which one since thus Englished, 

' Triumphant I returne, my face descries, 
Lavd's scorching Scars, Gods grateful sacrifice.' 
" And Mr. Prynne himselfe thus, 

' Bearing Lavd's Stamps on my cheeks, I retire, 
Triumphing, God's sweet Sacrifice, by Fire.' " — Op. cit. pp. 65, 66. 



in each of them : they 2 spake to Mr. Burton, he to them, 
the people to each of them ; encouraging & comforting 
them: al this without any controll, except by one or 2 
officers, as one observed, that went round about to observe 
the peoples dispositions. One woman indeed, that was won- 
drous free in her speaches to them & to the people, going 
up & down, encouraging them to suffer : speaking of the 
enemies cruelty, an officer overheard & laid hold, & chargd 
a halbertman to cary her away. She passing a litle way 
on, said to him ; Friend, I have nothing to say to you ; 
& smiled on him, & so went among the rest, & he let 
her go. 

There without any interruption, first Dr. Bastwick, then 
Mr. Pryn, then Mr. Burton, made large speaches to the 
people, declaring the cause of their suffrings, & what 
comfort they had in it, against the Prelates. Mr. Pryn 
said the statute was thus, made in Queen Elizabeths 
reigne, that if one usd libels against the King or Queen 
ther should be 2 months imprisonment, & 300// fine, 
(which had been I take it, but 1 month, & 100U in Queen 
Mary's reign) but for want of paying that fine, such pun- 
ishment as seemed proportionable. Wheras now see the 
change of times (said he) when they say we ar libel- 
lers against the Prelates (yet prove it not), we ar fined 
5000/i a man, & perpetual imprisonment, & besides that, 
to have this corporal punishment, etc. 

They were to stand on the pillory (I think) 3 hours : 
some there observd that the handle on the clock was set 
backward, sometimes J an hour at a time. So having 
joyfully & triumphantly suffred, despising the (intended) 
shame, they were had, each to the place whence they 
came, where they were very much visited by al sorts, ex- 
cept black coates (for none (or scarce any) of them, visited, 
or were at their pillory suffrings, oi accompanied them 
toward the places whither they were adjudged to be 


caried, as thousands did) which was one part of their cen- 
sure, Dr. Bastwick to a castle in Cornewal, Mr. Burton 
to Lancaster, Mr. Pryn into a castle in Wales, which was 
performed about 3 weeks after; one 3 or 4 days after 
the other, with abundance of people, & happy he or she 
that could get them by the hand, or but touch their 
coat, (as one said wel, I toucht his coat once more). 
Divers had writ lettres to their Christian friends that 
dwelt neer the way towards these 3 castles, & many peo- 
ple met them in several places, & so went alongst with 
them, til others came in. Dr. Bastwick we hear hath a 
very poor hole to lodge in (& so Mr. Burton) (where the 
countrey rogues were wont to be it seemes.) We hear not 
yet of Mr. Pryns place, what it is. By these devices the 
Prelates hoped to have more prevailed ; but its feared they 
have lost greatly by it. The poor credit they had with the 
vulgar is almost quite lost. Every wrech, & swearing & 
drunken beast almost, is ready on the least speach, to cry 
out on them, which makes many consider Mai. 2. 8, 9. 
Because you are departed, you have caused many to 
stumble, ergo have I made you contemptible. Good Sir, 
sympathise with our land, with our visible church. I 
want time to write to many friends. Salute Mr. & Mrs. 
Saltonstall, William Spaf., with Eobert, &c. Accept hereof 
instead of many lettres from 

Your faithful tho unworthy friend H. Jacie. 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, Jr., " Mr. Jacyes Letter about Mr. Prinn, 
Mr. Burton, & Dr. Bastwick." 



[\Fo]r his much Honoured Mr. Winthrop, Governour in Massa- 

chusets Bay. 

Honoured Sir, — I salute you with Mrs. Winthrop in 
our Lord Jesus. Though at present I am much streightned 
in time, yet I would not omitt, though but abruptly, to 
manifest my respects to you, who have writ more to me 
about Psedobaptism then any from New England ; and 
though therin at present we agree not, yet meeting in 
Jesus Christ, our Center, the Way, we shal come to the 
end of our faith : & I rejoice that the day draws nigh, 
when the earth shalbe filld with the knowledge of the 
Lord, & then, when our drosse & stubble shal be consumed, 
we shal see, each of us, whats amisse, & know whats 
trueth. t 

I have sent to Mr. Cotton or Mr. Wilson a book for the 
Governors, of the present proceeds between the King & 
Parliament ; the King being in hold at the He of Wight, 
where Col. Hamond a godly man is Governor, whom he 
h [torn] told that the time wil come when he must beg 
his life of him, or his son, &c. 

His old attendants are removed, & his liberty streitened. 
Yet he bears it out, (its said) without appearance of sorow. 
What great alterations have been in the Army, Parliament, 
& Kingdome, since the beginning of the 4 month of the last 
yeer ; & upon what grounds the Parliament stood on their 
guard, came against the city's ill party: what change in the 
Parliament & what thanks afterward to the Army, for 
their good service in such proceeds, I having reservd by 
me, do herewith send to you, judging it would be accepta- 
ble, to see the grounds of such proceeds, & the maner ; 



when all had like to have been enslavd again, after Caval- 
liers were subdued. 

About your law touching Anti-Psedobaptism, what is 
seriously writ to the Elders to importune you, I besech you, 
if there be any consolation of the Spirit, any fellowship 
with Christ, any bowels of mercy, that you with the rest 
of the Magistrates would consider off, for its desired you 
might be acquainted there withall, & might so proceed 
therin, as you may not have greef, but comfort at that day 
of Jesus Christ; Mat. 25. 35-41. I have not time to en- 
large about that to you. Accept here of from him that 
must pray, that as you begun well, you may proceed well, 
in tendernes to Christs lambs & litle ones. 

Your friend that would joy in your joy, though of late 
somewhat sadded by occasion of that law, (as is writ to 
the Elders). H : Jacie. 

12 month Adar, 22. ) 1647 
vulg. March 6 \ lb47 ? ear - 

Sir, since my writing this letter, I having received very 
good news from (lately almost lost) Ireland, & the last rela- 
tion of our kingdom's affaires, I herewith send it to you. 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, " Mr. Jacie, per Firrain, (3) 48." 




To his very lowing e ffrinde Mr. John Winthrope, these deliver at 


Deare Sir, — Th& skillfullest paynters some tymes be- 
stowe theire best colours vpon deformed pictures, and wisely. 
Some orators, to blazon the vices of some catifTe, speaketh 
of the contrarie vertues ; soe you (accordinge to your gentle 
nature) haue prouided a vaile to couer my deformitie ; that 
I, daylie seeinge my selfe through it, may thereby appeare 
the more deformed, and soe seeinge, fall a loathinge, and 
then (by diuine assistance) leauinge my deformitie, become 
conformed to what you would haue me, euen to a confor- 
mitie of mynd and manners, which as yet I am farre shorte 
of, though my studie be for such perfection. It hath pleased 
you to conceiue better of me then euer I could of my selfe, 
yea, doe for me more then euer I would haue done for my 
selfe, which maketh my loue (which you call frindshipe) a 

* Edward Howes was a most confidential correspondent and devoted friend of John 
Winthrop, Jr.; but we know little more about him, except what is derived from his own 
letters. A number of them have already been printed among the " Winthrop Papers," in 
vol. ix., 3d series, of our Collections. In one, dated March 18, 1632, he states that he had 
commenced "the Studie of the Lawes;" and it is suggested in the notes, that he may have 
been a student with John Humfrey or Herbert Pelharn. But we think the letters here 
given indicate that his master (as he calls him) was Emanuel Downing. It may be noticed 
in this connection, that a letter from Rev. Thomas Archisden to Howes, dated Jan. 30, 
1631, and printed in the same volume of Collections, is addressed to " Mr. Edward Howes 
at Mr. Downing's in Fleet street." He was plainly a person of great intelligence and in- 
genuity, and warmly interested in the welfare of the Massachusetts Colony. He frequently 
alludes to a disposition and a purpose to come over to New England; but there is no reason 
for thinking that he ever came. This first letter was written on the return of the younger 
Winthrop from the expedition of the Duke of Buckingham to the Isle of Rh£, and while 
he wa3 considering some plan of literary or piofessional life. — Eds. 




duty euer vowed to you. I loue to write playnely, for I 
knowe it pleaseth you, and to displease you, if it weare pos- 
sible I might, I could not. As for the vniversitie you watt 
of, what neede you be a scholler there, whereof you are pre- 
sident ? I, beinge but a sophisticall studient, studie as I am 
bound to giue accompt of my tyme. Come when you will, I 
shalbe fitted with a plus vltra, or somthinge, meane while 
I meane to make holly daye no we, and then when I can but 
finde a holy hower, to praye for our prosperous proceedings, 
which God graunt to his glory e and our comforts, Amen. 
Grace be with you and him whoe is 

Yours Edward Howes. 

Die Martis, 10 Noctur. hor. Jan. 22, 1627. 

Postscript. Solomons Wis- 
dome, 7 chap. 21 vers : And 
all such things as are either se- 
cret, or manifest : them I knowe. 

Die — Quid lex est illi qui 
sibi lex est, Lex mihi Onus et 
Honus, &e. 

The fyre cannot destroye whats 
written in the Harte. 


To my assured /rind Mr. John Wintlirop at Groton, these dlr. 

Serenissimo mio Amigo, — Yours came to me in serena 
die, the supposed clouds, with soe gentill a gale of wind, 
being driuen from the horizon of our auncient yet not old 
growing amity. Your newes was as welcome, as my thanks 
is redie to expresse my gratefullnes, for giuinge cause vnto 
me of newborne, or at least renewed meditations. 


I perceiue he whoe trusts most in God and least in man, 
him will God vndoubtedly assist in all his enterprises. He 
that trusts hi any thing but God, that thinge shall faile him, 
if not shame him. He that is proude of his knowledge, the 
simple shall put him to silence, as appeares by your Hadley 
newes. I would gladlie knowe how he applyed his medi- 
cine, which is the rediest waye to conceiue whereof tis made. 
I joye at your sisters encrease of learninge, quia ars aurum 
prcestat, and is the best companion in all estats, it maketh 
merie when neither honors, f rinds nor welth will or can. 
Would I might become her pupill, and learne her doctrine, 
for the much desired good of a speciall frind. My master 
desires you not to come vp vntill you haue concluded your 
busines, that you may stay some tyme when you come. 
Let me intreat you to send me a K to molifie Agolyarso # if 
you can. Vale in Chris to. 

Tuus dum dego, Edward Howes. 


To his very louinge frind Mr. John Winthrop at Groton these dlr, 

in Suff. 

Monsier, — All health and saffety to your habitation. I 
send you many thanks for the receipt, your sister should 
haue had thanks, had she sent it ; she may haue loue, but 
her charitie was but little ; I thanke God I am recouered. 
Doth she nowe thretten me for my kindnes'? be it her 
pleasure, I will not pertake thereof. I pray you with frind- 
ly greeting present my vnchainged frindship to her, and 

* This method of secret writing, used frequently by H^wes in his correspondence with 
the younger Winthrop, is read by taking only the alternate letters of the word, commen- 
cing either with the initial or second letter, as tiie case may be. The word in the text will 
thus read " glas." — Eds. 


acquaint her howe I deliuered your letter to Mr. Clarke, 
whoe saith he had the watch a while, since it was mended, 
& it went not right, soe the watchmaker hath it againe. 
He saith I shall haue it next weeke to send it downe, it 
will cost about 15 or 16 shillings mendinge. Send me word 
whether Mr. Clarke shall lay out the monie, or I ; had it 
bin done tyme enough it should haue binn sent to your bro- 
ther to Southampton. I heare he is not yet g[one ; ther]e 
-rSbott!" are 4 shipps gone on Wensday senight, (God speede them.) 
■ ••••• You shall receiue here inclosed a lettre from Mr. Hewson, 
with whome I was this morne, he tells me the name of the 
ship is the Thomas & William, of about 200 tunn, she hath 
some 16 peices. The master, William Bunduck, of Wapping, 
is a man of very good reporte. She falls downe to Graues 
end about teussday come senight ; it willbe about tomorrowe 
fortnight ere she will leaue the Thames. She hastens awaye 
the sooner because of diuerse Turkey marchants companie 
& assistance. If you knowe of any sturdie youths that will 
goe seruants for 6 or 7 yeare, they may no we haue enter- 
tainement of Mr. Hewson, or any other that will goe at theire 
owne charge. There is roome in this ship for 20, and yet 
they will not carrie aboue 60 passengers, whereas the Tal- 
bott carries about 200. Conceiue my inferrence. As for 
hens, the ship master will carrie them, if you prouide them 
& theire meate, & send them aborde ; but he will not stand 
to the hazard of them. Mr. Hewson tells me he hath a 
frind in towne, whoe no we goes ouer, & whose wife is in 
ISTewe Englande, at Salem, & hath store of hens ; he s[ai]th 
you may haue as many as you will there for 2s & 6d. a peice ; 
but Mr. Hewson saith if you will haue any of this man, he 
will buy them as for himselfe, & he hopes much cheaper, 
and your father shall haue them, as he payes ; he saith it is 
as troblesome to carrie ouer turkeys as goats ; but if you 

* The "Jewel" and the " Ambrose; " the four vessels being those in which Winthrop 
and his company embarked for New England. — Eds. ■ , 


will send them, or rabbetts, with meate for them, the mas- 
ter offers to doe his best to deliver them safe, but not war- 
rant them. Here dyed 11 this weeke of the sicknes, there 
is 6 parishes infected. I pray God make vs all alwayes 
readie for our dissolution. Thus with prayers for you as 
for my selfe, desiringe you there in to assist me 

Your louinge frinde, E. Howes. 

Peterborough Court in ffleete streete, the 16th of Aprill, 1630. 

Direct your lettres to Mr. Tho. Hewson at London Stone, 
and it is sufficient, he sayth. 


To my [ ff]ind Mr. Joh\n Wint7i]rop at Groton these deliver. 


Mounsier, — I receiued your first letters but on friday 
night last weeke, it seemes either the carrier or the porter 
had forgot it ; wherein you writt that I knowe that the let- 
ters I sent you were not welcome : beleiue me it was more 
then I knew, for doe you thinke I would sell my frind for 
sight of a letter that concerned not me, for so small a trifle 1 
The truth is this, my master he opened your letters, sup- 
posing they had come from your father, and seeing the con- 
trarie, presentlie sealed them vp againe. Your letters last 
weeke and those this weeke I haue sent to Exeter, and the 
other secundam formam. I was with Mr. Kirbie, he hath 
not receiued the monie, but is promised he shall haue it to 
morrowe. As for the other quce obscure latet,* I hope *Mittem 

i i -, . , . . , hi vtrum i] 

to resolue you next weeke ; there is a snipp preparmge by juncturam 
Londoners for New England. I shall shortlie speake with 
some o'the vndertakers, and then you shall know further. 


Et charis- Your cosen Marie and all our frinds salute you.* Numquam 

nae tuae . . 

ncae. ^ B a i neo Marie puto petram lavare, quia niger nigrior 
nigro Albissimum J> habet : ride, non ride nisi solus, &c. 
Thus salutinge you with my best loue I rest 

Turns dum suus, E. H. 

Omnibus tecum salutem, 
esse precor. Vale. 

Barbara desires Mrs. Vrsula to remember the ruffe & 

This morninge, being about to seale my lettre, there came 
an honest man, a Chyrurgeon, on of Mr. Welds perish 
in Essex, & Mr. Haynes man, to speake with my master, 
they both Aboraoluggehite myolneerys flotro* New Eng- 
land. I haue sent them to Onterlamysa.-)* The Chyrurgeon 
is an auncient man ; he purposeth to goe about Michaelmas 
next. Mr. Weld hath sent Stuhrierotayo plobugnedaso,J 
the rest as much or more. Ffarewell. 


To Ms louinge /rind Mr. John Winthrop at Ms father's house in 
the Machassetts Bay, these deliver at Boston in New Engeland. 

Charissime J. W., — Health to you and to all the Israeli 
of God : as this doth testifie my life & health, soe let it 
my harte & minde ; perswade yourselfe that all the water 
betweene vs shall not be able to wash away my former pro- 
fessed loue to you, and the place where you are, and to the 
persons with you, to whome I am obliged in a neuer to be 
cancelled bond. The bookes Mr. Gurdon hath fetcht away, 

* " They both brought money for New England." See note on p. 469. — Eds. 
f " Nelms," a seat often mentioned by the Downings. — Eds. 
\ " Thirty pounds." — Eds. 


and the Luna is at your service ; soe is both the books & 
Sol, & quodcimque sub sole habet, vel habebit me, tuum. 

I heare your mothers vnkle is dead, and hath left her an 
lOOli in his will. Heare is a mutteringe of a too palpable 
seperation of your people from our church gouernement. 
Alias, alas, it is not any outward will worship that God re- 
quires, but God being a Spirit ought to be worshiped in 
spirit & truth. There are many guifts by one and the 
same Spirite, yet not all giuen to one man. Let euery 
man, as the guift is giuen, continue in his callinge, one to 
rule, another to convince, another to exhorte, one the guift 
of healing, another the guift of tongues &c. The eyes can- 
not performe the office of the hand, nor the eares of the 
tongue, &c, hence you receiued your being, and best being ; 
in striuinge soe sodainely to be better, may proue to be 
starke naught. Thus hi rude termes I haue exprest my 
mynde out of at tender regard of the weaknes of your infant 
state : children suck the brests of theire mothers, stronge 
meate is for stronge men ; I pray God account you and pre- 
serue you all as worthy stones in buyldinge his newe Jerusa- 
lem, and that ye may be conformable to the head stone 
Christ Jesus, whoe make ye wise to the salvation of your 
owne soules, your generations after you, and the poore hea- 
then with you ; that ye become not a prey to the spoyler, 
and your children turne heathen, vncessantly shall pray 

Your E : Howse. 

I hope my interest in you may procure a shorte relation 
of your arivall, of your present beinge, and some direction 
for the disposinge of my selfe, my estate, & affaires here. 
Vale in Christo. E. H. 

Peterborough Court, 9° Nouember, 1631. 

I haue sould all and meane to folio we, Deo iuvante. 




To my much esteemed /rind Mr. John Winthrop the yonger these 
deliver at Boston in New England. 

Worthy Sir, — Vpon the 23th of March last past, with 
greate joye I opened your letter, but with sorrowe and 
greife read the same, consideringe the affliction God had 
layed vpon you. Your letters all I my selfe disperst into 
the contrie, and deliuered the rest according to the super- 
scriptions, only Dr. Ayle worth I cannot as yet find out. 
The receipt of morter you shall here receiue, vizt. One man 
he buylt with this mixture ; 2 loads of wast soapashes, one 
loade of lyme, one loade of loame, and one loade of Wool- 
wich sand, tempered together. An other man vsed only 
loame & soape ashes tempered together, instead of morter, 
whereby he layed the foundations, chimnies, and theire 
tunells &c, of aboue threescore howses in London & the 
suburbs. I am about to procure all Piatt's* workes to be 
reprinted, or else I would haue sent you my Jewell house 
of Arte & Nature. I am crediblie informed that clay, other- 
wise called loame, & horse or cow dunge tempered together, 
will make an exceeding stronge bindinge morter. I con- 
ceiue the manner of buyldinge in Ireland, vizt. to frame 
the howse and reare it, then with loame & strawe tem- 
pered together, to daube both out side & inside to a foot 
thicknes or more, to be very stronge and warme. I was 
lately tolde that in Italy men vse to temper ox blood & claye 

* Sir Hugh Piatt, the industrious author of various agricultural and mechanical works. 
Harte says of this writer, " Sir Hugh Piatt (not to mention his other excellent talents) 
was the most ingenious husbandman of the age he lived in; yet so great was his modesty, 
that all his works seem to be posthumous, except the ' Paradise of Flora,' which appeared 
in the year 1600, when it is probable he was living." See Sir E. Brydges' Censura Literaria, 
second edition, v. 104-106. — Eds. 


together, with which they make floores or walles smooth 
and glisteringe, and with all that it is very stronge & bind- 
inge. I like well the old English and still Irish buyldinge, 
where the roome is large, & the chimney or herth in the 
middest ; certainely thereby ill vapour & gnatts are kept out, 
lesse firinge will seme the turne, and men had then more 
lusty and able bodies then they haue no we. I will re- 
late vnto you a pretty and plesant jest of a fellowe in Suf- 
folke, whoe hauinge a shrewish wife, made as though he 
were a wearie of his like [life] ; and went away from her. 
It was coniectured by all, that he had made away with him- 
selfe, for he could not be found nor heard of in almost a 
whole winter, and where thinke you this fellowe was all 
this while \ He had made him a howse in his woodstack 
and buy It it soe artificially with bavins, that it was a farre 
better & warmer cab ha than Diogines' tubb. It seemes he 
had plotted the bushies before hand, and had conveyed 
there in provision before hand, or else he had some 
boy or servant of his councell, whoe conveyed provision 
vnto him, for the waye in was 'at the topp, and soe artifi- 
cially archt ouer and hollowed vnder, that it was hard for 
either wind, frost, snowe, or could to trouble him. Nowe 
if one man could make this shift of his owne invention, 
surely some amonge you, if they haue neede, may vse of 
the like, or some other better, for 1 heare you haue wood 
enough. Methinks the southerne or westerne side of a 
hill, might with small charge be made an habitable place 
for good people, like the boothes against the Tennis court 
at Whitehall, especially if it be a rockie & steepe hill. I 
hearinge of a ship redie to set forward for your coast, could 
not but ymparte my minde vnto you concerninge this busi- 
nes. Thus with my wonted loue, & louinge salutations to 
you and all the rest of my frinds, I rest 

Your E. Howes. 

26° March 1632. 


My letters by Mr. Dudley & by Mr. Winslowe are more 
large, & the sodaine departure of this ship, euen to morowe, 
causeth me thus to break of abruptly. Vale in Christo. 

I haue sent you by this ship the oyle of vitrioll, that you 
left behind you. It is directed to your father, because of 
the more safe conveyance thereof. It is in a little double 
voyall, bound vp in 2 or three course papers. 

This afternoone I receiued a letter from John Samford, 
wherein I vnderstand there is greate hopes of Jo : Saga- 
more, to be civilized and a christian ; I conceiue it were 
very good, to bestowe respect and honor vnto such as he 
(petty kings) by giuinge them a scarlet coate, I meane a 
red coate to weare ; or some other vestment in token of his 
place & dignitie ; which other Sachems (of greater com- 
mand then he) hearinge & seeinge, may thereby be allured 
to loue & respect the English, in hope & expectation of the 
like, or in theire conceite more glorious clothinge ; and soe 
you may thereby discouer further into the land, haue more 
frinds and allies, and by the blessinge of God, it may be a 
greate meanes of civillizirfge the meaner sorte ; and after, 
the revealinge Christ vnto them ; for it is a rule in warre, 
to aime to surprise & captiuate greate ones, and the lesse 
will soone come vnder, soe winn the hartes of the Sachems 
and you win all. The wise man saith ; guifts blinds the 
wise, ho we m [torn] more them that are ignorante & simple, 
as I thinke all the natiues are [torn]. The more loue & 
respect you she we to the Sagamores & Sachems, the more 
loue and feare shall you gaine from the common natiues. I 
could wonderfully enlarge my selfe vpon this & the like 
subiect, but that tyme & tide tarrieth for noe man. I haue 
one thinge more to ymparte, and then I shall conclude. 

A receipt of a wholsome & savorie drinke, for such as 
are sick, weak, or cannot drinke water. R 5 or 6 gallons, 
or quantum placet of water ; put to euery gallon a pinte of 
white wyne and a pretty quantitie of potatoe rootes, which 


I suppose you haue good store of; and after 2 or 3 dayes 
standinge, drinke out halfe, and fill it vp againe with fresh 
water, and the second drinke wilbe better then the first. 
Probat Mr. Thomson. 

This drinke Capt. Drake vsed very often to drinke of in 
his voyage about the world, and one of the voyage lately 
told it to me, with the manner as afforesaid. E. H. 

Indorsed, " Ed : Howes Jun : 1632." 


Charissimo Amico, — Setting asside all vowes and protes- 
tations of my continuing amitie, which would seeme but 
rather complements then true harted loue, I salute you 
with good newes in my mouth ; that God hath not forgott 
to be gracious to his church, beyond the seas, but hath 
heard the sighs and grones of his servants, yea, the blood 
of his saints hath cryed loud for vengance ; and wrath since 
your departure hath come downe furiously vpon the ene- 
mies. I need not instance hi particulars, for I doubt not 
but the fame thereof is at this day the talke of all the 
world ; yet to satisfie you a little fullier then by word of 
mouth, & that your worthy father, with all my louinge frinds, 
may reead at large the workinge of our God in these latter 
dayes, here I haue sent you the Swedish Intelligencer* 
which speakes wonder to the world ; withall I haue sent 
you your Archymedes and an Almenack, with a booke or 
two of other newes besides. Mr. Dudly went away soe 
sodainely from vs in the begining of Christmas, that I 
could not take my leaue of him as I would. I desire ear- 

* 1632. See Winthrop's Hist of N.E., i. 90. — Eds. 


nestly to heare of your healths and welbeing. Thus Mr. 
Allerton staying for my letter, I abruptly conclude, with 
my loues to all my frinds, I rest 

Your louing frind E. Howes. 


To the Worshipfull his worthie frinde Mr. John Winthrop the 
yonger at the Massachusetts bay, these deliver, in New England. 

Most noble Frind, — Can a ship passe from our porte, 
& you expect not letters by it, or shall you receiue letters 
from others and none from me'? Farre be it from me at 
any tyme to frustrate your expectations, it being the dutie 
of loue, to be alwayes operatinge towards the beloued ; I 
neede not name you the North Starre, towards which the 
compasse of myne endevours constantly inclynes, for you 
partlie knowe it, and the sequell of my life (God sparing 
vs both life) shall confirme the truth. Although I was 
ample in my last lettre ; giue me leaue to vent the abound- 
ance of myne affection in this defectiue character of expres- 
sion. True it is, I about a fortnight since writt a letter for 
you, but some malignant spirit, knowinge thereof, hath 
stolne it from me, as I conceiue, it being not endorsed to 
see to whome it was, & what was in it, and now is ashamed 
to restore it. Therein was nothinge but common newes, 
and therefore I lesse care for the losse. The shipp beinge 
thus sudainely departed vpon the end of this Trinity Terme, 
I could not relate the particulars of my other letter. In 
breife my father, and mother, & sisters remember them to 
you, & I would request the fauour of you to present my 
humble seruice to your honored father & mother, and 
my respectiue loue and due respects to you & your best 
beloued, & to Mr. Dudley & his beloued, & to my qoun- 


dam frind Mres. E., desiring, for shortnes of tyme, to hauc 
leaue to be remembred alsoe in particular to my louinge 
frind John Samford and his true loue, and to the rest of 
my frinds, I rest & remaine 

Yours as you knowe E. H. 

Caput corui vidi, Lac Virginis quoque vidi, finem denique 
non ausim videre. 

JVotitla misterij datitr, potestas tamen operationis non 
datur milii. 

There is a tyme ordained for all things, &c. Crede & 

Indorsed, " Mr. Howes : Reed : Octob : 12 : 1632." 


London, primo JSfouembris, 1632. 

Sir, — Yours of the 19 of September I receiued this 
euening, and could not let slipp to giue you intelligence of 
the receipt, though this be the third by this ship vnto you ; 
my loue is soe intire vnto you, that all the tyme I bestowe 
for you I thinke too little. I thanke you for your resolucon 
concerninge the silke wormes. Mr. Wigens, whome I 
thinke you knowe, hath fullie resolued me thereof. As for 
your cement, it is a rare and a strainge request, but shall 
not be thought impossible, by me to be answered. I haue 
here sent a very necessary instrument for great ordnance, 
for John Samford, if you please to bestowe a little looking 
thereon, you may quickly informe him in the vse thereof. 6d . jjj2 
The notches she we the diametre of the bores, W. P. the 
weight of the pouder due to euery peice, 1. 1. the lenght of 
the ladle, B. L. the weight of the bullett, &c. The otner- 
side shewes the seuerall name^ of the ordnance. 


I pray thanke James for his letter of the 18th of Sept. 
last, and for his wiuinge instmccions. Thus with my loue 
remembred to you, your wife, sisters, brothers, and all our 
frinds, I committ you to Gods protection, & rest 

Tims dum suus Edward Howes. 


To his wortliilie respected frind Mr. Jolm Winthrop, Junr. at the 
Mattachusetts in New England these deliver. 

Deare Frind and most noble Sir, — Deare because fewe 
the like to me, and truly noble beinge one of the Lords 
Worthies. Your letter of July last was much welcome, in 
that it brought tidings of your recouery, and your thriuinge 
in the wildernes of New England. I cannot as yet satisfie 
your desire, in sending ouer to John Samford as I would, 
for you would wonder what discoragements the diuell putts 
in most mens mouths against your plantations, some that 
you are all comminge home, others that you are all gone 
or goinge for Virginia : for my parte, I shall and will by 
Gods leaue endeauour to continue towards you & the 
worke semper idem. Here in closed you shall find a booke 
of the probabilities of the North West passage,* not in the 

* The identical copy of the treatise here mentioned is now in the Library of the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society. It is a small tract of twenty-six pages, with the following 
title: " Of the Circvmference of the Earth: or, A Treatise of the North-weast [the 
w added in manuscript by Howes] passage. Imprinted at London, by W. W. for John 
Barnes, 1632." Above the imprint, on the titlepage, is a cipher, containing the letters of 
the name of Edward Howes, in manuscript. The prefatory address is inscribed, in his 
handwriting, — 

" To the right noble and worthy, religious and vertuous gent. Iohn Winthrop the 
yonger, all health and felicitie;" and signed, " Yours, E. Hows." On the back of the title- 
page is the following, by the same hand: "Happie, thrice happie should I be, if this little 
treatise should add any thinge to your knowledge, invention, or industrie, to the atcheiuinge 
of that Herculean worke of the straits of New England, which I am as verilie perswaded of, 
that there is either a strait, as our narrow seas, or a Mediterranean sea, west from you. 


60 or 70 degree of North latitude, but rather about the 40th. 
I sore suspect the Hollanders will haue the glory and beni- 
fitt of the passage about Hudson's River, yet God, the Au- 
thor and Finisher of all good works, will (I belieue) that all 
shalbe for the good of his saints. I heare the French haue 
this summer transported a company of preists and Jesuits 
and such vermine to Canada ; but how longe they will staye 
there, it is a question. I conceiue the land to cold for 
their e hott natures. 

The vernish for clothes, to keepe out wett, I cannot yet 
learne, but as soone as T can, the next shipp after shall 
aquaint you with it. As for my vsuall characters, they are 
that wherewith I conceiue you haue bin formerly acquainted, 
vizt. Mr. Arkisdens, whoe hath sent you a letter here in- 
closed in John Samfords. I though[t] good to send you his 
character, for feare you should haue forgotten it, as thus 


~ - | C 5 # 7 q 

h h i 









h 9 • 










t u w 




/ V 5 




They are approued of in Cambridge to be the best as yet in- 
vented ; and they are not yet printed nor comon. You may 
abreuiate them thus, c. for Christ, q God, . Jesus, n king, 
U lord, © people, &c. / stands alwayes for the, /• for thee, 
5 for w. or wh. A little vse will make perfectnes ; send 
me word whether you like it, and I will send you more 

The Dutch, the Dutch, I doubt will prevent your discouerie, for they are the nearest, of 
any that haue not as yet discouered it. But doubtlesse there is a man, (or shalbe) sett 
aparte for the discouerie thereof, thereby to comunicate more freely, more knowingly, and 
with lesse charge, the riches of the east with the pleasures of the west, and that the east 
& west, meetinge with mutuall imbracements, they shall soe loue each other, that they 
shalbe willinge to be disolued into each other; and soe God being manifested in Christ 
through all the world, and light shininge in thickest darkr^sse, and that palpable darknesse 
being expelled, how great & glorious shall that light appeare. Which God of his mercy 
hasten to accomplish." — Eds. 



I thanke you Sir, for remembringe soe farre of when Mr. 
Saltonstall was with you ; by your meanes, and good words 
of me to him, I haue obtained a most singular sweete frind 
of him. Euer since Michelmas last, haue I had inward 
familiaritie with him ; he perswadinge me it was your desire 
that I should imparte my selfe vnto him, on your behalfe, 
& for the good of New England. I had enlarged my selfe, 
but that my master called me to write vnto you for him ; 
wherein you shall heare most of our latest newes ; I praye 
you remember my humble seruice vnto your noble father, 
my most honored frind, and his right vertuous wife, and 
thanke him for that he hath bin pleased to regard the good 
will of his poore seruant, in sending him a letter of enco- 
ragement, which was more welcome to me then any guift 
besides. Remember my loueing salutations to your sister 
Feakes * and her husband, though vnknowne ; thanke her 
for her lettre, and tell her that I went with hir brother in 
law to Mr. Kirbys, and procurde, in my master his absence, 
the monie vpon the bill of exchainge. Remember me alsoe 
to your brother Dudley and his louinge wife, and all others 
to whome you please to recomend my loue. Thus, though 
in the last place, yet not in the least place, my harty loue 
and affections to you and your best beloued remembred, 
with day lie prayers for your healths and prosperities, I rest 
Tuus ex animo et adyto Edward Howes. 

Ffrom the Inner Temple, this xxiiith of ixber, 1632. 

I haue bespoken instruments for John Samford, but 
could not gett them made redie against this shipps depart- 
ure ; he shall haue them, the next springe (God willinge) 
perhaps I may bring them my selfe ; but noe more of that, 
I meane to come vnlookt for, but not, I hope, before I shalbe 
welcome. The terme is no we in the full heate thereof, and 

* Mrs. Elizabeth Feakes was sister to John Winthrop, Jr.'s first wife, Martha, daughter 
of Thomas Fones. — Eds. 


therefore I hope you will excuse such defects you find in 
this expression of my loue, and soe I leaue you to God. 

A little more here I send concerninge Dr. Fludd, written 
in greate haste. 

Seale up James Downing[s] lettre and giue it him. 


Worthy Sir, — Here I haue sent you a taste of the 
famous and farre renouned English man of our tymes, Dr. 
Fludd, whoe as you may remember published a booke in 
defence of the weapon salue, before you went ouer, but 
that is nothinge in comparison of these here menconed, 
which are all folio bookes, and full of brasse peices, the 
like I neuer sawe, for engines, fortiflcacions, and a touch of 
all opperatiue workes, as you may conceiue by the titles : 
yet let me tell you this, that the titles, nor my penn, is not 
able to expresse what is in those bookes, as they are, noe 
more then you in a map of a sheete of paper, can exactly 
describe the riuers, creeks, hills, dales, fruite, beasts, fishes 
and all other thhigs of your contrie ; for I thinke it almost 
imposible for man to add vnto his macro cosme and micro - 
cosme, except it be illustration or comment, and that hardly 
too ; his bookes are so bought vp beyond sea, we can gett 
none brought ouer. Fetherston, the Latine warehowse, nor 
all London, could, within this moneth, shewe these all to- 
gether to be sould. I layd out all this last longe vacation 
for them at Hills in Little Brittaine ; who laid out for them 
for me, and brought them me home compleat, as here you 
see the titles, which I could with all my harte wish the 
bookes themselues were in your hands, as certaine as any 
thing you haue. 

I had no we sent you a catalogue of the marte bookes, 
but that I would not take any mans busines out of his 


hands. The iiiiK. xiis. I had deliuered to Mr. Kirby ere 
no we, bnt that he said he had none vse of it vntill the 
springe ; he called to me for it abont a weeke since, when 
I not dowbting it, had lent it ont, but I gaue him then xxs. 
and haue since receiued xxZi, out of which I intend to pay 
the remainder, as soone as I can goe to him, or see him. 
I had though[t] there with (by your leaue) to haue pur- 
chased Dr. Fludds works for you, for I doubt within this 
xii month they will hardly be gotten for xli. Vale in 
Christo. Your assured faithfull frind in life till death, 

Edward Howes. 

The xxiiiith of Nouember, 1632. 

J r ' mt fi at Opera R : Fluddi. Medicince Dris. 

Franckfurt. m r _ 

Vtriusque Cosmi maioris silicet et minoris Metaphisica Phisi- 
ca atque Teclmica, in duo volumina, secundum Cosmi dif- 
ferentiam diuisa. 

Tomus primus, 

De Macrocosmi Historia in duos Tractatus diuisa. R: F. 

1. Macrocosmi. 
Tomus primus de Macrocosmi Historia, in duos tractatus. 

1. Tractatus primus habet xiii libr. 

2. Tractatus secundus de naturae simia seu Teclmica Macro- 
cosmi Historia in partes xi diuisa. 

2. Microcosmi. 
Tomus secundus de supernaturali, preter naturali, et contra 

naturali, Microcosmi Historia in Tractatus tres distri- 
buta. Authore R: F. 

Tomi secundi tractatus primi, 

Sectio secunda de Technica, Microcosmi Historia, in por- 
tiones vii diuisa. 

Tomi secundi, Tractatus secundus, de praeternaturali vtrius- 
que Mundi Historia, in iii sectiones. R. F. 

Ao. 1619. 

Ao. 1628. 

Ao. 1619. 

Ao. 1621. 

Ao. 1623. 

Anatomise Amphitheatrum effigise Triplici more et condi- 

tione varia disignatum. 
Monochordum Mundi Symphoniacum, seu replicatio ad 

Appollogiam Johannis Kepleri. 


Philosophia Sacra et vere Christiana, seu Meteorologia Cos- 
Medicina Catholica seu Misticum Artis Medicandi Sacra- 


Ao. 1626 


rium in Tomos diuisum duos. 
Sophias cum moria certamen, in quo, lapis Lydius a falso 

structore Fr : Marino Mersenno, monacho, reprobatus, &c. 

Ko : Flud. 

Magi as \ 
Cabala? > verse 

Sumum bonum, quod est ) .. . . ( ( , . 

< Alcnymiee J > subjectum, 

/ Fratrum Rosese 

per Joach : Frisium. \ cruris verorum 


To his most respected and worthy ffrind Mr. John Winthrop Junr 
at the Mattachusetts , these deliver in New England. 

Sir, — I though[t] good not to lett passe the aquaintinge 
you with any thinge that might concerne you or the plan- 
tation, though I be neuer soe straightned in tyme. This 
day, being the 27th of Nouember, and the last but one of 
the terme, I coming home at noone met 4 men there, that 
came as they said from Capt. Masons and the Bristoll plan- 
tation. I askt them what newes ; Lambert, as I take it his 
name is, master of the ship, said your father & you and all 
were well when he left you, but he going vp to deliuer a 
letter to my master from your father, as I conceiue, I fell 
into discourse with one of the other, a most egregious 
knaue, whoe would giue none of you a good word, but the 
gouemor ; he was a good man & kept a good table, but al 
the rest were Heriticks, & they would be more holy then 
all the world ; they would be a peculiar people to God, but 
goe to the diuell ; that one man with you being at confes- 
sion, as he called it, said he behiued his father & mother & 


auntestors went all to hell, and that your preachers, in theire 
publique prayers, pray for the gouernor before they praye 
for our kinge and state, and that one of the Pascataweyans 
vowed that if he should heare your minister saye soe, he 
would stabbe him in the place where he spake it ; and that 
you should haue all your throats cutt by the Indians ere it 
be longe, for they haue killed some rebbells, and would 
make an end of the rest, for that you are a people not wor- 
thie to liue one Gods earth ; that you neuer vse the Lords 
prayer ; that your ministers marrie none ; that fellowes 
which keepe hogges all the weeke, preach on the Saboth ; 
that euery towne in your plantation is of a seuerall religion ; 
that you count all men in England, yea all out of your 
church, and in the state of damnacion ; but I beleiue and 
knowe better things of you ; but here by you may partly 
see ho we the diuell stirrs vp his instruments. Where his 
kingdome is soe mightily opposed he setts vpon you wilth 
all [h]is might & maine, and would haue you to be like him- 
selfe, but he that is with you, is greater then he that is 
against you. Accept this as the token of my goodwill, 
though I am sorrie to expresse it in these vile and diuelish 
repetitions ; it is to make you the more vigilant and circum- 

The Kinge of Sueden I heare is slayne : * my other 
newes you shall haue at large in a letter dated the xxiiith 
of this moneth. I haue deliuered all your monie to Mr. 
Kirby. Thus in great hast, being the last daye of the 
terme, I rest 

Yours as I haue bin Edwa : Howes. 

xxviiith ixber M.DC.XXXII. 

Salute all my frinds againe. Vale optima salute. 

* Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, was killed at the battle of Lutzen, 6 Nov., 
1632. — Eds. 



To the Worshipfull his most esteemed frind Mr. John Winthrop 
Junr. at Boston in New England present these. 

Charissime', — The intire respects I euer bare towards 
you constrayneth me to take all occasions to vent my loue ; 
and more nowe then euer; when as you are become not 
only a branch in the viniard ; but euen a cheife piller to 
the new Syon ; vphold, oh vphold, helpe with councell and 
seasonable advice to reare the walles ; it is noe shame for 
Israelites to tight with one hand, and buy Id with the other ; 
but if I should write a volume to this purpose, it were but 
water cast into the sea of your aboundant abilities. I write 
only to manifest my good will, but not to teach ; you haue 
knowne me, and doe knowe me, a man subiect to infirmi- 
ties ; couer therefore all my disrespects of you with the 
vaile of your loue ; and account of me accordinge to my 
poore abilities Yours, E. H. 

A Templo, Quinto Junij 1633. 


To his highly esteemed ff rind Mr. John Winthrop } Junr. at Boston 
present the[se~\, in New England. 


Sir, — Although I haue written vnto you alredie by this 
shipp, per Mr. Atherton Haugh, and hauinge soe largely 
exprest my loue to you per your cosen Mary Downinge, yet 
I could not chuse but as it were seeke newe matter of loue 
and respect. You shall receiue here inclosed a lettre from 
Mr. Kirbie, and in a bundle of clothes for your cosen Mary, 
marked with M : D. you shall f nd from him a cattalogue of 


the last marte bookes ; and from your poore frind an exact 
and large and the latest discouery of the North West pas- 
sage, made by a painfull and industrious gent., Capt. James* 
as a remembrance of my obliged lone. I writt to you by 
the last shipps, of your vncles remouinge his dwellinge into 
the Strand, or the Covent Gardein ; he hath (and my Mrs.) 
bin very hott vpon the remoue lately, but I haue in parte, 
if not altogether, altred theire purpose, and advised them 
not to remoue, vntill it be to plant themselues in New Eng- 
land, which I hope wilbe next springe. My master hath 
caused me to put off my chamber in Cliffords Inn againe ; 
and would haue me take his partners parte in the Temple f 
but whie should I trouble you with these impertinances, 
only that you may knowe where to send to me, if my master 
should remoue to you, but before that tyme I hope to see 
you here. Tis certaine your vncle Gostlyn and aunt will 
goe ouer with theire family in the springe ; and if you come 
this winter to vs, its very likely you may perswade your 
Aunt Dow[ning] to goe with them ; for your vncle D. he 
could wish himselfe there nowe ; he is neuer better nor 
merrier then when he is talkinge of New England. Your 
100^ with your vncle Paynter were worth the comming for, 
and your promise of comminge ouer were worth the per- 
formance, it may be you may prevaile that I may goe with 
you. There is not a question but if the Lorde sees good to 
send you to vs, he will aboundantly content your paines ; I 
haue heard of 200U which was giuen to your mother, which 
is in the hands of your vncle Tindall, thats worth the fetch- 
inge too ; I question not the safety of it, but I conceiue it 
were better to be ymployed in New England then in Old ; 
and I heare of some lands bought in Suffolke almost a 

* " The Strange and Dangerous Voyage of Captain Thomas James, in his intended dis- 
covery of the North West passage into the South Sea," &c. London, 1633. — Eds. 

t We are to buy Id them new this sommer. My master said lately he had rather be 
buylding at Boston in New England. — Howes. 


yeare since,* but I haue not heard your vnclc Downing 
speake of any rent he hath as yet receiued ; perchance you 
may deeme me too bold, to medle with that I haue nothinge 
to doe with ; but I conceiue you my frind to be [Alter idem) 
and what concernes you concernes me, either to pertake of 
your joye or sorrowe. There is a pretty youth, brother to 
Sarah, your sister Feaks maide, that hath much desired 
to spend his dayes in New England. He is a pretty good 
clarke, and as I heare hath liued a yeare or two with a 
Common law Attorney ; this youth (his name is John Sand- 
brooke) my master thought good to preferre him to your Mymastei 
worthie father, to whome he is bound for five yeares ; my foreueboum 

•J ' J him that h< 

mistress was intreated by his father (who hath noe other ™l st /£ 
sonne but he) to write to your father about him ; and I heVeeiycon 

, . _ . . . sented vnto 

speakinge of writing to you, he intreated me to procure 
you to take a little notice of him, and encorage him in 
goodnes. I neede not advise you to take a man or boye, 
for I knowe you are able enough to knowe what is best for 
your selfe ; and for ought I knowe you may haue diuerse 
Indian boyes, w T hich are, or may be in tyme, necessary ser- 
uants. Before I end, I must not forgett to put you in 
minde of one that is cominge to you, whoe hath deserued 
exceedingly of your father & the plantation, many wayes ; 
he discouered (under God) our enemies plotts, and helpt to 
prevent them ; he hath also dispossest our enemies of their 
hope, Pascataqua, and intends to plant him selfe and many 
gracious men there this sommer. Noe doubt but this may 
be and wilbe by diuerse in this shipp reported to you ; but 
out of the mouth of diuerse witnesses the truth is confirmed. 
I haue, and you all haue cause to blesse God that you haue 
soe good a neighbour as Capt. Wiggen. I could spend my 
dayes in shewing my respects to you. Mr. Arkisden 
is very well, and hath bin steward of his colledge ; and is 
nowe in the very acte of commencing Master. Mr. Salton- 

I haue heard my master say he neuer saw the conveyance. — Howes. 


stall & Mrs. Meriall Gurdon are to be married next weeke, 
here in towne, et signum perderit pudieitice fertur in domus 
ihalamo nostri ; ffor my parte I am as farre from marrying 
as ener I was ; yet I should be loath to goe to New England 
without one. Thus with my humble seruice to your noble 
father and good mother, and my due and respectiue loue to 
your louing wife and your selfe ; and my salutes to your 
sister Feaks, and sister Dudley, and theire husbands ; and 
to my louinge frind Mr. Samford and his wife : remember 
me alsoe to your cosen Ma: Dow[ning] and Susan and 
James ; not forgetting your brothers, and all the rest of my 
louinge frinds. With most hartie wishes and prayers for 
all your healths and prosperities, and grace & fauour with 
the Lorde Christ, to whose guidance & keeping I committ 
you & rest Yours as you knowe E. Howes. 

Inner Temple, the 22th of June, 1633. 

The harts of all Gods people here are all bent towards 
your Syon ; and from all parts of the land they are goinge 
vp by flocks to New Salem Jerusalem to worship : helpe 
me to you with your prayers ; or, if the Lorde see good, 
that I may to his glorie suffer here. 


To the worship/all his assured frind John Winthrop, esq. Junr. 
at Boston in the Mattachusets Baye, present these, in New 

Sir, — This is the fifth or sixth lettre to you since I re- 
ceived any from you, the post it may be hath lost your 
packett. I hope you will not say I haue bin a niggard of 
my paper and paines, if they all come safe (as I wish they 
may) to your hands, and as it is said nulla dies sine linea, 
soe I may say nullum tempms sine occasione, theres noe tyme 


but it offers occasion of loue and seruice towards you. I 
was requested by Mr. Sandbrooke (whose only sonne he 
hath sent as seruant to my noble frind your worthy father) 
to write to you to showe some fauour to the ladd ; as alsoe 
that Mr. Gouernour will be pleased to consider that he is 
sent to him, with all or most necessaries, as alsoe his pas- 
sage paid for by his father. I told Mr. Sandbrooke that he 
need not doubt but it would be taken notice of, and re- 
membred when his sonne comes out of his tyme. It much 
reioyces our harts here that the Lord sends forth such store 
of labourers into his viniard ; they flock to you euen from 
Dan to Bersheba ; from Plymouth to Barwick. 

Sir Hugh Platts engine that you and I haue bin often 
hammeringe about, to boyle in wooden vessells, is now come 
to light, and I hope wilbe with you as soone as this letter : 
my master hath bin at the cost of making one, and wee 
tryed it in our parlor ; it will doe verie well, but it being in 
its infancie, had need of such mature Mathematitians as 
your selfe to bringe it to perfect proportion & strength ; 
now you haue the hint and waye of it, facile est addere. 

You shall alsoe receiue in this shipp 3 woolfe doggs & a 
bitch, with an Irish boy to tend them ; for the doggs, my 
master hath writt sufficiently, but for the boye thus much. 
You haue bin in Ireland, knowe partlie the Irish con- 
dition ; this is a verie tractable fellowe, and yet of a hardie 
and stout corage ; I am perswaded he is very honest, es- 
pecially he makes great conscience of his promise and vowe. 
I could wish (for as much as I haue seene by him) you 
would take him to be your seruant, although he be bound 
to your father for flue yeares. At his first comminge ouer 
he would not goe to church, nor come to prayers ; but first 
we gatt him vp to prayers, & then on the Lord's day to cata- 
chise, and afterwards very willingly he hath bin at church 
4 or 5 tymes. He as yet makes conscience of fridayes fast 
from flesh ; and doth not loue to heare the Romish religion graZuL 
spoken against, but I hope with Gods grace he will become 
a good convert. 


Sir, I dare boldlie saye it is as much honor for you to 
winn this fellowes soule, out [of] the subtillest snare* of 
Sathan, as to winn an Indians soule out of the Diuells 
clawes. Pardon my zealous boldnes, for I doubt not but 
you shall enioye abundantly the sweete fruits of your 
labours this waye. As for his fittnesse to be a member of 
your church ; its well if the Lord worke it in 3 or 4 yeare, 
yet he can doe it sooner if he please. The fellow can 
reede and write reasonable well, which is somwhat rare for 
one of his condition ; & makes me hope the more of him. 

Concerninge the vernish for clothes & the ceament for 
earthen vessells ; I conceiue the vernish nowe in vse is not 
that which Sir H : Piatt speakes of, or if it be, it is very 
little or not at all vsed here in towne, in rany wether or in 
winter, which makes me doubt of the device. As for the 
cement, I am told by the most profound artist and natural- 
ist here in this cittie, that he can make such a cement out 
of an animall, but he would not teach it at any rate, and if 
he should make any, it would be deare, soe that I doubt 
(if all be true as he sayes) the cure wilbe worse then the 
disease ; it would not quitt cost to make it, if we knew it. 
This Dr., for a Dr. he is, braggs that if he haue but the 
hint or notice of any vsefull thinge not yet invented, he 
will vndertake to find it out, except some few, which 
he hath vowed not to medle with, as Vitrum maliabile^per- 
pet. motus, via proxima ad Indos, & Lapis philosi : all or 
any thinge else he will vndertake, but for his priuate gaine, 
to make a monopolie thereof, and to sell the vse or know- 
ledge thereof at too high rates. 

As for other newes we haue little, Mr. Davenport hath 
left London ; and its said Mr. Nye will follow him ; some 
say they bend theire thoughts towards your Plantation : I 
know not how soone or how longe it wilbe ere I shall see 
you. I doe longe to see New England, but the Lord sees 

* Romes pollitick Religion. — Howes. 

1633.] THE WINTHR0P PAPERS. 493 

that I am vnworthie and vnfitt to come amonge you as yet, 
otherwise then in some few scrawles of paper. Remember 
vs as we doe you in our prayers, and present my humble 
seruice to Mr. Gouernor and your good mother. Present 
my loue and respects to your selfe & your second selfe, to- 
gether with all our good frinds with you, whome God pre- 
serue, & so I take leaue and rest 

Yours as he would be or should be 

Edward Howes. 

Quinto Augj: hora 12 a noctis, 1633. 

Sir, I am willed per my master to acquaint you that Mr. 
Sewall had deliuered to his vse in New England, one of my 
master his cowes, for which he was to pay 15^, whereof 
my master cannot gett a penny, therefore he desires that 
notice might be taken, that Mr. Sewall hath a cowe of his 
ynpaid for, which he desires may be restored againe, if Mr. 
Sewall will not haue her ; but herein let there be nothinge 
done, vntill Mr. Gouernour heares from my master. 


To his very goodfrind Mr. John Winthrope the yonger at Boston, 
present these [in] New England. 

Sir, — Not to enlarge your title with an Epitaph, for all 
the deseruinge adiuncts that possiblie I could devise were 
little enough to expresse your deserts and to manifest my 
loue. Although I haue by this shipp sent you a lettre 
dated a weeke since, wherein I made mention of the instru- 
ment that Sir H : Piatt writes of, to brue with all ; whose 
words were, that by the helpe of it one myght brue in 
wodden vessells, & alsoe as you may remember, if the ele- 
ment of water had not more power ouer the vessell of wood, 
then the fyre, one vessell mignt last 100 yeares ; which in- 

494 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. . [1633. 

strument my master caused to be (whose right name is a 
furnace) and sent to your father ; but being the first, the 
workeman could not hitt right, wherefore another was 
since made, and being brought home Sir E: Saltonstall 
would, needs buye it. I conceiue tis farr stronger & better 
wrought then the first ; but what benifitt will these fur- 
naces be to the Plantation, seing you haue aboundance of 
wood % We conceiue and hope the best, & leaue it to your 

The dogg in a wheele that my master writt off, to turne 
another wheele, and soe to cause the bellowes to blowe, I 
cannot well fancie ; because the fire needs not a constant 
blowinge, but a blowinge by fitts, as in black smyths and 
gold[s]myth workes ; sometymes faster, sometymes slower, 
which a dogg will not, nor can not doe ; nowe my master 
calls me to write to you for him about the same matter. 
Yet I haue one thinge more to write to you of, and that is 
you wilbe pleased to expresse your approued loue to me, 
soe much as to husband for me ten or 20U in the layeing 
out vpon cow calues of a yeare old or older ; and putt them 
out to some honest man whome you thinke fitt, to keepe 
to halues or otherwise as you thinke best : if you please to 
advise yourselfe to laye out more for my benifitt, vpon 
notice thereof from you I shall very thankefully repaye it, 
either in monie, goods, or seruants, or what you will ; for 
I see I shall be driuen to come to you sooner then I made 
account of; and I desire to haue some stock there, though 
it be but a small one, tis better then none at all. Mr. Robert 
Saltonstall hath giuen me one of his breeding rabitts, a 
black one with a white streake downe the nose, which he 
with others nowe sends ouer : # if it dye I am to haue 
another, and he hath promised to write to his brother 
Samuell to sett the breede of that or one other apparte for 
me ; I refused this kindnes vntill his importance forced it 

* He made me paye for store of foode for the rabitt in her passage. — Howes. 


on me. He hath alsoe vpon some considerations promised 
me a sowe pigge, and the keepinge of her and her increase 
from hence for 3 yeares, by which tyme I hope to come 
oner ; if I can gett of Sir Robert a kidd or a calfe, I shall 
thinke my selfe reasonablie well rewarded of him for my 
paines. As for a house for me, I hope I shall with you or 
Mr. Sandford find a wadd of strawe to lye on vntill I may 
buye or buyld a howse ; I heare from you noe comenda- 
tions of a tent, which I conceiue to be a necessary thinge 
with you. A man may buye one here for about ten pounds, 
and the fraight to you wilbe but small. I hope you haue 
longe since heard that I paid Mr. Kirbie the 4:li 12s. I had 
of Mr. Gurdon for your law bookes. 

Thus desiringe you to thinke vpon your poore frinde, in 
what maye be for his good, whoe prayes daylie for your 
health and prosperitie, and desires to present his seruice 
to your good wife and your selfe, and sister Ffeakes and 
sister Dudley with theire husbands, and to remaine 

Yours euer to commande Edward Howes. 

Peterborough Courte in Ffleete streete, the 13 of August, 1633. 

Nowe I thinke we shall not remoue from hence vntill it 
be to you, which God speede. 


To my very good frind Mr. John Wintlirop at Agawom, these 

present, in New England. 

Worthy Frind, — Yours of June, August, and Septem- 
ber I haue receiued since my last to you, as alsoe the otter 
skinn you sent me ; for which, as for your many other reall 
fauours, I most hartily thanke you. According to your 
direction I haue receiued 555 2d. of Mr. Kirby, which I 
haue laid out for you, as may appeare by this inclosed. 


For Dr. Fludd's workes, there is since more come forth of 
him, as by the back of my accompt. I haue sent you only 
a taste of him, in two volumes ; I conceiue they are well 
drest for your pallate. I haue bin held in hand at Mr. 
Fetherston's shop by his men, euer since 8ber, to be fur- 
nished with all those bookes you writt for, and now am 
forced to buy them where I can find them ; I can gett noe 
others but what I haue sent you vntill next marte. 

As for your quodling slipps, I hope against Michaelmas 
next I shall haue some to send you, for now tis noe send- 
ing them. I haue made bold to putt a few other bookes 
to fill vp spare roome in the box ; whereof one is the 
Contrie farme, which I suppose you haue alreadie, if you 
haue, be please[d] then to let Mr. Samford haue myne, or 
whome else you please. If you haue it not, be pleased to 
accept it as a pledge of my constant loue and respects 
to you. Thus much concerninge your box of bookes 
which you shall receiue of Mr. Dillingham directed to you 
and marked with j£. You shall haue me more large in my 
next, either by Mr. Humfries or before ; in the meane 
tyme be pleased to present my respect to your best beloued 
& to yourselfe, and euer comand 

Your true though poore frind Edward Howes. 

29° Martij, 1634. 

From our new howse in Lincolne's Inn feilds by the Lyon 
Tauerne neere Princes streete. 

Sir, A very good frind of myne, Sir Symon Harcourts 
brother, desired me to convey this inclosed to his frind, by 
some trusty hand ; I pray let me make bold that at best 
leasure, by one of your seruants or otherwise, it may be 
deliuered to Mr. Coggeshall. 

I haue not had leasure to visit Mrs. Waterhowse as yet, 
at Easter next, if not sooner, I intend to present your re- 
spect vnto her. Vale in 


[ The following paper is enclosed in the preceding letter.'] 
Rec. of Mr. Kirby 55s. 2d. 

The bookes I haue sent you, March, 1634. 

2 Catalogues of printed bookes. 

li. s. d. 

Dr. Fludds Macroeosme in 2 volumes 1 10 

Isagoge Phisico Magico &c 16 

Petrus G-alatinus de Arcanis Catholicse veritatis . 10 

Phillippi Grulingij Florilegium 2 

These are parte of them you writt for. 
I haue here alsoe sent you a few others, which if you 
like not, I pray send them againe, or any of them. 

Mercurius Rediuiuus per Norton 2 6 

The Rarities of CochinChina * 10 

Wingates Logarithmes 046 

An English Grammer 010 

The Gunners Dialogue 020 

Bedwells Messolabium 010 

The box to put them in 10 

Carrying them to the warehowse 8 

2 17 

The rest I cast in to the bargaine, for you and your 
fancie to make merry withall. 
29° Marti J, 1634. 

Integrum Morborum Misterium siue Medicinse Catholicae Tomi Primi 
tractatus secundus, in seetiones distributus duas. Quorum Prior gener- 
allem morborum natura, &c. Vltima, Vniuersale medicorum siue 
aegrotorum depingit Catoptron : &c. Francofurti A? 1631. Authore 
Ro : Flud, alias de Fluctibus. 

This is a new Booke and is now betweene 20 and 305. 
price. Dr. Fludd is of farr more esteeme beyond sea then 
at home. 

* A copy of this work, " Cochin-China, containing many admirable Earities and Sin- 
gularities of that Countrey, 1 ' from the Italian of Barri, by Eobert Ashley, London, 1633, is 
in the Library of the Massachusetts Historical Society ; upon the titlepage of which the 
name of "E. Howes" can be distinguished, although nearly erased. — Eds. 




To his much esteemed frind John Winthrop esquire at Agawom 

present [torn] 

Waobretahoy Stitra Agawom Sagamore, 

Aus Neost nourigreathinnog obuor whoinatreid meag- 
niedra olfa wortinthienag.* Giue me leaue, in plaine Eng- 
lish, the second tyme this springe to present my vnfeigned 
respects to you in a few lynes. I sent you per Mr. Dilling- 
ham soe many of the bromoiklets •)* you writt for, as I could 
procure for the present, but I am promised the rest this 
sommer, and then by the next followinge they shalbe con- 
veyed to you. The noelwo frudrinnamcle I writt to you 
of is mourcah ilmaportouvoend, wiheeproeloaf I haue 
speinato yaoduir tohie frogrimoe haetrie ionacoltoisteud.J 
I haue learnt two devices to kill wolues, one is with peices 
of spunge laid couertly in such flesh or garbage they feed 
on; the other is certaine peices of stronge wyer twisted 
together, ether 4, or 3, or 2 peices, and the ends to be 
? bowed and fyled sharpe, and beards cutt in them like fish 

hus e-D^> _ . . 

I hookes ; and them put within theire meate. 

There is one alsoe here in towne that makes very good 
Shanlota prestheir waidtoh Vortimnoe agnud cloimnoan 
Ebafretah.§ I am verie much abashed that I haue not all 
this while procured you the salue and plasters you writt 
for, you partlie knowe my nature. I had rather effect any 
busines with ten men, then one woman, yet your intrest in 
me might be sufficiently effectuall to mannage a farre 
more weighty busines ; and assure your selfe, I will ere 

* " Worthy Sir Agawom Sagamore, As not forgeting our wonted maner of writing." 
See note on p. 469. — Eds. 

f " Bookes." — Eds. 

| " The new furnace I writt to you of is much improved, whereof I haue sent you the 
forme here inclosed." — Eds. 

§ " Salt peter with Vrine and comon Earth." — Eds. 


longe comaund my selfe in that perticular. As for the 
Quodling apple slipps, I spake to Mr. Humfries once or 
twice about it, and he sayd he would see for some. I 
hope he will bring some ouer with him, and yet I doubt it, 
because it is soe forward in the yeare. Thus with the 
continuance of my respects, loue and seruice to you and 
your best beloued, I take leaue and rest 

Yours as God shall enable me Edward Howes. 

From our new howse in Lincolnes Inn feilds, neere Princes Streete, 
the 18th of Aprill, 1634. 


To my much honored f rind Mr. John Winthrope at Ipswich pre- 
sent these, in New England. 

My most deare Frind, — In hope & confidence of your 
safe ariuall, together with your best beloued, whome I 
salute as your selfe ; I knowe you expect a lettre, though 
I haue but small matter to write of, I dare not frustrate 
your expectations. I haue bin 2 or 3 tymes since with the 
Dr., and can gett but small satisfaccion about your queries. 
I doubt he hath some preiudicate conceipt of one of vs, or 
both; yet I must confesse he seemed verie free to me, 
only in the maine he was misticall. This he said, that 
when the will of God is you shall knowe what you desire, 
it will come with such a light, that it will make a harmonie 
amonge all your authors, causing them sweetly to agree, 
and putt you for euer after out of doubt & question. To 
discerne the fratres scientice, I cannot as yet learne of him. 
I am very shortlie to take my jorney, soe that I must here 
breake of, hauing other occasions, & noe matter of impor- 
tance to acquaint you with all, I rest 

Yours as you knowe E. H. 

21° Aug. 1635. 


I thinke I shall helpe you to one of the magneticall 
engines which you & I haue discoursed of, that will sym- 
pathize at a distance * 


London 21° Junij 1636. 

Fidelis Amicus, — Since I receiue[d] yours of the 9th of 
Nouember and the 6th of January, I saluted you with a 
few lines, but in regard of theire farre jorney, & the dain- 
ger of miscariage in the passage, my loue to you constraines 
me to acquaint you with some generall & particuler 
affaires, namely that the plague, sword, & famine looks 
with a gashly aspect vpon Germany & other our neighbour 
nations, and begins to peepe vpon vs soe frightfully, that 
mens harts faile them for feare, and many lOOOds runne 
they know not whither. Tis reported that about 57,000 
people haue left this citty & suburbs, within this 3 
moneths. I thanke my God he hath taught me to turne 
to him, & not to hide my selfe, or runne from him. I 
haue resolued to trye it out here. The Dr. I haue not 
seene since last Sommer ; I doubt all is not gold that glist- 
ers like it, and he that would learne to distinguish, may pay 
too deare for his knowledge. I thinke there is not any 
thinge that the Dr. hath or knoweth, but a frind of myne 
neerer home enioyes as much ; I could wish you with him, 
or he with you, for a moneth or two ; but seing the Diuine 
Prouidence hath disposed it otherwayes, I hartilie desire 
you to be fully content with your allowance, and thanke 
God ; whether you haue more or lesse, let it be all one to 
you ; let not what God doth, trouble you ; but what you 
doe contrarie to God ; I pray present my best respects to 
your father & mother, & to Mr. Humfries, when you see 

* This would almost seem like a foreshadowing of the magnetic telegraph. — Eds. 


them, and to your dearest, & your selfe, &c, praying for 
the prosperitie of the whole Church of God amonge you, 
I take leaue, & rest Yours assured Ed: Ho: 


To my verie louinge frinde Mr. John Winthrop the yonger these 
present at Conectecut, with trust, in New England. 

Mi Charissime, — Yours of the 9th of Nouember, and 
of the 6th of January last I haue receiued, and haue since 
sent you two lettres, which I hope will kisse your hands 
before this. The manie obligations where with you haue 
tyed me to you being soe pleasant & delightfull, doe con- 
straine me to sue, to be more fast tyed. I cannot discouer 
into terram incognitam, but I haue had a kenn of it shewed 
vnto me. The way to it is (for the most parte) horrible & 
fearefull, the daingers none worse, to them that are not 
destinati Jilij ; somtymes I am trauelling that way, but the 
Lord knowes when I shall gett thither, soe many flattering 
foes are still in the way to preuent me, and diuerte my 
course. I thinke I haue spoken with some that haue bin 
there. I am informed that the land lyeth where the sunn 
riseth, and extendeth it selfe southward, the northerne 
people doe account it noe better then a wildernes ; and the 
spies that they haue sent out to discouer & view it, haue 
reported as much : for they knew it was in vaine to reporte 
better of it.* Deare frind, I desire with all my harte that 
I might write plainer to you, but in discouering the mis- 
terie I may diminish its maiestie, & giue occasion to the 
prophane to abuse it, if it should fall into vnworthie hands : 
in many things you haue sympathized with me, and whie 

* Four lines obliterated here. — Eds. 


not in this % After the hint of a thing, facilius est addere. 
Let me make a Quere. Was the bodie made for the soule, 
or the soule for the bodie'? Was the house made for 
man, or man for the house ? Doe or did the true louers of 
wisdome, studie more for the bodie, then the soule % Did 
they not know the man 1 * The [bod]ie is but our seruant, 
& shall our studies for it take vp our endeuours as for [fom] 
Is it not spirituall fornication & adulterie to cast the eye 
of our mind & harte vpon sensualitie, or any sensible good, 
as to lust after it ? Must not the hue kings be vanquisht 
& hung vp, before Israeli can enter into the rest of the 
Lord 1 which rest I wish vnto you, & rest 

Yours Ed: Ho. 

4° Aug : 1636. 

I pray let me not be forgotten of any frind, whome you 
thinke worthie to be put in minde of me ; but salute them 
in my name as if I had named them vnto you. 

I haue not seene Dr. E : since last sommer : our frinds 
at the old house are all well, & are nowe either at Graves 
or Groton ; your aunt D : hath bespoken a black marble 
grauestone for your grandsire & grandmother. There 
dyed in & about London of the plague this weeke 181. 
There is great mortallpty] in our land in diuerse places, & 
in other places beyond the seas, and in Germanie there is 
a great famine. Prince Thomas, the King of Spaines bro- 
ther, hath ouer runn all Pykardy, and burnt 100 villages 
in 4 howers. He threatens that his next attempt shalbe 
vpon Paris it selfe. The commons of France begin to 
mutinie against the gentrie, & the Spaniard where he 
comes doth reape the Frenches corne for them, & they 
themselues in some places haue burnt theire standing 
corne, rather then the Spaniard should haue it. My hartie 
affections salute you & your best beloued. Vale Xto. 

* A line erased here. — Eds. 


3? Sept. 1636. 

This lettre hauing lyene written a moneth in my hands, 
I was about to cancell it, because I could not send it, but 
vpon second thoughts I spared it. The Falcon is safe 
come to vs, but not one lettre to me in it, as I heare of. 
I mett with one of Captaine Wiggins seruants that came 
ouer, whoe told me of such things he knew. I doe much 
applaud your resolution to plant Conectecut. Fortifie the 
mouth meanely well, but except you can find a place there 
naturally fortified, in the water as Venice, or on the maine 
as Douer, bestow not too much cost & paines vpon it ; 
rather goe vp further (leauing a garison belowe) : learne by 
reports & your owne obseruation where (on that Riuer) the 
natiues haue lined longest & healthfullest, and in greatest 
aboundance, though it be 50, 60, or 70 or more miles vp 
in the land ; if any be there, gett theire good will, if pos- 
sible you can, to sitt downe with them or by them ; howe- 
soeuer be as neere as may be, soe it be a place comodious 
for trade & husbandrie, and not easilie surprized by an 
enimie. But you may say its easie to sitt vpon a cushion 
& direct, but difficult to performe. I doe not speake of 
ympossibilities, but giue caution for a good begining & 
foundation, that hereafter it may not be said Poenitet, or 
had-I-wist. A busines wel begun is plesant & hopefull. 
The best wilbe therefore to begin with God, which I doe 
not doubt but you will, and seeke his directions, howe and 
where you may lay a foundation for a Cittie of Peace, to 
the honor of His great name, in your religious cohabiting 
together ; and soe that you may prepare & prouide con- 
uenient & comfortable dwellings & portions for your 
future generations, that they may haue cause to blesse 
God in theire harts, for your labours of loue. 

I shall not need to request of you some knowledge of 
your plantation, & howe farre you haue discouered the 
riuer, & howe you like it, & what newes of the Lake, & 
how farr you are from the Dutch, and from Boston. 1 am 


perswaded you will acquaint me with that which you 
thinke is fittest for me, and reserue for me the rest vntill a 
seasonable tyme : only this I would gladly see, a Mapp of 
the longe Hand & the coast from Cap Cod to Eiuer Hudson 
[if] you haue one to spare. My father & mother salutes 
you with theire loue, and soe doe my sisters. Your Bro- 
ther Dr.* was wel lately, he was with me. There dyed this 
last weeke in & about London of all diseases 855, & of 
the Plague 536, besides aboue 100 in Westminster and con- 
trie parishes adioyninge, but howe many 1000 amonge vs 
are dead in theire sinns I knowe not, yet noe doubt we haue 
a remnant that haue not bowed theire knee to Baal. For 
my parte I doe, as much as in me lyes, commend & com- 
mitt my soule to God in wel-doeing, and ventre my bodie 
amonge the liuing & dead. But I doubt I haue bin too 
tedious and troublesome, it's my loue to you constraineth 
me to write the more, because we cannot speake together. 
I hope your remotenes from the Bay will not hinder the 
entercourse of lettres betweene vs. 


21° March: 1637. 
My Ffrind, &c. — Yours of the 1st of August last I 
received, and alsoe the Mapp of the Coast about Pequot, 
for which & former kindnes I thanke you. The relation of 
your fight with the Indians I haue read in print, but of the 
fight amonge yourselues, Bellum linguarum, the strife of 
tongues, I have heard much, but little to the purpose. I 
wonder your people that pretend to knowe soe much, doe 
not knowe that Loue is the fulfillinge of the Lawe, and 
that against Loue there is noe Lawe. But noe marvell : 

* Probably Dr. Samuel Reade, brother of Winthrop's wife. — Eds. 


when many haue not the begining* of wisdom in them ; 
and howe can they that feare not God, keepe his commande- 
ments or fulfill them] but I hope when I come to find 
more vnitie, peace & loue. The terra incognita cognita est 
paucis, arcanum Jehouce adest reuerentibus ipsum ; to tell 
you my thoughts or knowledge of it, its neither earth, 
water, aire, nor fire, nor sether, soe that its beyond sence, 
or my expression, but to giue you an intelligible taste, its 
lesser then the least, it cannot be diuided nor comunicated, 
its bigger then the bigest, for its perfect, its beyond the 
highest, and below the lowest, for thought cannot reach it, 
if you knowe it I need not tell you it, if I speake in an 
vnknowne tongue, I doe but beate the aire. Your Aunt 
D : can informe you of my dwellinge, where I shalbe glad 
to heare from you, that I may continue to be, as I desire, 
Tuus vt possim. E. H. 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, Jr., " Mr. Ed. Howes with a parable." 


To his much esteemed f rind Mr. John Winthrop Junr. at Boston in 
the Massachusetts Bay or elsewhere in New England these dlr. 

S IR? — Yours I receiued, with 2 relations of monstrous 
births f and a generall earthquake. J When I had read 
them, they seemed to me like Pharaoh's dreames ; but whoe 
can tell certainely wherefore God sent them'? where is 
there such an other people then in New England? that 
labours might & maine to haue Christ formed in them, yet 

* " The feare of the Lord." — Howes. 

f See Winthrop's Hist, of N.E., i. 271-273. — Eds. 

% The earthquake of June 1, 1638, is mentioned by Winthrop, Bradford, and Johnson; 
and was felt very generally in the several New-England Colonies. It is also noticed by 
Roger Williams, in a letter printed on p. 229 oi this volume. See Winthrop's Hist, of N.E., 
i. 265 j Bradford's Hist, of Plym. Plant., p. 366 ; Wonder-working Providence, p. 131. — Eds. 



they would giue or appoynt him his shape, & cloath him 
too. It cannot be denyed but we haue concerned many 
monstrous imaginations of Christ Jesus, the one imagina- 
tion saves loe, here he is ; the other sayes loe, there he is ; 
multiplicitie of conceptions, but is there any one true 
shape of Him'? and if one of many produce a shape, tis 
not the shape of the sonne of ° but an vglie horridd 

1 man , ° 

Metamorphosis, neither is it a liuinge shape, but a dead 
one, yet a crow thinkes her owne bird the fairest, and 
most preferre theire owne wisedome before Gods, Anti- 
christ before Christ ; to you I write, with whome I may be 
bold ; and is't a wonder the Earth should quake at this 1 
O Earth, Earth, Earth, heare the voyce of the Lord, a still 
silent voyce, yet where it comes it maketh the mountaines 
to quake, and the hills to tremble. 

The bookes you writt for, I haue not mett with them as 
yet at the shopps where I haue bin ; I could wish you some 
bookes, but one booke were enough, if you could come by 
it, its written within and without, its calld by many names, 
but it is not knowne by the names, but to those that have 
the nature thereof: to giue you the name and nature in a 
?r e vitae word, its the booke of life, where you may read all within 
you, and all without you ; and Him that is all in all ; to 
whose protection I leaue you & rest 

Your frind in the best I may Edward Howse. 

Cursistors Courte neere Lincolnes Inn, the 14th of Aprill, 1639. 

Pray present my loue to your best beloued wife. My 
» father & mother are in health & salute you, so doth my wife, 
vnknowne to you, but by my relation ; we should be glad 
to see you at our habitacion, if your affaires drawe you to 
London. For newes, I refer you to the vulgar Athenians. 

Shall I hide any thinge from my friend ? Eead this to Mr. 
J : S. and doe with it as you please. If it may doe him or 
any other, good : God speed it. 



To my verie louingefrindMr. Jo : Winthrop at his house in Salem 
or elsewhere in Neio England these dlr. 

Sir, — To tell you quid scribitur, quid agitur de terra 
ista Adamica fere incognita, what I heare, what I see, what 
I knowe, would be as tedious for you to read, as for me to 
write ; but to tell you where I am, & what I doe, & when 
you shall see me, is a shorter worke. My bodie is at Lon- 
don, my soule in my bodie, and my mind in my soule, &c. 
and if you will, in mind I am and canbe euery where ; 
while I am writing this lettre, I am with you, and what 
doe I ? Outwardly I am writing, inwardly I am meditat- 
inge ; and still with you, and doe you aske when you 
shall see me ] If you know not I will tell you. When 
you can see your selfe, or you & I all one ; longe since you 
termed me Alter idem, and will there neuer be an vnion 
thinke you ] Because I account few words best, I haue 
sent you a little booke or two more by Mr. Kirbies sonne 

and by the way . . . tell you that you 

after Phil . 

openly, and 

doe With Phil, th . [seven lines mutilated'] 

your father • 

when it hath 

whereof I conceiue 

more then one, there is all goods to be found in vnitie, 
and all evill in duallitie & multiplicitie. Phoenix ilia ad- 
miranda sola semper existit, therefore while a man & she is 
two, he shall neuer see her. The Arabian Philos : I writt 
to you of, he was styled among vs Dr. Lyon, the best of all 
the ®«fns* that euer I mett with all, farre beyond Dr. Euer : 
they that are of his straine are knowing men ; they pre- 

* Rosicruc ians. — Eds. 


tend to Hue in free light, they honor God & doe good to 
the people among whome they liue, and I conceiue you 
are in the right that they had theire learninge from Arabia. 
But they come much shorte of the people that haue theire 
learninge from heauen, from God, from the Sonn of his 
Loue, such I meane as are liuinge men, whose life & con- 
versation caracterizeth them, & not theire knowledge ; for 
'tis written (& we beleiue) knowledge puffeth vp, and Loue 
buyldeth vp ; they haue knowledge as much as any, but it 
is not theire essence, theire life, theire All 0. But more 
of this hereafter ; and for other newes I referre you to your 

sister Fek ke you for conveyinge 

. you liue, doe, 

sts true disciple, 

ght, doe as he doth 

. . . What can I say more 1 Q Remember my humble 
service to your father & mother, & my louinge salutations 
to all your brothers & sisters, and to Signior Humfries, Mr. 
Rich : Saltonstall, &c. Haue with this as much loue as a 
man can yeild to his frind, & the Lord giue you a right 
vnderstanding in all things ; this is & shalbe the harty 
prayer of 

Your euer louinge frind Edward Howse. 

25? ffebr: 1639. 

Direct your lettres to me neere Lincolns Inn. 

Coats lyned with fur . . . among gent. I pray helpe me 
to some Otter or ... . winter, as may lyne me a coate, 
& I will retorne . . . ey or bookes. Vale in Xto. 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, Jr., " Mr. Howes." 



London, May 12, 1640. 

Deare Sir, — Yours of the 16th of March last, this 
day I received per Mr. Kirbie, and am sorrie to vnderstand 
by you and him, that the vnfaithfull steward hath mett 
with you or your fathers estate ; I could wish my selfe 
with you (till the storme here be ouer) but I doubt I should 
be in the stewards case, though not vnfaithfull yet vnprof- 
fitable, for I cannot digg, and to begg I shalbe ashamed ; 
nor ho we to ymproue that little God hath lent me, if I 
were with you; for Lawyers and Phisitians haue noe 
gaine with you, & I thinke Clergie men as little, vnlesse 
they be such as shall speake & doe to please men, hauinge 
an excellent forme of Godlikenes, but denye the power 
thereof. But my good frind ; the word saith ; Godlienes 
is greate gaine, if a man be content with that which he 
hath ; tis to you I write this, as to a frind whome I entire- 
ly loue. As for the Magneticall instrument you writt of; 
it is alsoe sympatheticall, and therefore magneticall ; we 
vse to say good witts iumpe, though heads touch not ; many 
can say soe, some find it soe, but fewe enquire into the 
true reason whie it is soe. I haue sent you a booke by 
Jo : Tinker, that will sett your witts on wollgatheringe, or 
rather to shew you howe some mens witts runne a woll- 
gatheringe, vntill, like the Astronomer gazing vpwards, 
doe fall into the pitt of death. I know the gent : one Mr. 
Wilkins* of Maudlin Hall in Oxon made the booke ; and 

* Rt. Rev. John Wilkins, a graduate of Magdalen College, Oxford; afterward chaplain 
to Lord Say; and successively Warden of Wadham College, and Master of Trinity College, 
Cambridge ; and consecrated Bishop of Chester, Nov. 15, 1668. He was noted as a philoso- 
phical and mathematical writer of great talents and acquirements, and was an early and 
active member of the Royal Society. He married a sister of Oliver Cromwell in 1656 ; 
and died Nov. 19, 1672. 

The work here referred to was probably his "Discovery of a New World; or, a Dis- 
course tending to prove that (it is probable) there may be another habitable world in the 
Moon ; " which was published anonymously ! n 1640. — Eds. 


he pretends to haue the perpetuall motion, & the magneti- 
call alphabet; sed cui commodum in tempore confusionis. I 
all way es forbeare to contradict the wilfull, tis to reproue 
the scornefull, and to cast pearles to swyne. But to our 
sympatheticall busines, whereby we may communicate 
our minds one to an other, though the diameter of the 
Earth interpose. Diana non est Centrum omnium. I would 
haue you soe good a Geometritian as to knowe your owne 
center. Did you euer yet measure your euerlasting selfe, 
the length of your life ; the breadth of your loue ; the 
depth of your wisdome ; and the hight of your light ? Let 
Truth be your Center & you may doe it, otherwayes not. 
I could wish you would nowe begin to leaue off being al- 
together an outward man ; this is but Casa Regentis ; the 
Ruler can drawe you straight lynes from your center to 
the confines of an infinite circumference, by which you 
may passe from any parte of the circumference to another, 
without obstacle of earth or secation of lynes, if you ob- 
serue and keepe but one & the true & only center, to passe 
by it, from it, and to it. Me thinkes I nowe see you intus et 
extra, and talke to you ; but you mind me not, because 
you are from home, you are not within, you looke as if 
you were carelesse of your selfe, your hand & your voyce 
differ, tis my frinds hand, I knowe it well ; but the voyce is 
your enemies : O my frind, if you loue me, gett you home, 
gett you in: you haue a frind at home, as well as an ene- 
mie ; know them by theire voyces, the one is still driuing 
or enticing you out, the other would haue you stay within. 
Be within, & keepe within, and all that are within, and 
keepe within, shall you see, knowe, & communicate 
with, to the full ; and shall not neede to straine your out- 
ward sences to see & heare that which is like themselues 
vncertaine, and too, too often, false ; but abidinge for euer 
within, in the Center of Truth, from thence you may 
behold, conceiue, and understand the inumerable diuerse 


emanation within the Circumference ; and still within ; 
for without are falcities, lyes, vntruths, doggs, &c. 

I sent you lettres & 2 bookes by Mr. Kirbies sonne, I 
hope ere this they are come to your hands. I pray pre- 
sent my vnfeigned loue & humble seruice to your honored 
father & mother, alsoe to Mr. Dow[ning] & your good 
aunte ; and tell her I hope we shall doe some good for 
her this terme in Cheneys busines. I desire to knowe 
what became of my lettres to Jo : Sand : and to the rest ; 
what you knowe thereof send me word, for I would not 
haue the persons of men perish, for theire sinnes sake, if 
possiblie I could preuent the same. My wife & I haue 
noe child yet; my father & mother are both liuinge & 
hartie, I thanke God ; and as longe as they Hue looke not 
for me ; the word is gonne out of my mouth & I cannot 
recall it ; yet assure your selfe I am present with you in 
prayer, hartie good wishes, and other thoughts for your 
reall welfare & safety : my loue is soe to you I am loath 
to parte ; yet being alsoe loath to be troublesome, & frinds 
must sometymes parte, that they may againe renew theire 
frindshipp. Salute your wife for me, & wish well to 

Tuissimus Ed. Howse. 

I pray remember to send me some furrs to lyne a close 
coate withall in the winter ; and the price of them I shall 
pay to whom you will, or send it in bookes. 

Eemember my loue to Mr. Humfries & Mr. Fowles, & 
Mr. Rich : Saltonstall, when you see them. 



For his much este 

John Wirdhrop a 

Charles Towne be t 

in Mercy 

in Ne 

Sir, — Notwithstanding^ my late salutes, which I hope 
Mr. Downing hath sent per Mr. Graves, I having this op- 
ortunity, my love constraines me to tender againe my due 
respects vnto you, & sheweing that I have a longing desire 
to be neere vnto you, I waite but for time & a sufficient 
call to invite me. Therefore (as by my former) I desire 
you to procure setled on me a few acres of land ; I am 
advised to remove my mind from Cambridge lott, to Bos- 
ton; my desire is to have it on the East side of one of the 
hills, fitt for a Mathematicall Schoole. I shall referre 
the choyce of the place to your judgment, and if it may not 
come by donation, for my former service not vnknown to 
many, get it as cheape as you can for me. I name noe 
number of acres, you know best how much wilbe needfull, 
& you knowe I have noe child, therefore I may likely 
leave it a free schoole to the State, and I hope before I 
depart this world, to leave a Pillar with you for Posteritie. 
If it possiblie may be, let me have a running spring in 
the ground, or running through it, soe as it may not be 
turned an other way: what you expend in the purchase 
or procuringe, not exceeding ten pounds, I hope I shall be 
able to pay vpon your bill here, or as you shall appoynt, 
notwithstandinge these hard tymes. Thus desiringe you to 
present my humble service to your worthy father & mother, 
& my true loue to your selfe, I take leave & rest 

Yours assured till death Edw. Howes. 

Ratcliffe ffree Schoole,* the 25th of ffebr. 1644. 

* It would appear from the date of this last letter of Howes, that he was, at that time, 
connected with the Ratcliffe Free School, in London, as an instructor. It will be seen by 


I desire to know as soone as may be, what is or may be 
done for me. 

There hath come to my hands a mapp of the French 
mens discoveries of Canada, & the parts north west of yonr 
Plantation] which being more large & more exact than any 
I have formerly seene, I could not but take a coppie therof, 
and send it to you as a small token of my love & well 
wishe[s] to your proceedings. I desire (if it may be pro- 
cured) an exa[ct] Mapp of Hudsons River, whereon the 
Dutch plant, & of the creekes & harbors betweene them 
& you, & especpally] of the Narrogansets, for I have some 
frinds yet behind, that wish they might be really informed 
and encoraged to come where they might love & serve the 
Lord Jesus Christ, and theire neighbors, without being a 
burthen or trouble to them : I should be glad of a true re- 
lation of the places full west of your Bay of Mercy, dis- 
covered & planted or peopled with English or others, even 
to the Hyrocois or further ; but I dare not presume too 
farr vpon your curtesie, or to prye too farr into your 
secrets : what I have proposed on this & the other side, I 
leave to your discretion, & shall sitt downe & submitt to 
your judgment, & wayte longingly to heare from you, that 
I may in some measure satisfie my selfe & my frinds, & 
hasten away to give you reall thanks. Vale in Salvatore. 

the letter next preceding, that he had engaged not to leave England while his parents were 
living; and, they having probably died before this time, he was now ready to come over to 
New England, and intended to establish a "Mathematical School" in Boston. It does 
not appear what obstacles prevented his carrying this design into execution ; but there is 
no evidence that he ever came. — Eds. 





To the right worshipfull my much honored father John Winthrop 
esqr dlr in Boston. 

Pasbeshauke f Apr : 7. 1636. 

Sir, — My humble duty remembred to your selfe & my 
mother, with my loue to my brothers, and all our freinds 
with you: I suppose you have heard of our arrivall at 
Teeticut, and oportune meeting with our vessell. Con- 
cerning that place, I conceive it is not above 22 or 24 
miles from mount Wooliston or Dorchester mill, the cun- 
try thereabouts very fertyle & rich ground, and so all downe 
the river for 30 miles together (for so farre we went downe 
before it grew wide into Saceames harbour) ; a ship of 500 
tunnes may come vp about 10 or 12 miles in the Narrow 
river. There is noe meadow nor salt marsh all the way, 

* John Winthrop, Jr., generally known as the Governor of Connecticut, was the eldest 
son of the Governor of Massachusetts. Having been educated at Trinity College, Dublin, 
and having travelled extensively in the East, he followed his father to Massachusetts in the 
autumn of 1631. He had revisited England in 1634, and obtained a commission from Lord 
Say and Sele and Lord Brook to plant a colony at the mouth of the Connecticut River, of 
which he was appointed Governor. He was on his way there when this first letter 
was written. It is printed from the original as found among his father's papers. But it 
may be well to remark, that most of the letters and papers of the younger Winthrop in this 
volume are printed from rough draughts or copies not always carefully prepared. They 
are mainly interesting as having immediate relation to other letters contained in thi9 
volume, or as throwing light upon points to which other letters have alluded. — Eds. 

t We are unable now to designate the place whence this letter was written, no Indian 
name corresponding to it having been found. The writer's destination was the mouth of 
the Connecticut River. — Eds. 


neyther could I see any in all Narigansett Bay, and as farre 
as I could perceive, there is more marshe vpon Charles 
River & Misticke then all the Naragansetts neere the sea. 
I was vp with Canonicus at his great citty. There be many 
wigwams, but they stand not together as I have heard re- 
ported. The ground there seemeth to be farre worse then 
the ground of the Massachusett, being light, sandy & rocky, 
yet they have good corne without fish : but I vnderstand 
that they take this course ; they have every one 2 feilds, 
which after the first 2 yeares they lett one feild rest each 
yeare, & that kepes their ground contin[u]ally in hart. The 
first of this month we sett sayle from Nariganset, and in 
the afternoone, about 6 a clocke, arrived heere : for this 
place I have not yet seene any thing that I should be able 
to wright of it. Mr. Gibbons can fully informe you of all 

Thus craving your prayers & blessing, I commend you to 
the Almighty, & rest 

Your obedient sonne John Winthrop. 

I am informed by Mr. Ludloe that Dorchester planta- 
tion hath lost 2500U in cattle this winter, — besides other 

I pray be pleased to remember to receive 2 barrells of 
peas of Mr. Allerton, a hogshead of porke of Capt. Lovell, 
and if Mr. Mayhew hath bought the provisions at the east, 
I should desire 5 or 6 hogsheads peas, & as much bread. I 
have but one turky, which as they say proves to be a cocke. 

I send you backe by Mr. Gibbon v the booke you wrote 
your receipts in. 



Know all men by these presents that whereas John 
Winthrop Junior of Boston in New England esqr doth 
purpose at his retorne with all convenient speed to erect 
and build a worke for the making of Iron ; and hath taken 
in divers Copartners for the advance and effecting thereof, 
whereas alsoe Nicholas Bond of the Citye of Westminster 
in the Countye of Middlesex esqr hath before the sealing 
hereof delivered and payed vnto the said John the some of 
one hundreth pounds of lawfull monie of England, to be 
imployed in the said Iron worke for the best benefltt and 
advantage of the said Nicholas Bond his executors ad- 
ministrators and assignees, which said some of one hun- 
dreth pounds, and all the benefitt, advantage and encrease, 
that shall from tyme to tyme and at all tymes hereafter 
arise and growe, Wee the said John Winthrop, Emanuell 
Downinge, and Hugh Peter doe hereby for our selves, our 
seurall and respective executors and administrators, pro- 
mise and agree to be accomptable vnto the said Nicholas 
Bond his executors administrators and assignees for the 
same, according to the trew entent and meaninge of these 
presents, without fraude, covenn or collusion ; witnes our 
hands and seales, this 23d day of March A . Domini 1642. 

John Winthrop [Junr] 
Hugh Pe[ter] 
Em: Downinge. 

Sealed and deliuered in the presence of vs ; 
Tho : Welde : 

Indorsed, " Mr. Wintrop, Mr. Peters & Mr. Downing' s assignment 
of articles about the Iron woork in New England." 



To the honored Governour dk Generall Court assembled at Boston. 


Whereas there was a motion formerly by this honored 
Court for the beginning a plantation about Pequott, and 
the Court expressed themselves desirous, that some would 
appeare in it, your